Weichang County
围场县ᠸᡝᡳ ᠴᠠᠩ ᡥᡳᠶᠠᠨᠸᠧᠢ ᠴᠠᠩ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
(Chinese) • (Manchu) • (Mongolian)
围场满族蒙古族自治县
ᠸᡝᡳ ᠴᠠᠩ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᠮᠣᠩᡤᠣ ᠮᡠᡴᡡᠨ ᠪᡝᠶᡝ ᡩᠠᠰᠠᡵᠠ ᡥᡳᠶᠠᠨ
ᠸᠧᠢ ᠴᠠᠩ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
Weichang Manchu and Mongol
Autonomous County
Saihanba National Park within the county
Saihanba National Park within the county
Weichang in Chengde
Weichang in Chengde
Chengde in Hebei
Chengde in Hebei
Weichang is located in Hebei
Weichang
Weichang
Location of the seat in Hebei
Coordinates: 41°56′20″N 117°45′36″E / 41.939°N 117.760°E / 41.939; 117.760
CountryChina
ProvinceHebei
Prefecture-level cityChengde
County seatWeichang Town
Area
 • Total9,058 km2 (3,497 sq mi)
Elevation
847 m (2,779 ft)
Population
 (2020 census)[1]
 • Total423,676
 • Density47/km2 (120/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
068400
Area code0314
Websitewww.weichang.gov.cn
Weichang Manchu and Mongol Autonomous County
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese围场满族蒙古族自治县
Traditional Chinese圍場滿族蒙古族自治縣
Mongolian name
Mongolian scriptᠸᠧᠢ ᠴᠠᠩ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
Manchu name
Manchu scriptᠸᡝᡳ ᠴᠠᠩ ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ ᠮᠣᠩᡤᠣ ᠮᡠᡴᡡᠨ ᠪᡝᠶᡝ ᡩᠠᠰᠠᡵᠠ ᡥᡳᠶᠠᠨ
Möllendorffwei cang manju monggo mukūn beye dasangga siyan

Weichang Manchu and Mongol Autonomous County (Chinese: 围场满族蒙古族自治县) is a Manchu and Mongol autonomous county located in far northeastern Hebei province, China. It lies under the administration of Chengde City, and is the northernmost county of the province, bordering Inner Mongolia to the north. In terms of area, it is the largest county of Hebei, occupying an area of 9,058 km2 (3,497 sq mi), though, as it is located in mountainous terrain, it is rather sparsely populated, as of 2004, housing 520,000 people.

The area has been historically home to Manchu soldiers, and the local dialect of Mandarin is similar to that of Beijing, though there is some Northeastern influence.

History

Mongol in Weichang, 1909

The area of the county was originally grazing grounds for Mongol tribes. In the early Qing Dynasty, the Auqan, Kharchin and Onnigud Mongols gave these lands as a gift to the Kangxi Emperor, who then created the Mulan Hunting Grounds in Weichang.[2] Thereafter, it became hunting ground for the Qing royal family, Eight Banners aristocrats and Mongols.

Geography and climate

Weichang is located in the northernmost part of Hebei, with a latitude range of 41° 35' to 42° 40' N and longitude range of 116° 32' to 118° 14' E. It borders Inner Mongolia's Chifeng city to the east, Hexigten Banner to the north, as well as Duolun County to the northwest. Within Hebei province, it borders Fengning County and Longhua County to the southwest and south.

Weichang has a rather dry, monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen Dwb), with long, very cold and dry winters, and very warm, humid summers, and the elevation depresses temperatures. The 24-hour average in January is −12.3 °C (9.9 °F) and the same figure for July is 21.4 °C (70.5 °F), while the annual mean is 5.6 °C (42.1 °F). More than half of the annual precipitation occurs in July and August alone. The coldest temperature recorded in the province was −42.9 °C (−45 °F) on 12 January 1957 at Yudaokou Township (御道口乡).

Climate data for Weichang (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1971–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.2
(45.0)
16.4
(61.5)
25.8
(78.4)
30.0
(86.0)
35.1
(95.2)
36.1
(97.0)
39.4
(102.9)
35.4
(95.7)
34.0
(93.2)
27.3
(81.1)
19.1
(66.4)
10.2
(50.4)
39.4
(102.9)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −5.2
(22.6)
−0.6
(30.9)
6.7
(44.1)
15.3
(59.5)
22.1
(71.8)
25.8
(78.4)
27.7
(81.9)
26.5
(79.7)
21.7
(71.1)
13.9
(57.0)
3.8
(38.8)
−4.0
(24.8)
12.8
(55.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) −12.3
(9.9)
−8.4
(16.9)
−1.1
(30.0)
7.5
(45.5)
14.5
(58.1)
18.8
(65.8)
21.3
(70.3)
19.6
(67.3)
13.8
(56.8)
6.0
(42.8)
−3.4
(25.9)
−10.7
(12.7)
5.5
(41.8)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −17.5
(0.5)
−14.5
(5.9)
−7.6
(18.3)
0.4
(32.7)
7.0
(44.6)
12.5
(54.5)
16.1
(61.0)
14.2
(57.6)
7.8
(46.0)
0.0
(32.0)
−8.6
(16.5)
−15.7
(3.7)
−0.5
(31.1)
Record low °C (°F) −29.6
(−21.3)
−26.7
(−16.1)
−26.6
(−15.9)
−11.2
(11.8)
−2.4
(27.7)
4.3
(39.7)
8.8
(47.8)
0.6
(33.1)
−2.9
(26.8)
−13.0
(8.6)
−22.4
(−8.3)
−27.4
(−17.3)
−29.6
(−21.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 1.3
(0.05)
3.0
(0.12)
6.8
(0.27)
20.8
(0.82)
41.9
(1.65)
82.0
(3.23)
125.5
(4.94)
94.5
(3.72)
52.4
(2.06)
25.8
(1.02)
7.1
(0.28)
1.7
(0.07)
462.8
(18.23)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.8 2.2 3.6 5.5 8.5 13.5 14.3 11.5 9.3 5.6 3.4 2.4 81.6
Average snowy days 3.1 3.4 4.8 2.6 0.4 0 0 0 0.1 1.9 4.6 3.8 24.7
Average relative humidity (%) 51 47 43 42 46 62 72 73 67 57 55 53 56
Mean monthly sunshine hours 199.2 203.5 241.4 244.9 271.3 235.8 220.7 233.9 223.4 218.7 187.4 184.5 2,664.7
Percent possible sunshine 67 68 65 61 60 52 48 55 60 65 64 65 61
Source 1: China Meteorological Administration[3][4]
Source 2: Weather China[5]

Administrative divisions

There are 12 towns and 25 townships in the county.[6]

Name Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Manchu Möllendorff Mongolian (Hudum Script) Mongolian (Cyrillic) Administrative division code
Towns
Weichang Town 围场镇 Wéicháng Zhèn ᠸᡝᡳ ᠴᠠᠩ ᡴᠠᡩᠠᠯᠠᠩᡤᠠ wei cang kadalangga ᠸᠧᠢ ᠴᠠᠩ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠰᠤ 130828100
Siheyong Town 四合永镇 Sìhéyǒng Zhèn ᠰᡟᡥᡝᠶᠣᠩ ᡴᠠᡩᠠᠯᠠᠩᡤᠠ syheyong kadalangga ᠰᠾᠢ ᠾᠧ ᠶᠦᠩ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠰᠤ 130828101
Kelegou Town 克勒沟镇 Kèlègōu Zhèn ᡴᡝ ᠯᡝ ᡤᠣ᠋ ᡴᠠᡩᠠᠯᠠᠩᡤᠠ ke le go kadalangga ᠺᠧ ᠯᠧ ᠭᠧᠦ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠰᠤ 130828102
Qipanshan Town 棋盘山镇 Qípánshān Zhèn ᠴᡳ ᡦᠠᠨ ᡧᠠᠨ ᡴᠠᡩᠠᠯᠠᠩᡤᠠ ci pan šan kadalangga ᠴᠢ ᠫᠠᠨ ᠱᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠰᠤ 130828103
Banjieta Town 半截塔镇 Bànjiétǎ Zhèn ᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᡳᠶᡝ ᡨᠠ ᡴᠠᡩᠠᠯᠠᠩᡤᠠ ban jiye ta kadalangga ᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠶᠧ ᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠰᠤ 130828104
Chaoyangdi Town 朝阳地镇 Cháoyángdì Zhèn ᠴᠣᠣ ᠶᠠᠩ ᡩᡳ ᡴᠠᡩᠠᠯᠠᠩᡤᠠ coo yang di kadalangga ᠴᠣᠤ ᠶᠠᠩ ᠳᠢ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠰᠤ 130828105
Chaoyangwan Town 朝阳湾镇 Cháoyángwān Zhèn ᠴᠣᠣ ᠶᠠᠩ ᠸᠠᠨ ᡴᠠᡩᠠᠯᠠᠩᡤᠠ coo yang di kadalangga ᠴᠣᠤ ᠶᠠᠩ ᠸᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠰᠤ 130828106
Yaozhan Town 腰站镇 Yāozhàn Zhèn 130828107
Longtoushan Town 龙头山镇 Lóngtóushān Zhèn ᠯᡠᠩᡨᠣᠣᡧᠠᠨ ᡴᠠᡩᠠᠯᠠᠩᡤᠠ lungtoošan kadalangga ᠯᠦᠩ ᠲᠧᠦ ᠱᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠰᠤ 130828108
Xinbo Town 新拨镇 Xīnbō Zhèn 130828109
Yudaokou Town 御道口镇 Yùdàokǒu Zhèn 130828110
Chengzi Town 城子镇 Chéngzi Zhèn 130828111
Townships
Daobazi Township 道坝子乡 Dàobàzi xiāng ᡩᠣᠣ ᠪᠠᡯᡳ᠌ ᡤᠠᡧᠠᠨ doo badzy kadalangga ᠳᠣᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠽᠢ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠩ 130828200
Huangtukan Township 黄土坎乡 Huángtǔkǎn xiāng 130828203
Sidaogou Township 四道沟乡 Sìdàogōu xiāng ᡩᡠᡳᠨᡳ ᡩᠣᠯᠣ ᠨᡳᡵᡠ duini dolo niru ᠰᠧ ᠳᠣᠤ ᠭᠧᠦ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠩ 130828204
Lanqikalun Township 兰旗卡伦乡 Lánqíkǎlún xiāng 130828205
Yinwogou Township 银窝沟乡 Yínwōgōu xiāng ᡳᠨ ᠸᡝᡤᠣ ᡤᠠᡧᠠᠨ in wego gašan ᠶᠢᠨ ᠸᠧ ᠭᠧᠦ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠩ 130828206
Xindi Township 新地乡 Xīndì xiāng ᠰᡳᠨ ᡩᡳ ᡤᠠᡧᠠᠨ sin di gašan ᠰᠢᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠢ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠩ 130828207
Guangfayong Township 广发永乡 Guǎngfāyǒng xiāng ᡴᡡᠸᠠᠩ ᡶᠠᠶᠣᠩ ᡤᠠᡧᠠᠨ kūwang fayong gašan ᠭᠤᠸᠠᠩ ᠹᠠ ᠶᠦᠩ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠩ 130828208
Yutaihe Township 育太和乡 Yùtàihé xiāng ᠶᠣᡨᠠᡳᡥᡝ ᡤᠠᡧᠠᠨ kūwang fayong gašan ᠢᠦᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠾᠧ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠩ 130828209
Guojiawan Township 郭家湾乡 Guōjiāwān xiāng 130828210
Yangjiawan Township 杨家湾乡 Yángjiāwān xiāng 130828211
Dahuanqi Township 大唤起乡 Dàhuànqǐ xiāng 130828212
Haliha Township 哈里哈乡 Hālǐhā xiāng 130828213
Zhangjiawan Township 张家湾乡 Zhāngjiāwān xiāng 130828215
Baoyuanzhan Township 宝元栈乡 Bǎoyuánzhàn xiāng 130828216
Shanwanzi Township 山湾子乡 Shānwānzi xiāng 130828217
Sanyiyong Township 三义永乡 Sānyìyǒng xiāng ᠰᠠᠨ᠋᠋ ᡳᡳ ᡳᠣᠩ ᠨᡳᡵᡠ san' ii iong niru ᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠶᠦᠩ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠩ 130828218
Jiangjiadian Township 姜家店乡 Jiāngjiādiàn xiāng ᠵᡳᠶᠠᠩ ᠵᡳᠶᠠ ᡩᡳᠶᠠᠨ ᡤᠠᡧᠠᠨ jiyang jiya diyan gašan ᠵᠢᠶᠠᠩ ᠵᠢᠶᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠩ 130828219
Xiahuofang Township 下伙房乡 Xiàhuǒfáng xiāng 130828220
Yangebai Township 燕格柏乡 Yàngébǎi xiāng 130828221
Pailou Township 牌楼乡 Páilóu xiāng 130828222
Laowopu Township 老窝铺乡 Lǎowōpù xiāng 130828224
Shizhuozi Township 石桌子乡 Shízhuōzi xiāng 130828226
Datoushan Township 大头山乡 Dàtóushān xiāng 130828227
Nanshanzui Township 南山嘴乡 Nánshānzuǐ xiāng 130828228
Xilongtou Township 西龙头乡 Xīlóngtóu xiāng 130828229

References

  1. ^ ""承德市第七次全国人口普查主要数据情况"新闻发布会文字实录" (in Chinese). Government of Chengde. 2021-05-28.
  2. ^ "围场的历史,你真的知道吗?". www.sohu.com. Retrieved 17 February 2023.
  3. ^ 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 25 August 2023.
  4. ^ 中国气象数据网 (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 25 August 2023.
  5. ^ 围场 - 气象数据 -中国天气网 (in Chinese). Weather China. Retrieved 20 November 2022.
  6. ^ 2022年统计用区划代码:围场满族蒙古族自治县 (in Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China.