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Mongolian script
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ
Example text
Script type
CreatorTata-tonga
Time period
ca.1204 – present
Directiontop-to-bottom, left-to-right Edit this on Wikidata
LanguagesMongolian language
Manchu language (obsolete)
Daur language (obsolete)
Evenki language (experimentally)
Related scripts
Parent systems
Child systems
Manchu alphabet
Oirat alphabet (Clear script)
Buryat alphabet
Galik alphabet
Evenki alphabet
Xibe alphabet
ISO 15924
ISO 15924Mong, 145 Edit this on Wikidata, ​Mongolian
Unicode
Unicode alias
Mongolian
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.
This article contains Mongolian script. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of text in Mongolian script.

The classical or traditional Mongolian script,[a] also known as the Qudum Mongγol bičig,[b][citation needed] was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most widespread until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946. It is traditionally written in vertical lines Text direction TDright.svg Top-Down, right across the page. Derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet, Mongolian is a true alphabet, with separate letters for consonants and vowels. The Mongolian script has been adapted to write languages such as Oirat and Manchu. Alphabets based on this classical vertical script are used in Inner Mongolia and other parts of China to this day to write Mongolian, Xibe and experimentally, Evenki.

Computer operating systems have been slow to adopt support for the Mongolian script, and almost all have incomplete support or other text rendering difficulties.

History

The Stele of Yisüngge [ru], with the earliest known inscription in the Mongolian script.[1]: 33 
The Stele of Yisüngge [ru], with the earliest known inscription in the Mongolian script.[1]: 33 

The Mongolian vertical script developed as an adaptation of the Old Uyghur alphabet for the Mongolian language.[2]: 545  From the seventh and eighth to the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the Mongolian language separated into southern, eastern and western dialects. The principal documents from the period of the Middle Mongol language are: in the eastern dialect, the famous text The Secret History of the Mongols, monuments in the Square script, materials of the Chinese–Mongolian glossary of the fourteenth century, and materials of the Mongolian language of the middle period in Chinese transcription, etc.; in the western dialect, materials of the Arab–Mongolian and Persian–Mongolian dictionaries, Mongolian texts in Arabic transcription, etc.[3]: 1–2  The main features of the period are that the vowels ï and i had lost their phonemic significance, creating the i phoneme (in the Chakhar dialect, the Standard Mongolian in Inner Mongolia, these vowels are still distinct); inter-vocal consonants γ/g, b/w had disappeared and the preliminary process of the formation of Mongolian long vowels had begun; the initial h was preserved in many words; grammatical categories were partially absent, etc. The development over this period explains why the Mongolian script looks like a vertical Arabic script (in particular the presence of the dot system).[3]: 1–2 

Eventually, minor concessions were made to the differences between the Uyghur and Mongol languages: In the 17th and 18th centuries, smoother and more angular versions of the letter tsadi became associated with [dʒ] and [tʃ] respectively, and in the 19th century, the Manchu hooked yodh was adopted for initial [j]. Zain was dropped as it was redundant for [s]. Various schools of orthography, some using diacritics, were developed to avoid ambiguity.[2]: 545 

Traditional Mongolian is written vertically from top to bottom, flowing in lines from left to right. The Old Uyghur script and its descendants, of which traditional Mongolian is one among Oirat Clear, Manchu, and Buryat are the only known vertical scripts written from left to right. This developed because the Uyghurs rotated their Sogdian-derived script, originally written right to left, 90 degrees counterclockwise to emulate Chinese writing, but without changing the relative orientation of the letters.[4][1]: 36 

The reed pen was the writing instrument of choice until the 18th century, when the brush took its place under Chinese influence.[5]: 422  Pens were also historically made of wood, reed, bamboo, bone, bronze, or iron. Ink used was black or cinnabar red, and written with on birch bark, paper, cloths made of silk or cotton, and wooden or silver plates.[6]: 80–81 

Reed pens
Reed pens
Ink brushes
Ink brushes

Mongols learned their script as a syllabary, dividing the syllables into twelve different classes, based on the final phonemes of the syllables, all of which ended in vowels.[7]

The script remained in continuous use by Mongolian speakers in Inner Mongolia in People's Republic of China. In the Mongolian People's Republic, it was largely replaced by the Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet, although the vertical script remained in limited use. In March 2020, the Mongolian government announced plans to increase the use of the traditional Mongolian script and to use both Cyrillic and Mongolian script in official documents by 2025.[8][9][10]

Names

The traditional Mongolian script is known by a wide variety of names. Because of its similarity to the Old Uyghur alphabet, it became known as the Uigurjin Mongol script.[c] During the communist era, when Cyrillic became the official script for the Mongolian language, the traditional script became known as the Old Mongol script,[d] in contrast to the New script,[e] referring to Cyrillic. The name Old Mongol script stuck, and it is still known as such among the older generation, who did not receive education in the new script.[citation needed]

Overview

The traditional or classical Mongolian alphabet, sometimes called Hudum 'traditional' in Oirat in contrast to the Clear script (Todo 'exact'), is the original form of the Mongolian script used to write the Mongolian language. It does not distinguish several vowels (o/u, ö/ü, final a/e) and consonants (syllable-initial t/d and k/g, sometimes ǰ/y) that were not required for Uyghur, which was the source of the Mongol (or Uyghur-Mongol) script.[4] The result is somewhat comparable to the situation of English, which must represent ten or more vowels with only five letters and uses the digraph th for two distinct sounds. Ambiguity is sometimes prevented by context, as the requirements of vowel harmony and syllable sequence usually indicate the correct sound. Moreover, as there are few words with an exactly identical spelling, actual ambiguities are rare for a reader who knows the orthography.

Letters have different forms depending on their position in a word: initial, medial, or final. In some cases, additional graphic variants are selected for visual harmony with the subsequent character.

The rules for writing below apply specifically for the Mongolian language, unless stated otherwise.

Sort orders

Vowel harmony

Mongolian vowel harmony separates the vowels of words into three groups – two mutually exclusive and one neutral:

Any Mongolian word can contain the neutral vowel i, but only vowels from either of the other two groups. The vowel qualities of visually separated vowels and suffixes must likewise harmonize with those of the preceding word stem. Such suffixes are written with front or neutral vowels when preceded by a word stem containing only neutral vowels. Any of these rules might not apply for foreign words however.[3]: 11, 35, 39 [16]: 10 [17]: 4 [13]

Separated final vowels

Two examples of the two kinds of letter separation: with the suffix ‑un (  ) and the final vowel ‑a (  )
Two examples of the two kinds of letter separation: with the suffix ‑un ( Brush-written un-uen suffix 2.svg ) and the final vowel ‑a ( Brush-written a-e suffix or seprated vowel 2.svg )

A separated final form of vowels a or e is common, and can appear at the end of a word stem, or suffix. This form requires a final-shaped preceding letter, and an inter-word gap in between. This gap can be transliterated with a hyphen.[note 1][3]: 30, 77 [18]: 42 [1]: 38–39 [17]: 27 [19]: 534–535 

The presence or lack of a separated a or e can also indicate differences in meaning between different words (compare ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩ qar‑a 'black' with ᠬᠠᠷᠠ qara 'to look').[20]: 3 [19]: 535 

Its form could be confused with that of the identically shaped traditional dative-locative suffix ‑a/‑e exemplified further down. That form however, is more commonly found in older texts, and more commonly takes the forms of ᠲ᠋ᠤᠷ tur/tür or ᠳ᠋ᠤᠷ dur/dür instead.[16]: 15 [21][1]: 46 

Separated suffixes

1925 logo of Buryat–Mongolian newspaper ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ᠃ Buriyad Mongγol‑un ünen 'Buryat-Mongol truth' with the suffix  ᠤᠨ⟨?⟩ ‑un.
1925 logo of Buryat–Mongolian newspaper ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ᠃ Buriyad Mongγol‑un ünen 'Buryat-Mongol truth' with the suffix  ᠤᠨ⟨?⟩ ‑un.

All case suffixes, as well as any plural suffixes consisting of one or two syllables, are likewise separated by a preceding and hyphen-transliterated gap.[note 2] A maximum of two case suffixes can be added to a stem.[3]: 30, 73 [16]: 12 [21][22][17]: 28 [19]: 534 

Such single-letter vowel suffixes appear with the final-shaped forms of a/e, i, or u/ü,[3]: 30  as in ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠠ⟨?⟩ γaǰar‑a 'to the country' and ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠡ⟨?⟩ edür‑e 'on the day',[3]: 39  or ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ⟨?⟩ ulus‑i 'the state' etc.[3]: 23  Multi-letter suffixes most often start with an initial- (consonants), medial- (vowels), or variant-shaped form. Medial-shaped u in the two-letter suffix  ᠤᠨ⟨?⟩ ‑un/‑ün is exemplified in the adjacent newspaper logo.[3]: 30 [19]: 27 

Compound names

In the modern language, proper names (but not words) usually forms graphic compounds (such as those of ᠬᠠᠰᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ Qas'erdeni 'Jasper-jewel' or ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠬᠣᠲᠠ Kökeqota – the city of Hohhot). These also allow components of different harmonic classes to be joined together, and where the vowels of an added suffix will harmonize with those of the latter part of the compound. Orthographic peculiarities are most often retained, as with the short and long teeth of an initial-shaped ö in ᠮᠤᠤ‍‍ᠥ᠌‍‍ᠬᠢᠨ Muu'ökin 'Bad Girl' (protective name). Medial t and d, in contrast, are not affected in this way.[3]: 30 [23]: 92 [1]: 44 [24]: 88 

Isolate citation forms

Isolate citation forms for syllables containing o, u, ö, and ü may in dictionaries appear without a final tail as in ᠪᠣ bo/bu or ᠮᠣ᠋ mo/mu, and with a vertical tail as in ᠪᠥ᠋ / or ᠮᠥ᠋ / (as well as in transcriptions of Chinese syllables).[13][1]: 39 

Notes on letter tables

A dash indicates a non-applicable position for that letter.

Parentheses enclose glyphs or positions whose corresponding sounds are not found in native Mongolian words.

Palatalized phonemes have been excluded. These are conditioned by a following i.[18]: 178 

Vowels

Letter[3]: 17, 18 [2]: 546 
‑a a Transliteration[note 3]
[f] Isolate
ᠠ᠋[g]
[h]
ᠠ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠠ‍ Medial
‍ᠠ Connected final
᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩
Separated final
Ligatures[3]: 22–23 [2]: 546 
ba pa Transliteration
ᠪᠠ[i] ᠫᠠ Isolate
ᠪᠠ‍ ᠫᠠ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠪᠠ‍ ‍ᠫᠠ‍ Medial
‍ᠪᠠ ‍ᠫᠠ Final
Separated suffixes[note 4]
‑a Transliteration
 ᠠ‍⟨?⟩
Suffix-initial
 ᠠ⟨?⟩
Suffix

Letter[3]: 17, 18–19 [2]: 546 
‑e e Transliteration
[g] Isolate
[h]
ᠡ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠡ‍ Medial
‍ᠡ Connected final
᠎ᠡ⟨?⟩
Separated final
Ligatures[3]: 22–23, 24–25 [2]: 546 
be pe ke, ge Transliteration
ᠪᠡ[i] ᠫᠡ ᠬᠡ[j] Isolate
ᠪᠡ‍ ᠫᠡ‍ ᠬᠡ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠪᠡ‍ ‍ᠫᠡ‍ ‍ᠬᠡ‍ Medial
‍ᠪᠡ ‍ᠫᠡ ‍ᠬᠡ Final
Separated suffixes[note 5]
‑e Transliteration
 ᠡ‍ Suffix-initial
 ᠡ⟨?⟩
Suffix

Letter[3]: 17, 19 [2]: 546 
i Transliteration
Isolate
ᠢ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠢ‍ Medial (syllable-initial)
[k]
Medial (syllable-final)
‍ᠢ Final
Ligatures[3]: 22–23, 24–25 [2]: 546 
bi pi ki, gi Transliteration
ᠪᠢ[l] ᠫᠢ ᠬᠢ[m] Isolate
ᠪᠢ‍ ᠫᠢ‍ ᠬᠢ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠪᠢ‍ ‍ᠫᠢ‍ ‍ᠬᠢ‍ Medial
‍ᠪᠢ ‍ᠫᠢ ‍ᠬᠢ Final
Separated suffixes[note 6]
‑i Transliteration
 ᠢ‍⟨?⟩
Suffix-initial
 ᠢ⟨?⟩
Suffix

Letter[3]: 17, 19–20 [2]: 546 
o Transliteration
[n] Isolate
ᠣ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠣ‍ Medial
‍ᠣ Final
Ligatures[3]: 22–23 [2]: 546 
bo po Transliteration
ᠪᠣ ᠫᠣ Isolate
ᠪᠣ‍ ᠫᠣ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠪᠣ‍ ‍ᠫᠣ‍ Medial
‍ᠪᠣ ‍ᠫᠣ Final

Letter[3]: 17, 19–20 [2]: 546 
u Transliteration
Isolate
ᠤ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠤ‍ Medial
‍ᠤ Final
Ligatures[3]: 22–23 [2]: 546 
bu pu Transliteration
ᠪᠤ ᠫᠤ Isolate
ᠪᠤ‍ ᠫᠤ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠪᠤ‍ ‍ᠫᠤ‍ Medial
‍ᠪᠤ ‍ᠫᠤ Final
Separated suffixes[note 7]
‑u ‑u ‑un ‑ud ‑uruγu Transliteration
 ᠤ⟨?⟩ Suffix
 ᠤᠨ⟨?⟩  ᠤᠳ⟨?⟩
 ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ⟨?⟩

Letter[3]: 17, 20 [2]: 546 
ö Transliteration
[o] Isolate
ᠥ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠥ᠋‍ Medial (word-initial syllable)
‍ᠥ‍ Medial (subsequent syllables)
‍ᠥ Final
Ligatures[3]: 22–23, 24–25 [2]: 546 
, Transliteration
ᠪᠥ ᠫᠥ ᠭᠥ⟨?⟩ (w/o tail)[p] Isolate
ᠭᠥ᠋⟨?⟩ (w/ tail)
ᠪᠥ‍ ᠫᠥ‍ ᠭᠥ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠪᠥ‍ ‍ᠫᠥ‍ ‍ᠭᠥ‍ Medial
‍ᠪᠥ ‍ᠫᠥ ‍ᠭᠥ Final

Letter[3]: 17, 20 [2]: 546 
ü Transliteration
[q] Isolate
ᠦ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠦ᠋‍ Medial (word-initial syllable)
‍ᠦ‍ Medial (subsequent syllables)
‍ᠦ Final
Ligatures[3]: 22–23, 24–25 [2]: 546 
, Transliteration
ᠪᠦ ᠫᠦ ᠭᠦ⟨?⟩ (w/o tail)[p] Isolate
ᠭᠦ᠋⟨?⟩ (w/ tail)
ᠪᠦ‍ ᠫᠦ‍ ᠭᠦ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠪᠦ‍ ‍ᠫᠦ‍ ‍ᠭᠦ‍ Medial
‍ᠪᠦ ‍ᠫᠦ ‍ᠭᠦ Final
Separated suffixes[note 8]
‑ü ‑ü ‑ün ‑ügei ‑üd Transliteration
 ᠦ⟨?⟩ Suffix
 ᠦᠨ⟨?⟩  ᠦᠳ⟨?⟩
 ᠦᠭᠡᠢ⟨?⟩

Letter[1]: 38–39 
ē Transliteration[r]
Isolate
ᠧ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠧ‍ Medial
‍ᠧ Final
Example ligatures
Transliteration
ᠹᠧ ᠺᠧ ᠻᠧ Isolate
ᠹᠧ‍ ᠺᠧ‍ ᠻᠧ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠹᠧ‍ ‍ᠺᠧ‍ ‍ᠻᠧ‍ Medial
‍ᠹᠧ ‍ᠺᠧ ‍ᠻᠧ Final

Vowel combinations

Doubled vowels[3]: 10, 30 [16]: 59 [note 9]
ii oo uu üü Transliteration
ᠤᠤ⟨?⟩
[s]
Isolate
ᠣᠣ[t]
ᠤᠤ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠢᠢ‍ ‍ᠣᠣ‍ Medial
‍ᠤᠤ[u] Final
Diphthongs[3]: 31–32 [16]: 58 [18]: 111 [1]: 41–42 
ai ei oi, ui öi üi Transliteration
ᠠᠢ[v] ᠡᠢ[w] ᠣᠢ[x] ᠥᠢ[y] Isolate
ᠠᡳ᠌‍ ᠡᡳ᠌‍ ᠣᡳ᠌‍ ᠣᡳ᠌‍ Word-initial
‍ᠠᡳ᠌‍ ‍ᠣᡳ᠌‍ ‍ᠦᡳ᠌‍ Medial
‍ᠠᠢ ‍ᠣᠢ ‍ᠦᠢ Final
Diphthongs, continued[3]: 31–32 
au u‑a uu‑a Transliteration
ᠠᠤ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠠᠤ‍ Medial
‍ᠤ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩
[z]
‍ᠤᠤ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩ Final

Native consonants

Letter[3]: 17, 20–21 [2]: 546 [35]: 212–213 
n Transliteration
ᠨ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠨ᠋‍⟨?⟩
Medial (syllable-initial)
‍ᠨ‍⟨?⟩
Medial (syllable-final)
‍ᠨ Final
C-V syllables[28]: 8 
n‑a, n‑e na, ne ni no, nu , Transliteration
ᠨᠠ ᠨᠢ[aa] ᠨᠣ᠋ ᠨᠥ᠋ Isolate
ᠨᠠ‍ ᠨᠢ‍ ᠨᠣ‍ ᠨᠥ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠨᠠ‍ ‍ᠨᠢ‍ ‍ᠨᠣ‍ Medial
‍ᠨ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩
‍ᠨᠠ ‍ᠨᠢ ‍ᠨᠣ Final
Separated suffixes[note 10]
‑na, ‑ne ‑nu, ‑nü Transliteration
 ᠨᠠ‍  ᠨᠤ‍ Suffix-initial

Letter[3]: 15, 17 [2]: 546 [35]: 212–213 
ng Transliteration[r]
Word-initial
Medial (syllable-initial)
‍ᠩ‍ Medial (syllable-final)
‍ᠩ Final

Letter[3]: (12), 17, 22 [2]: 546 [35]: 212–213 
b Transliteration
ᠪ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠪ‍ Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
‍ᠪ Final
C-V syllables[28]: 16 
ba, be bi bo, bu , Transliteration
ᠪᠠ[i] ᠪᠢ[l] ᠪᠣ ᠪᠥ᠋ Isolate
ᠪᠠ‍ ᠪᠢ‍ ᠪᠣ‍ ᠪᠥ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠪᠠ‍ ‍ᠪᠢ‍ ‍ᠪᠣ‍ Medial
‍ᠪᠠ ‍ᠪᠢ ‍ᠪᠣ Final
Separated suffixes[note 11]
‑ban, ‑ben ‑bar, ‑ber Transliteration
 ᠪᠠᠨ  ᠪᠠᠷ Suffixes

Letter[3]: 12, 15, 17, 23 [2]: 546 [35]: 212–213 
p Transliteration
ᠫ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠫ‍ Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
(‍ᠫ) Final
C-V syllables[28]: 46 
pa, pe pi po, pu , Transliteration
ᠫᠠ ᠫᠢ ᠫᠣ ᠫᠥ᠋ Isolate
ᠫᠠ‍ ᠫᠢ‍ ᠫᠣ‍ ᠫᠥ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠫᠠ‍ ‍ᠫᠢ‍ ‍ᠫᠣ‍ Medial
‍ᠫᠠ ‍ᠫᠢ ‍ᠫᠣ Final

(1/2)

Letter[3]: 14, 17, 21 [2]: 546 [35]: 212–213 
q Transliteration
Word-initial
‍ᠬ‍ Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
Final
C-V syllables[3]: 15 [28]: 19 
q‑a qa qe, qi qo, qu , Transliteration
ᠬᠠ[ab] ᠬᠣ᠋ Isolate
ᠬᠠ‍ ᠬᠣ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠬᠠ‍ ‍ᠬᠣ‍ Medial
‍ᠬ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩
‍ᠬᠣ Final

(2/2)

Letter[3]: 14, 17, 24–25 [2]: 546 [35]: 212–213 
k Transliteration
Word-initial
Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
Final
C-V syllables[3]: 15 [28]: 19 
ka ke ki ko, ku , Transliteration
ᠬᠡ[j] ᠬᠢ[m] ᠬᠥ⟨?⟩ (w/o tail)[p] Isolate
ᠬᠥ᠋⟨?⟩ (w/ tail)[ac]
ᠬᠡ‍ ᠬᠢ‍ ᠬᠥ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠬᠡ‍ ‍ᠬᠢ‍ ‍ᠬᠥ‍ Medial
‍ᠬᠡ ‍ᠬᠢ ‍ᠬᠥ Final
Separated suffixes[note 12]
‑ki ‑kin Transliteration
 ᠬᠢ  ᠬᠢᠨ Suffixes

(1/2)

Letter[3]: 14, 17, 21–22 [2]: 546 [35]: 212–213 
γ Transliteration[r]
Word-initial
‍ᠭ᠋‍⟨?⟩
Medial (syllable-initial)
‍ᠭ‍⟨?⟩
Medial (syllable-final)
‍ᠭ[ad] Final
C-V syllables[3]: 15 [28]: 21 
γ‑a γa γe, γi γo, γu γö, γü Transliteration
ᠭᠠ ᠭᠣ᠋ Isolate
ᠭᠠ‍ ᠭᠣ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠭᠠ‍ ‍ᠭᠣ‍ Medial
‍ᠭ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩
‍ᠭᠣ Final

(2/2)

Letter[3]: 14–15, 17, 24–25 [2]: 546 [35]: 212–213 
g Transliteration
(⟨
⟩)
Word-initial
‍ᠭ᠍‍⟨?⟩
Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
‍ᠭ᠋⟨?⟩
[ad]
Final
C-V syllables[3]: 15 [28]: 21 
ga ge gi go, gu , Transliteration
ᠭᠡ[j] ᠭᠢ[m] ᠭᠥ⟨?⟩ (w/o tail)[p] Isolate
ᠭᠥ᠋ (w/ tail)
ᠭᠡ‍ ᠭᠢ‍ ᠭᠥ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠭᠡ‍ ‍ᠭᠢ‍ ‍ᠭᠥ‍ Medial
‍ᠭᠡ ‍ᠬᠢ ‍ᠭᠥ Final

Letter[3]: 13, 17, 24 [2]: 546 [35]: 212, 214 
m Transliteration
ᠮ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠮ‍ Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
‍ᠮ Final
C-V syllables[28]: 8 
m‑a, m‑e ma, me mi mo, mu , Transliteration
ᠮᠠ[ae] ᠮᠢ ᠮᠣ᠋ ᠮᠥ᠋ Isolate
ᠮᠠ‍ ᠮᠢ‍ ᠮᠣ‍ ᠮᠥ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠮᠠ‍ ‍ᠮᠢ‍ ‍ᠮᠣ‍ Medial
‍ᠮ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩
‍ᠮᠠ ‍ᠮᠢ ‍ᠮᠣ Final

Letter[3]: 13, 17 [2]: 546 [35]: 212, 214 
l Transliteration
(ᠯ‍) Word-initial
‍ᠯ‍ Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
‍ᠯ Final
C-V syllables[28]: 8 
l‑a, l‑e la, le li lo, lu , Transliteration
ᠯᠠ[af] ᠯᠢ ᠯᠣ᠋ ᠯᠥ᠋ Isolate
ᠯᠠ‍ ᠯᠢ‍ ᠯᠣ‍ ᠯᠥ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠯᠠ‍ ‍ᠯᠢ‍ ‍ᠯᠣ‍ Medial
‍ᠯ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩
‍ᠯᠠ ‍ᠯᠢ ‍ᠯᠣ Final
Separated suffixes[note 13]
‑lu, ‑lü Transliteration
 ᠯᠤ‍ Suffix-initial

Letter[3]: 13, 17, 23 [2]: 546 [35]: 212, 214 
s Transliteration
ᠰ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠰ‍ Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
‍ᠰ Final
C-V syllables[28]: 41 
s‑a, s‑e[36] sa, se si so, su , Transliteration
ᠰᠠ[ag] ᠰᠢ ᠰᠣ᠋ ᠰᠥ᠋ Isolate
ᠰᠠ‍ ᠰᠢ‍ ᠰᠣ‍ ᠰᠥ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠰᠠ‍ ‍ᠰᠢ‍ ‍ᠰᠣ‍ Medial
‍ᠰ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩
‍ᠰᠠ ‍ᠰᠢ ‍ᠰᠣ Final

Letter[3]: 13, 17, 23 [2]: 546 [35]: 212, 214 
š Transliteration
ᠱ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠱ‍ Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
(‍ᠱ) Final
C-V syllables[28]: 41 
ša, še ši šo šu šö, šü Transliteration
ᠱᠠ[ah] ᠱᠢ ᠱᠣ᠋ ᠱᠥ᠋ Isolate
ᠱᠣ[ai]
ᠱᠠ‍ ᠱᠢ‍ ᠱᠣ‍ ᠱᠥ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠱᠠ‍ ‍ᠱᠢ‍ ‍ᠱᠣ‍ Medial
‍ᠱᠠ ‍ᠱᠢ ‍ᠱᠣ Final

Letter[3]: 13, 17, 23 [2]: 546 [35]: 212, 214 
t Transliteration
ᠲ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠲ‍ Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
Final
C-V syllables[28]: 31 
ta, te ti to, tu , Transliteration
ᠲᠠ[aj] ᠲᠢ ᠲᠣ᠋ ᠲᠥ᠋ Isolate
ᠲᠠ‍ ᠲᠢ‍ ᠲᠣ‍ ᠲᠥ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠲᠠ‍ ‍ᠲᠢ‍ ‍ᠲᠣ‍ Medial
‍ᠲᠠ ‍ᠲᠢ ‍ᠲᠣ Final
Separated suffixes[note 14]
‑ta, ‑te ‑tu, ‑tü Transliteration
 ᠲᠤ Suffix
 ᠲᠠ‍  ᠲᠤ‍ Suffix-initial

Letter[3]: 13, 17, 23 [2]: 546 [35]: 212, 214 
d Transliteration
ᠳ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠳ᠋‍⟨?⟩
Medial (syllable-initial)
‍ᠳ‍⟨?⟩
Medial (syllable-final)
‍ᠳ Final
C-V syllables[28]: 31 
da, de di do, du , Transliteration
ᠳᠠ[aj] ᠳᠢ ᠳᠣ᠋ ᠳᠥ᠋ Isolate
ᠳ᠋ᠣ᠋ ᠳ᠋ᠥ᠋
ᠳᠠ‍ ᠳᠢ‍ ᠳᠣ‍ ᠳᠥ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠳᠠ‍ ‍ᠳᠢ‍ ‍ᠳᠣ‍ Medial
‍ᠳᠠ ‍ᠳᠢ ‍ᠳᠣ Final
Separated suffixes[note 15]
‑d ‑da, ‑de ‑du, ‑dü Transliteration
 ᠳᠤ⟨?⟩ Suffix
 ᠳᠠ‍⟨?⟩  ᠳᠤ‍⟨?⟩ Suffix-initial

Letter[3]: 13, 17 [2]: 546 [35]: 212, 214 
č Transliteration
ᠴ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠴ‍ Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
(‍ᠴ) Final
C-V syllables[28]: 38 
ča, če či čo, ču čö čü Transliteration
ᠴᠠ ᠴᠢ[ak] ᠴᠣ᠋ ᠴᠥ᠋ Isolate
ᠴᠣ[al] ᠴᠦ[al]
ᠴᠠ‍ ᠴᠢ‍ ᠴᠣ‍ ᠴᠥ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠴᠠ‍ ‍ᠴᠢ‍ ‍ᠴᠣ‍ Medial
‍ᠴᠠ ‍ᠴᠢ ‍ᠴᠣ Final

Letter[3]: 13, 17, 24 [2]: 546 [35]: 212, 214 
ǰ Transliteration[r]
ᠵ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠵ‍ Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
(‍ᠵ) Final
C-V syllables[28]: 28 
ǰ‑a, ǰ‑e ǰa, ǰe ǰi ǰo ǰu ǰö, ǰü Transliteration
ᠵ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩
[am]
ᠵᠠ[an] ᠵᠢ[ao] ᠵᠣ᠋ ᠵᠥ᠋ Isolate
ᠵᠣ[ap]
ᠵᠠ‍ ᠵᠢ‍ ᠵᠣ‍ ᠵᠥ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠵᠠ‍ ‍ᠵᠢ‍ ‍ᠵᠣ‍ Medial
‍ᠵᠠ ‍ᠵᠢ ‍ᠵᠣ Final

Letter[3]: 14, 17, 24 [2]: 546 [35]: 212, 214 
y Transliteration
ᠶ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠶ‍⟨?⟩
Medial (syllable-initial)
‍ᠶ᠋‍⟨?⟩
Medial (syllable-final)
Final
C-V syllables[28]: 25 
y‑a, y‑e ya, ye yi yo, yu , Transliteration
ᠶᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠶᠣ᠋ ᠶᠥ᠋ Isolate
ᠶᠠ‍ ᠶᠢ‍ ᠶᠣ‍ ᠶᠥ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠶᠠ‍ ‍ᠶᠢ‍ ‍ᠶᠣ‍ Medial
‍ᠶ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩
‍ᠶᠠ ‍ᠶᠢ ‍ᠶᠣ Final
Separated suffixes[note 16]
‑y ‑yi ‑yin ‑yuγan ‑yügen Transliteration
 ᠶᠢ⟨?⟩  ᠶᠢᠨ⟨?⟩ Suffixes
 ᠶᠤᠭᠠᠨ  ᠶᠦᠭᠡᠨ⟨?⟩

Letter[3]: 13–14, 17 [2]: 546 [35]: 212, 214 
r Transliteration
(ᠷ‍) Word-initial
‍ᠷ‍ Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
‍ᠷ Final
C-V syllables[28]: 14 
r‑a, r‑e ra, re ri ro, ru , Transliteration
ᠷᠠ ᠷᠢ ᠷᠣ᠋ ᠷᠥ᠋ Isolate
ᠷᠠ‍ ᠷᠢ‍ ᠷᠣ‍ ᠷᠥ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠷᠠ‍ ‍ᠷᠢ‍ ‍ᠷᠣ‍ Medial
‍ᠷ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩
‍ᠷᠠ ‍ᠷᠢ ‍ᠷᠣ Final

Foreign consonants

A KFC in Hohhot, the capital of Inner Mongolia, China, with a trilingual sign in Chinese, Mongolian and English
A KFC in Hohhot, the capital of Inner Mongolia, China, with a trilingual sign in Chinese, Mongolian and English
From left to right : Phagspa, Lantsa, Tibetan, Mongolian, Chinese and Cyrillic
From left to right : Phagspa, Lantsa, Tibetan, Mongolian, Chinese and Cyrillic

Letter[1]: 38 [28]: 44–45 
w Transliteration[r]
ᠸ‍[aq] Word-initial
‍ᠸ‍[ar] Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
‍ᠸ⟨?⟩ ‍ᠧ[as] Final
C-V syllables[28]: 45 
w‑a, w‑e[at] Transliteration
‍ᠸ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩
[au]
Final

Letter[28]: 45 
f Transliteration
ᠹ‍[av] Word-initial
‍ᠹ‍ Medial
‍ᠹ Final
Ligatures[28]: 45 
fa fi fo Transliteration
ᠹᠠ ᠹᠧ ᠹᠢ ᠹᠣ ᠹᠦ᠋ Isolate
ᠹᠠ‍ ᠹᠧ‍ ᠹᠢ‍ ᠹᠣ‍ ᠹᠦ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠹᠠ‍ ‍ᠹᠧ‍ ‍ᠹᠢ‍ ‍ᠹᠣ‍ ‍ᠹᠦ᠋‍ Medial
‍ᠹᠠ ‍ᠹᠧ ‍ᠹᠢ ‍ᠹᠣ ‍ᠹᠦ᠋ Final

Letter
g Transliteration[r]
ᠺ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠺ‍ Medial
‍ᠺ Final
Ligatures
ga gi go Transliteration
ᠺᠠ ᠺᠧ ᠺᠢ ᠺᠣ ᠺᠦ᠋⟨?⟩ (w/ tail)[aw] Isolate
ᠺᠠ‍ ᠺᠧ‍ ᠺᠢ‍ ᠺᠣ‍ ᠺᠦ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠺᠠ‍ ‍ᠺᠧ‍ ‍ᠺᠢ‍ ‍ᠺᠣ‍ ‍ᠺᠦ᠋‍⟨?⟩ (w/ yodh)[ax] Medial
‍ᠺᠠ ‍ᠺᠧ ‍ᠺᠢ ‍ᠺᠣ ‍ᠺᠦ᠋⟨?⟩ (w/ tail)[ay] Final

Letter[28]: 46 
k Transliteration[r]
ᠻ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠻ‍ Medial
‍ᠻ Final
Ligatures[28]: 46 
ka ki ko Transliteration
ᠻᠠ ᠻᠧ ᠻᠢ ᠻᠣ ᠻᠦ᠋ Isolate
ᠻᠠ‍ ᠻᠧ‍ ᠻᠢ‍ ᠻᠣ‍ ᠻᠦ‍ Word-initial
‍ᠻᠠ‍ ‍ᠻᠧ‍ ‍ᠻᠢ‍ ‍ᠻᠣ‍ ‍ᠻᠦ᠋‍ Medial
‍ᠻᠠ ‍ᠻᠧ ‍ᠻᠢ ‍ᠻᠣ ‍ᠻᠦ᠋ Final

Letter[28]: 46 
c Transliteration
ᠼ‍[az] Word-initial
‍ᠼ‍[ba] Medial
‍ᠼ[bb] Final

Letter[28]: 46 
z Transliteration
ᠽ‍[bc] Word-initial
‍ᠽ‍[bd] Medial
‍ᠽ[be] Final

Letter[28]: 47 
h Transliteration
ᠾ‍[bf] Word-initial
‍ᠾ‍ Medial
‍ᠾ‌ Final

Letter[28]: 47 
ž Transliteration
ᠿ‍[bg] Word-initial
Medial
Final

Letter[28]: 47 
lh Transliteration
ᡀ‍ Word-initial
‍ᡀ‍ Medial
Final

Letter
zh Transliteration
ᡁ‍ Word-initial
Medial
Final

Letter
ch Transliteration
ᡂ‍ Word-initial
Medial
Final

Punctuation

Further information: Mongolian Supplement (Unicode block)

Example of word-breaking the name Oyirad 'Oirat', 1604 manuscript
Example of word-breaking the name Oyirad 'Oirat', 1604 manuscript

When written between words, punctuation marks use space on both sides of them. They can also appear at the very end of a line, regardless of where the preceding word ends.[23]: 99  Red (cinnabar) ink is used in many manuscripts, either to symbolize emphasis or respect.[23]: 241  Modern punctuation incorporates Western marks: parentheses; quotation, question, and exclamation marks; as well as precomposed and .[19]: 535–536 

Punctuation[26]: 106, 168, 203 [3]: 28 [42]: 30 [23]: 99 [25]: 3 [19]: 535–536 [33]
Form(s) Name Function(s)
Birga: ᠪᠢᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩ birγ‑a (бярга byarga) Marks start of a book, chapter, passage, or first line
᠀᠋
᠀᠌
᠀᠍
[...]
'Dot': ᠴᠡᠭ čeg (цэг tseg) Comma
'Double-dot': ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠷ ᠴᠡᠭ dabqur čeg (давхар цэг davkhar tseg) Period / full stop
'Four-fold/quadripartite dot': ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠭ dörbelǰin čeg (дөрвөлжин цэг dörvöljin tseg) Marks end of a passage, paragraph, or chapter
'Dotted line': ᠴᠤᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩/ᠴᠤᠪᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠡᠭ⟨?⟩ čubaγ‑a/čubuγ‑a čeg (цуваа цэг tsuvaa tseg) Ellipsis
Хос цэг khos tseg[citation needed] Colon
'Spine, backbone': ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ niruγu (нуруу nuruu) Mongolian soft hyphen
Mongolian non-breaking hyphen, or stem extender

Numerals

Main article: Mongolian numerals

Examples of numbers 10 and 89: written horizontally on a stamp and vertically on a hillside, respectively

Mongolian numerals are either written from left to right, or from top to bottom.[3]: 54 [28]: 9 

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Components

Listed in the table below are letter components (graphemes, or in Mongolian: ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ǰirulγ‑a / зурлага zurlaga) commonly used across the script. Some of these are used with several letters, and others to contrast between them. As their forms and usage may differ between § writing styles however, examples of these can be found under this section below.

Common components[26][28]: 4–5 [42]: 29–30, 205 [44][23]: 82–83 [1]: 36 [12]: 1 [45][46]: 20 [35]: 211–212 [47]: 10–11 [48][49][33]
Form Name(s) Used with
ᠡ‍ 'Crown': ᠲᠢᠲᠢᠮ titim (тит(и/э)м tit(i/e)m) all initial vowels (a, e, i, o, u, ö, ü, ē), and some initial consonants (n, m, l, h, etc).
᠊ᠡ‍ 'Tooth': ᠠᠴᠤᠭ ačuγ (ацаг atsag) a, e, n, ng, q, γ, m, l, d, etc; historically also r.
'Tooth': ᠰᠢᠳᠦ sidü (шүд shüd)
᠊᠊ 'Spine, backbone': ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ niruγu (нуруу nuruu) the vertical line running through words.
‍᠊ᠠ 'Tail': ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ segül (сүүл süül) a, e, n, etc. A final connected flourish/swash pointing right.
‍᠊ᠰ᠋ 'Short tail': ᠪᠣᠭᠤᠨᠢ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ boγuni segül (богино/богонь сүүл bogino/bogoni süül) final q, γ, m, and s
᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩
[...]: ᠣᠷᠬᠢᠴᠠ orkiča (орхиц orkhits) separated final a or e.
'Sprinkling, dusting': ᠴᠠᠴᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩ čačulγ‑a (цацлага tsatslaga) lower part of final a or e; the lower part of final g.
‍ᡳ᠌ 'Hook': ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡ degege (дэгээ degee) final i and d.
ᠵ‍ 'Shin, stick': ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢ silbi (шилбэ shilbe) i; initial ö and ü; the upper part of final g; ǰ and y, etc.
'Straight shin': ᠰᠢᠯᠤᠭᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢ siluγun silbi (шулуун шилбэ shuluun shilbe)
'Long tooth': ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠰᠢᠳᠦ urtu sidü (урт шүд urt shüd)
ᠶ‍ 'Shin with upturn': ᠡᠭᠡᠲᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢ egeteger silbi (э(э)тгэр шилбэ e(e)tger shilbe) y.
ᠸ‍ Shin with downturn: ᠮᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢ mataγar silbi (матгар шилбэ matgar shilbe) ē and w.
ᠷ‍ Horned shin: ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠰᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢ örgesütei silbi (өргөстэй шилбэ örgöstei shilbe) r, and historically also the upper part of final g and separated a.
ᠳ᠋‍ 'Looped shin': ᠭᠣᠭᠴᠤᠭᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢ γoγčuγatai silbi (гогцоотой шилбэ gogtsootoi shilbe) t and d.
ᡁ‍ 'Hollow shin': ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢ köndei silbi (хөндий шилбэ khöndii shilbe) h and zh.
‍ᠢ 'Bow': ᠨᠤᠮᠤ numu (нум num) final i, oü, and r; ng, b, p, k, g, etc.
‍᠊ᠣ‍ 'Belly, stomach,' loop, contour: ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠰᠦ gedesü (гэдэс gedes) the enclosed part of oü, b, p, initial t and d, etc.
ᠲ‍ 'Hind-gut': ᠠᠷᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠰᠦ⟨?⟩ aru‑yin gedesü (арын гэдэс aryn gedes) initial t and d.
‍᠊ᠹ‍ Flaglet, tuft: ᠵᠠᠷᠲᠢᠭ ǰartiγ (зартиг zartig Wylie: 'jar-thig) the left-side diacritic of f and z.
‍ᠽ‍
[...]: [...] (ятгар зартиг yatgar zartig) initial q and γ.
‍᠊ᠮ‍ 'Braid, pigtail': ᠭᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡ geǰige (гэзэг gezeg) m.
'Horn': ᠡᠪᠡᠷ eber (эвэр ever)
‍᠊ᠯ‍ 'Horn': ᠡᠪᠡᠷ eber (эвэр ever) l.
'Braid, pigtail': ᠭᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡ geǰige (гэзэг gezeg)
‍᠊ᠰ‍ 'Corner of the mouth': ᠵᠠᠪᠠᠵᠢ ǰabaǰi (зав(и/ь)ж zavij) s and š.
‍ᠴ‍ [...]: ᠰᠡᠷᠡᠭᠡ ᠡᠪᠡᠷ serege eber (сэрээ эвэр seree ever) č.
'Fork': ᠠᠴᠠ ača (ац ats)
‍ᠵ‍ [...]: [...] (жалжгар эвэр jaljgar ever) ǰ.
'Tusk, fang': ᠰᠣᠶᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩ soyuγ‑a (соёо soyoo)

Examples

Writing styles

As exemplified in this section, the shapes of glyphs may vary widely between different styles of writing and choice of medium with which to produce them. The development of written Mongolian can be divided into the three periods of pre-classical (beginning – 17th century), classical (16/17th century – 20th century), and modern (20th century onward):[26][3]: 2–3, 17, 23, 25–26 [16]: 58–59 [2]: 539–540, 545–546 [28]: 62–63 [29]: 111, 113–114 [18]: 40–42, 100–101, 117 [1]: 34–37 [50]: 8–11 [35]: 211–215 

Cursive sample in (pre-classical) Middle Mongol: Uridu maqam‑un qaǰiun medekü
Block‑printed Pen-written form Modern brush‑​written​ form Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. form semi-modern forms
arban 'ten'
Examples of lengthened letterforms d and n in ‑daγan (left), and their regular equivalents (right)
Block‑printed Pen-written forms Modern brush‑​written​ forms Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. forms semi-modern forms
‑ača/‑eče
‑un/‑ün
‑ud/‑üd
ba 'and'
Block‑printed Pen-written forms Modern brush‑​written​ forms Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. forms semi-modern forms
‑i
‑yi
‑yin
sain/sayin 'good'
yeke 'great'
Block‑printed Pen-written forms Modern brush‑​written​ forms Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. forms semi-modern forms
‑u/‑ü
bi 'I'
ab (intensifying particle)
Block‑printed Pen-written forms Modern brush‑​written​ forms Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. forms semi-modern forms
‑a/‑e
‑luγ‑a
köke 'blue'
köge 'soot'
ǰüg 'direction'
Block‑printed Pen-written forms Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. forms semi-modern forms
es(‑)e 'not, no', (negation)
ulus 'nation'
nom 'book'
čaγ 'time'
Block‑printed Pen-written forms Modern brush‑​written​ forms Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. forms semi-modern forms
[...]
toli 'mirror'
[...] ‑daki/‑deki
[...] ‑tur/‑tür
‑dur/‑dür
[...] metü 'as'
The word čiγšabd in an Uyghur Mongolian style: exemplifying a dotted syllable-final γ, and a final bd ligature
The word čiγšabd in an Uyghur Mongolian style: exemplifying a dotted syllable-final γ, and a final bd ligature
Block‑printed Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. form semi-modern form
čečeg 'flower'
Block-printed semi-modern form Pen-written form Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
qačar/γaǰar 'cheek/place'
Block‑printed Pen-written form Modern brush‑​written​ form Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. form semi-modern forms
sar(‑)a 'moon/month'
Wikipedia slogan
Manuscript Type Unicode Transliteration
(first word)
ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂
ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠠᠢ᠃
ᠸᠢ‍ wi/vi
‍ᠺᠢ‍ gi/ki
‍ᠫᠧ‍ /
‍ᠲ‍ᠢ‍ di
‍‍ᠶ᠎ᠠ ya
  • Transliteration: Wikipēdiya čilügetü nebterkei toli bičig bolai.
  • Cyrillic: Википедиа чөлөөт нэвтэрхий толь бичиг болой.
  • Transcription: Vikipedia chölööt nevterkhii toli bichig boloi.
  • Gloss: Wikipedia free omni-profound mirror scripture is.
  • Translation: Wikipedia is the free encyclopedia.

Gallery

Child systems

The Mongol script has been the basis of alphabets for several languages. First, after overcoming the Uyghur script ductus, it was used for Mongolian itself.

Clear script (Oirat alphabet)

Main article: Clear script

In 1648, the Oirat Buddhist monk Zaya-pandita Namkhaijamco created this variation with the goals of bringing the written language closer to the actual pronunciation of Oirat and making it easier to transcribe Tibetan and Sanskrit. The script was used by the Kalmyks of Russia until 1924, when it was replaced by the Cyrillic alphabet. In Xinjiang, China, the Oirat people still use it.

Manchu alphabet

Main article: Manchu alphabet

The Manchu alphabet was developed from the Mongolian script in the early 17th century to write the Manchu language. A variant is still used to write Xibe. It is also used for Daur. Its folded variant may for example be found on Chinese Qing seals.

Vagindra alphabet

Main article: Vagindra script

Another alphabet, sometimes called Vagindra or Vaghintara, was created in 1905 by the Buryat monk Agvan Dorjiev (1854–1938). It was also meant to reduce ambiguity, and to support the Russian language in addition to Mongolian. The most significant change, however, was the elimination of the positional shape variations. All letters were based on the medial variant of the original Mongol alphabet. Fewer than a dozen books were printed using it.[citation needed]

Evenki alphabet

Main article: Evenki alphabet

The Qing dynasty Qianlong Emperor erroneously identified the Khitan people and their language with the Solons, leading him to use the Solon language (Evenki) to "correct" Chinese character transcriptions of Khitan names in the History of Liao in his "Imperial Liao Jin Yuan Three Histories National Language Explanation" (欽定遼金元三史國語解/钦定辽金元三史国语解 Qīndìng Liáo Jīn Yuán Sānshǐ Guóyǔjiě) project. The Evenki words were written in the Manchu script in this work.

In the 1980s, an experimental alphabet for Evenki was created.

Additional characters

Galik characters

Main article: Galik alphabet

In 1587, the translator and scholar Ayuush Güüsh (Аюуш гүүш) created the Galik alphabet (Али-гали), inspired by the third Dalai Lama, Sonam Gyatso. It primarily added extra characters for transcribing Tibetan and Sanskrit terms when translating religious texts, and later also from Chinese. Some of those characters are still in use today for writing foreign names (compare table above).[51]

Unicode

Mongolian script was added to the Unicode standard in September 1999 with the release of version 3.0. However, there are multiple design issues in Mongolian Unicode that have not been fixed until now.[when?][52] The model is extremely unstable[53] and the user group dislike the 1999 design.

Blocks

Main articles: Mongolian (Unicode block) and Mongolian Supplement (Unicode block)

The Unicode block for Mongolian is U+1800–U+18AF. It includes letters, digits and various punctuation marks for Hudum Mongolian, Todo Mongolian, Xibe (Manchu), Manchu proper, and Ali Gali, as well as extensions for transcribing Sanskrit and Tibetan.

Mongolian[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+180x FV
 S1 
FV
 S2 
FV
 S3 
 MV 
S
FV
 S4 
U+181x
U+182x
U+183x
U+184x
U+185x
U+186x
U+187x
U+188x
U+189x
U+18Ax
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 14.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

The Mongolian Supplement block (U+11660–U+1167F) was added to the Unicode Standard in June, 2016 with the release of version 9.0:

Mongolian Supplement[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1166x 𑙠 𑙡 𑙢 𑙣 𑙤 𑙥 𑙦 𑙧 𑙨 𑙩 𑙪 𑙫 𑙬
U+1167x
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 14.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Rendering issues

Mongolian Wikipedia preview. A representation of what mn.wiki would look like if Mongolian script support was properly implemented. Mn.wiki already exists, but support has not been implemented. Not all text is "real Mongolian" — only the text and name of the article are, the rest of the text being English written in Mongolian script.
Mongolian Wikipedia preview. A representation of what mn.wiki would look like if Mongolian script support was properly implemented. Mn.wiki already exists, but support has not been implemented. Not all text is "real Mongolian" — only the text and name of the article are, the rest of the text being English written in Mongolian script.

Although the Mongolian script has been defined in Unicode since 1999, there was no native support for Unicode Mongolian from the major vendors until the release of the Windows Vista operating system in 2007 and fonts need to be installed in Windows XP and Windows 2000 to show properly, and so Unicode Mongolian is not yet widely used. In China, legacy encodings such as the Private Use Areas (PUA) Unicode mappings and GB18030 mappings of the Menksoft IMEs (espc. Menksoft Mongolian IME) are more commonly used than Unicode for writing web pages and electronic documents in Mongolian. In addition, unlike the usual vertical format, computers tend to show the script in right-to-left lines by default.

The inclusion of a Unicode Mongolian font and keyboard layout in Windows Vista has meant that Unicode Mongolian is now gradually becoming more popular,[citation needed] but the complexity of the Unicode Mongolian encoding model and the lack of a clear definition for the use variation selectors are still barriers to its widespread adoption, as is the lack of support for inline vertical display. As of 2015 there are no fonts that successfully display all of Mongolian correctly when written in Unicode. A report published in 2011 revealed many shortcomings with automatic rendering in all three Unicode Mongolian fonts the authors surveyed, including Microsoft's Mongolian Baiti.[56]

Furthermore, Mongolian language support has suffered from buggy implementations: the initial version of Microsoft's Mongolian Baiti font (version 5.00) was, in the supplier's own words, "almost unusable",[57] and as of 2011 there remain some minor bugs with the rendering of suffixes in Firefox.[58] Other fonts, such as Monotype's Mongol Usug and Myatav Erdenechimeg's MongolianScript, suffer even more serious bugs.[56]

bičig as it should appear (without FVS; ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ)
bičig as it should appear (without FVS; ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ)

In January 2013, Menksoft released several OpenType Mongolian fonts, delivered with its Menksoft Mongolian IME 2012. These fonts strictly follow Unicode standard, i.e. bichig is no longer realized as "B+I+CH+I+G+FVS2" (incorrect) but "B+I+CH+I+G" (correct), which is not done by Microsoft and Founder's Mongolian Baiti, Monotype's Mongol Usug, or Myatav Erdenechimeg's MongolianScript.[59] However, due to the impact of Mongolian Baiti, many still use the Microsoft defined incorrect realization "B+I+CH+I+G+FVS2", which results in an incorrect rendering in correctly-designed fonts like Menk Qagan Tig.

Mongolian script can be represented in LaTeX with the MonTeX package.[60]

Sometimes even if a font is installed the script may display as horizontal rather than vertical depending on the operating system or font.

Samples

The text samples below should resemble their image counterparts. This ensures that a text in Mongolian script is being rendered somewhat properly. Note that in some browsers, letters are rotated 90° counterclockwise. If an isolate letter a () resembles a 'W' and not a 'Σ', rotate the letters 90° clockwise.

Separated final vowels
Image Text Transliteration(s)
᠎ᠠ ‑a/‑e
Separated suffixes
Image Text Transliteration(s)
 ᠶᠢᠨ yin
 ᠢᠶᠠᠷ iyar/‑iyer
 ᠳᠦᠷ dur/‑r
Vowel harmony dependent pairs q/k and γ/g
Image Text Transliteration
ᠪᠢᠯᠢᠭ bilig
Particles
Image Text Transliteration(s)
ᠵ᠎ᠠ ǰ‑a
ᠪᠦᠦ buu/büü
ᠦᠦ uu/üü

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In Mongolian script: ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ
    Mongγol bičig; in Mongolian Cyrillic: Монгол бичиг Mongol bichig
  2. ^ In Mongolian script: ᠬᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ; Mongolian Cyrillic: Khalkha: Худам Монгол бичиг, Khudam Mongol bichig, Buryat: Худам Монгол бэшэг, Khudam Mongol besheg, Kalmyk: Хуудм Моңһл бичг, Huudm Moñḥl bichg
  3. ^ Mongolian: Уйгуржин монгол бичиг Uigurjin mongol bichig
  4. ^ Mongolian: Хуучин монгол бичиг Khuuchin mongol bichig
  5. ^ Mongolian: Шинэ үсэг Shine üseg
  6. ^ As in the interjection a (аа aa) 'a!, oh!, well!'.[26]: 1 
  7. ^ a b As in the exclamation ᠠ᠋/
    a/e (аа/ээ/оо/өө aa/ee/oo/öö), or interjection e (ээ ee) 'oh!'.[26]: 1, 284 
  8. ^ a b As in the exclamation ᠠ᠋/
    a/e (аа/ээ/оо/өө aa/ee/oo/öö).[26]: 1 
  9. ^ a b c As in ᠪᠠ ba (ба ba) 'and'.[26]: 64 [3]: 22 
  10. ^ a b c As in ᠬᠡ/ᠬᠡᠭᠡ/ᠬᠡᠭᠡᠨ ke/kege/kegen (хээ khee) 'pattern, piping, design, stamp'.[26]: 438, 442 
  11. ^ Stand-in for the correct (context-sensitive only) glyph.
  12. ^ a b As in ᠪᠢ bi (би bi) 'I'.[26]: 101 [3]: 22 
  13. ^ a b c See the  ᠬᠢ ‑ki suffix.[26]: 462 
  14. ^ As in о (оо oo) 'powder' in general; 'face powder'.[26]: 598, 625 
  15. ^ As in /ᠥᠭᠡ ö/öge (өө öö) 'fault; roughness, unevenness'.[26]: 627, 630 
  16. ^ a b c d As in the strengthening (emphatic) ᠭᠦ⟨?⟩ (хүү khüü) particle,[26]: 494 [16]: 46  or ᠬᠥ⟨?⟩/ᠬᠥᠭᠡ kö/köge (хөө khöö) 'soot; obstacle, hindrance; trouble', or 'ring of mail'.[26]: 475, 478 
  17. ^ As in ᠡᠭᠦᠦ/ egüü/ü (үү üü) 'wart; excrescence'.[26]: 303, 995 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Alternative scholarly transliterations include those of native ng (ŋ), γ (ɣ), ǰ (j), and those of galik ē (é), w (v), g (k), and k (kh).[25]
  19. ^ Interrogative uu/üü particle (subject to vowel harmony; уу/үү/юу/юү uu/üü/yuu/yuü) used after the predicate.[26]: 437, 889, 1014 [3]: 172 [16]: 38 [1]: 53 [24]: 183  The positional variant ᠶᠤᠤ yuu/yüü (юу/юү yuu/yuü) is only used in the modern language.[26]: 0437 [1]: 53 
  20. ^ As in ᠣᠣ/ᠠᠭᠤᠤ uu/aγuu (—/агуу —/aguu) 'vast, great[ly]' etc.[26]: 18, 889 
  21. ^ As in the prohibitive particle ᠪᠤᠤ (
    )
    buu/büü (бүү büü) 'don't'.[26]: 141, 153 [3]: 166 [16]: 38  Compare with the conjunction ᠪᠤᠶᠤ (
    )
    : xiii  buyu (буюу buyuu) 'or',[26]: 132 [16]: 44  and ᠬᠦᠦ küü (хүү khüü) 'son, young boy'.[26]: 509 [28]: 37 
  22. ^ As in ᠠᠢ ai (ай ai) 'category; sound, noise', or an pity/sympathy/worry-expressing interjection.[26]: 19 
  23. ^ As in ᠡᠢ ei (ий ii), an compassion/sorrow/fright/disgust-expressing interjection.[26]: 303 
  24. ^ As in ᠣᠢ oi (ой oi) 'woods, forest, grove; mind, intellect; memory',[26]: 603–604  or ᠤᠢ ui (уй ui) 'mourning, sorrow'.[26]: 866 
  25. ^ As in ᠥᠢ/ᠥᠶᠢ öi/öyi (өөе ööye), an exclamatory interjection meaning 'hello', 'I say', or 'look here',[26]: 633 [33] or ᠦᠢ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ üi (үй üi) tümen 'multitude; innumerable'.[26]: 999 
  26. ^ As in the final diphthongs u-a and uu-a.[3]: 31 
  27. ^ As in ᠨᠢ ni (нь ni), a modern form used in place of ᠠᠨᠤ anu 'their' and ᠢᠨᠤ inu 'his'.[26]: 46–47, 412, 577 [3]: 139 
  28. ^ As in ᠬᠠ/ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩ qa/qamiγ‑a (хаа khaa) 'where'.[26]: 895, 923 
  29. ^ As in /хөө.[33]
  30. ^ a b For the two looks of the particle ᠰᠢᠭ᠋⟨?⟩/ᠰᠢᠭ⟨?⟩ siγ/sig (шиг shig) 'similar to, similarly, like' etc, the choice between final γ or g is dependent on whether it occurs after a masculine or a feminine word, respectively.[26]: 699 [24]: 201 
  31. ^ As in the exclamation ᠮᠠ/ᠮᠠᠢ ma/mai (ма(й) ma(i)) 'here, take it'.[26]: 519, 522 
  32. ^ As in the intensifying ᠯᠠ / ᠡᠯᠡ la/le / ele (л l) particle, or ᠯᠠ la (лаа(н) laa(n)) 'candle'.[26]: 308, 513 
  33. ^ As in ᠰᠠ sa (саа saa) 'paralysis, palsy'.[26]: 653 
  34. ^ As in ᠱᠠ ša (шаа shaa) 'crape, netting'.[26]: 747 
  35. ^ As in ᠱᠣ šo (шоо shoo) 'dice, oracle bones'.[26]: 754 
  36. ^ a b As in the second person singular/plural pronoun ᠲᠠ ta 'you',[26]: 760 [3]: 85–86  or the intensifying ᠳᠠ da/de (даа/дээ daa/dee) particle used after the predicate.[26]: 211 
  37. ^ As in the second person singular pronoun ᠴᠢ či (чи chi) 'thou, you'.[26]: 174 [3]: 85–86 
  38. ^ a b As in the strengthening/intensifying (emphatic) and concessive ᠴᠤ ču/čü (ч ch) 'even, as for' particle,[26]: 203 [16]: 46  ᠴᠣ/ᠴᠣᠭᠤ čo/čoγu (цоо tsoo) 'through and through, completely',[26]: 193, 195  or ᠴᠦ čü (цүү tsüü) 'spike, bolt'.[26]: 209 
  39. ^ [2]: 546  As in ǰ‑a (за(а) za(a)) 'well', 'allright';[3]: 24 [35]: 345 [33] emphatic final;[16]: 46, 59  ǰ‑a particle expressing presumption, probability, or hope;[26]: 1018  doubt-expressing ǰ‑a and corroborative ǰ‑e particle.[38]
  40. ^ As in the interjection ᠵᠠ ǰa (заа zaa) 'all right, yes, very good, well!, now then'.[26]: 1018 
  41. ^ See the  ᠶᠢ⟨?⟩ ‑yi suffix.
  42. ^ As in ᠵᠣ ǰo (зоо zoo) 'vertebrae'.[26]: 1065 
  43. ^ As in ᠸᠴᠢᠷ wčir (очир ochir),[28]: 44  or ᠸᠢᠸᠠᠩᠭᠢᠷᠢᠳ wiwanggirid (вивангирид vivangirid).[3]: 12 [33]
  44. ^ As in ᠳᠠᠸᠠ dawa (даваа davaa), or ᠫᠠᠸᠯᠣᠸ⟨?⟩ pawlow.[28]: 44–45 
  45. ^ As in ᠫᠠᠸᠯᠣᠸ⟨?⟩ pawlow.[28]: 45 [33]
  46. ^ [36][13]
  47. ^ As in ᠪᠣᠳᠢᠰᠠᠳ᠋ᠸ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩ bodisadw‑a (бодисадва bodisadva).[28]: 45 [33]
  48. ^ As in ᠹᠣᠲ᠋ᠣ᠋ foto (фото foto).[28]: 48 
  49. ^ With a vertical tail is correct, but isolate ᠺᠦ᠋ renders incorrectly (without) as of Noto 1.04.
  50. ^ With a yodh/shilbe is correct, but medial ‍ᠺᠦ᠋‍ renders incorrectly (without) as of Noto 1.04.
  51. ^ With a vertical tail is correct, but final ‍ᠺᠦ᠋ renders incorrectly (without) as of Noto 1.04.
  52. ^ As in (n-dotted) ᠴᠧᠮᠧᠨ᠋ᠲ/ᠼᠧᠮᠧᠨ᠋ᠲ⟨?⟩ čēmēnt/cēmēnt (цемент tsyemyent).[28]: 49 [33]
  53. ^ As in (n-dotted) ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ᠋ᠼᠢ⟨?⟩ stanci (