Mongolian script
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ
Script type
Time period
c. 1204 – 1941 (used as main script)
1941 – Present (used as co script)
Directionvertical up-to-down, left-to-right
LanguagesMongolian language
Related scripts
Parent systems
Child systems
Manchu alphabet
Oirat alphabet (Clear script)
Buryat alphabet
Galik alphabet
Evenki alphabet
ISO 15924
ISO 15924Mong (145), ​Mongolian
Unicode alias
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and  , see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

The classical or traditional Mongolian script,[note 1] also known as the Hudum Mongol bichig,[note 2] was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most widespread until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946. It is traditionally written in vertical lines Top-Down, right across the page. Derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet, it is a true alphabet, with separate letters for consonants and vowels. It has been adapted for such languages as Oirat and Manchu. Alphabets based on this classical vertical script continue to be used in Mongolia and Inner Mongolia to write Mongolian, Xibe and, experimentally, Evenki.

Computer operating systems have been slow to adopt support for Mongolian script; almost all have incomplete support or other text rendering difficulties.


The so-called Stone of Genghis Khan or Stele of Yisüngge, with the earliest known inscription in the Mongolian script.[1]: 33 

The Mongolian vertical script developed as an adaptation of the Old Uyghur alphabet for the Mongolian language.[2]: 545  From the seventh and eighth to the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the Mongolian language separated into southern, eastern and western dialects. The principal documents from the period of the Middle Mongol language are: in the eastern dialect, the famous text The Secret History of the Mongols, monuments in the Square script, materials of the Chinese–Mongolian glossary of the fourteenth century and materials of the Mongolian language of the middle period in Chinese transcription, etc.; in the western dialect, materials of the Arab–Mongolian and Persian–Mongolian dictionaries, Mongolian texts in Arabic transcription, etc.[3]: 1–2  The main features of the period are that the vowels ï and i had lost their phonemic significance, creating the i phoneme (in the Chakhar dialect, the Standard Mongolian in Inner Mongolia, these vowels are still distinct); inter-vocal consonants γ/g, b/w had disappeared and the preliminary process of the formation of Mongolian long vowels had begun; the initial h was preserved in many words; grammatical categories were partially absent, etc. The development over this period explains why the Mongolian script looks like a vertical Arabic script (in particular the presence of the dot system).[3]: 1–2 

Eventually, minor concessions were made to the differences between the Uyghur and Mongol languages: In the 17th and 18th centuries, smoother and more angular versions of the letter tsadi became associated with [dʒ] and [tʃ] respectively, and in the 19th century, the Manchu hooked yodh was adopted for initial [j]. Zain was dropped as it was redundant for [s]. Various schools of orthography, some using diacritics, were developed to avoid ambiguity.[2]: 545 

Traditional Mongolian is written vertically from top to bottom, flowing in lines from left to right. The Old Uyghur script and its descendants, of which traditional Mongolian is one among Oirat Clear, Manchu, and Buryat are the only known vertical scripts written from left to right. This developed because the Uyghurs rotated their Sogdian-derived script, originally written right to left, 90 degrees counterclockwise to emulate Chinese writing, but without changing the relative orientation of the letters.[4][1]: 36 

The reed pen was the writing instrument of choice until the 18th century, when the brush took its place under Chinese influence.[5]: 422  Pens were also historically made of wood, bamboo, bone, bronze, or iron. Ink used was black or cinnabar red, and written with on birch bark, paper, cloths made of silk or cotton, and wooden or silver plates.[6]: 80–81 

Mongols learned their script as a syllabary, dividing the syllables into twelve different classes, based on the final phonemes of the syllables, all of which ended in vowels.[7]

The script remained in continuous use by Mongolian speakers in Inner Mongolia in the People's Republic of China. In the Mongolian People's Republic, it was largely replaced by the Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet, although the vertical script remained in limited use. In March 2020, the Mongolian government announced plans to increase the use of the traditional Mongolian script and to use both Cyrillic and Mongolian script in official documents by 2025.[8][9][10] However, due to the particularity of the traditional Mongolian script, a large part (40%[11]) of the Sinicized Mongols in China are unable to read or write this script, and in many cases the script is only used symbolically on plaques in many cities.[12][13]


The script is known by a wide variety of names. As it was derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet, the Mongol script is known as the Uighur(-)Mongol script.[note 3] From 1941 onwards, it became known as the Old Script,[note 4] in contrast to the New Script,[note 5] referring to Cyrillic. The Mongolian script is also known as the Hudum or 'not exact' script,[note 6], in comparison with the Todo 'clear, exact' script [note 7].[14]: 308 [1]: 30–32, 38–39 [15]: 640 [16]: 7 [17][18]: 206 [19]


The traditional or classical Mongolian alphabet, sometimes called Hudum 'traditional' in Oirat in contrast to the Clear script (Todo 'exact'), is the original form of the Mongolian script used to write the Mongolian language. It does not distinguish several vowels (o/u, ö/ü, final a/e) and consonants (syllable-initial t/d and k/g, sometimes ǰ/y) that were not required for Uyghur, which was the source of the Mongol (or Uyghur-Mongol) script.[4] The result is somewhat comparable to the situation of English, which must represent ten or more vowels with only five letters and uses the digraph th for two distinct sounds. Ambiguity is sometimes prevented by context, as the requirements of vowel harmony and syllable sequence usually indicate the correct sound. Moreover, as there are few words with an exactly identical spelling, actual ambiguities are rare for a reader who knows the orthography.

Letters have different forms depending on their position in a word: initial, medial, or final. In some cases, additional graphic variants are selected for visual harmony with the subsequent character.

The rules for writing below apply specifically for the Mongolian language, unless stated otherwise.

Sort orders

Vowel harmony

Mongolian vowel harmony separates the vowels of words into three groups – two mutually exclusive and one neutral:

Any Mongolian word can contain the neutral vowel i, but only vowels from either of the other two groups. The vowel qualities of visually separated vowels and suffixes must likewise harmonize with those of the preceding word stem. Such suffixes are written with front or neutral vowels when preceded by a word stem containing only neutral vowels. Any of these rules might not apply for foreign words however.[3]: 11, 35, 39 [25]: 10 [26]: 4 [22]

Separated final vowels

Two examples of the two kinds of letter separation: with the suffix ‑un ( ) and the final vowel ‑a ( )

A separated final form of vowels a or e is common, and can appear at the end of a word stem, or suffix. This form requires a final-shaped preceding letter, and an inter-word gap in between. This gap can be transliterated with a hyphen.[note 8][3]: 30, 77 [27]: 42 [1]: 38–39 [26]: 27 [28]: 534–535 

The presence or lack of a separated a or e can also indicate differences in meaning between different words (compare ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩ qar‑a 'black' with ᠬᠠᠷᠠ qara 'to look').[29]: 3 [28]: 535 

Its form could be confused with that of the identically shaped traditional dative-locative suffix ‑a/‑e exemplified further down. That form however, is more commonly found in older texts, and more commonly takes the forms of ᠲ᠋ᠤᠷ tur/tür or ᠳ᠋ᠤᠷ dur/dür instead.[25]: 15 [30][1]: 46 

Separated suffixes

1925 logo of Buryat–Mongolian newspaper in Mongolian script
1925 logo of Buryat–Mongolian newspaper:
ᠪᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ᠃
Buriyad Mongγol‑un ünen 'Buryat-Mongol truth' with the suffix  ᠤᠨ⟨?⟩ ‑un.

All case suffixes, as well as any plural suffixes consisting of one or two syllables, are likewise separated by a preceding and hyphen-transliterated gap.[note 9] A maximum of two case suffixes can be added to a stem.[3]: 30, 73 [25]: 12 [30][31][26]: 28 [28]: 534 

Such single-letter vowel suffixes appear with the final-shaped forms of a/e, i, or u/ü,[3]: 30  as in ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠠ⟨?⟩ γaǰar‑a 'to the country' and ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠡ⟨?⟩ edür‑e 'on the day',[3]: 39  or ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ⟨?⟩ ulus‑i 'the state' etc.[3]: 23  Multi-letter suffixes most often start with an initial- (consonants), medial- (vowels), or variant-shaped form. Medial-shaped u in the two-letter suffix  ᠤᠨ⟨?⟩ ‑un/‑ün is exemplified in the adjacent newspaper logo.[3]: 30 [28]: 27 

Consonant clusters

Two medial consonants are the most that can come together in original Mongolian words. There are however, a few loanwords that can begin or end with two or more.[note 10]

Compound names

In the modern language, proper names (but not words) usually forms graphic compounds (such as those of ᠬᠠᠰᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ Qas'erdeni 'Jasper-jewel' or ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠬᠣᠲᠠ Kökeqota – the city of Hohhot). These also allow components of different harmonic classes to be joined together, and where the vowels of an added suffix will harmonize with those of the latter part of the compound. Orthographic peculiarities are most often retained, as with the short and long teeth of an initial-shaped ᠥ‍‍ᠥ᠌‍ ö in ᠮᠤᠤ‍‍ᠥ᠌‍‍ᠬᠢᠨ Muu'ökin 'Bad Girl' (protective name). Medial t and d, in contrast, are not affected in this way.[3]: 30 [33]: 92 [1]: 44 [16]: 88 

Isolate citation forms

Isolate citation forms for syllables containing o, u, ö, and ü may in dictionaries appear without a final tail as in ᠪᠣ bo/bu or ᠮᠣ᠋ mo/mu, and with a vertical tail as in ᠪᠥ᠋ / or ᠮᠥ᠋ / (as well as in transcriptions of Chinese syllables).[22][1]: 39 


Native Mongolian

Further information: Mongolian script multigraphs

Native Mongolian
[3]: 17, 18 [2]: 546 
Contextual forms Transliteration[note 11] International Phonetic Alphabet
Initial Medial Final Latin Cyrillic[35][34] Khalkha[27]: 40–42  Chakhar[22][36]
ᠠ‍ ‍ᠠ‍ ‍ᠠ


a а /a/ /ɑ/
ᠡ‍ ‍ᠡ‍ ‍ᠡ


e э /ə/
ᠢ‍ ‍ᠢ‍ ‍ᠢ i и /i/ /i/ or /ɪ/
ᠣ‍ ‍ᠣ‍ ‍ᠣ o о /ɔ/
ᠤ‍ ‍ᠤ‍ ‍ᠤ u у /ʊ/
ᠥ‍ ‍ᠥ᠋‍


‍ᠥ ö ө /ɵ/ /o/
ᠦ‍ ‍ᠦ᠋‍


‍ᠦ ü ү /u/
ᠨ‍ ‍ᠨ‍




n н /n/
‍ᠩ‍ ‍ᠩ ng нг /ŋ/
ᠪ‍ ‍ᠪ‍ ‍ᠪ b б /p/ and /w/ /b/
ᠫ‍ ‍ᠫ‍ p п // /p/


‍ᠬ q


х /x/







г /ɢ/ /ɣ/
ᠮ‍ ‍ᠮ‍ ‍ᠮ m м /m/
ᠯ‍ ‍ᠯ‍ ‍ᠯ l л /ɮ/ /l/
ᠰ‍ ‍ᠰ‍ ‍ᠰ s с /s/ or /ʃ/ before i
ᠱ‍ ‍ᠱ‍ ‍ᠱ š ш /ʃ/
ᠲ‍ ‍ᠲ‍ t т /t/
ᠳ‍ ‍ᠳ‍


‍ᠳ d д /t/ and // /d/
ᠴ‍ ‍ᠴ‍ č ч /t͡ʃʰ/ and /t͡sʰ/ /t͡ʃ/
ᠵ‍ ‍ᠵ‍ ǰ ж /d͡ʒ/ and d͡z /d͡ʒ/
ᠶ‍ ‍ᠶ‍ ‍ᠶ y й /j/
ᠷ‍ ‍ᠷ‍ ‍ᠷ r р /r/

Galik characters

Main article: Galik alphabet

In 1587, the translator and scholar Ayuush Güüsh (Аюуш гүүш) created the Galik alphabet (Али-гали Ali-gali), inspired by the third Dalai Lama, Sonam Gyatso. It primarily added extra characters for transcribing Tibetan and Sanskrit terms when translating religious texts, and later also from Chinese. Some of those characters are still in use today for writing foreign names (as listed below).[37]

From left to right: Phagspa, Lantsa, Tibetan, Mongolian, Chinese and Cyrillic
Galik characters
Letters[3]: 17–18 [2]: 546  Contextual forms Transliteration[note 11][3]: 27–28  IPA
Initial Medial Final Latin Cyrillic[35][34] Sanskrit Tibetan[38]: 241–256 
ᠧ‍ ‍ᠧ‍ ‍ᠧ ē е ཨེ /e/
ᠸ‍ ‍ᠸ‍ ‍ᠸ w в /w/
ᠹ‍ ‍ᠹ‍ ‍ᠹ f ф /f/
ᠺ‍ ‍ᠺ‍ ‍ᠺ g к /k/
ᠻ‍ ‍ᠻ‍ ‍ᠻ kh к //
ᠼ‍ ‍ᠼ‍ ‍ᠼ c ц /t͡s/
ᠽ‍ ‍ᠽ‍ ‍ᠽ z з /d͡z/
ᠾ‍ ‍ᠾ‍ ‍ᠾ h х /h/
ᠿ‍ ‍ᠿ‍ ‍ᠿ ž[a] ж /ʐ/, /ɻ/[b]
ᡀ‍ ‍ᡀ‍ ‍ᡀ lh лх ལྷ /ɬ/
ᡁ‍ ‍ᡁ‍ ‍ᡁ zh[c] з /d͡ʐ/
ᡂ‍ ‍ᡂ‍ ‍ᡂ ch[d] ч /t͡ʂ/
  1. ^ used in Inner Mongolia.
  2. ^ Transcribes Chinese r /ɻ/ [ɻ ~ ʐ]; Lee & Zee (2003) and Lin (2007) transcribe these as approximants, while Duanmu (2007) transcribes these as voiced fricatives. The actual pronunciation has been acoustically measured to be more approximant-like as in Ri, and used in Inner Mongolia. Always followed by an i.[36][39]
  3. ^ used in Inner Mongolia.
  4. ^ as in Chī, used in Inner Mongolia.


Punctuation and numerals


Further information: Mongolian Supplement (Unicode block)

Example of word-breaking the name Oyirad 'Oirat', 1604 manuscript
Abbreviation exemplified with the initial syllable of the Mongolian tögrög (ᠲᠥ‍᠂)
Abbreviation exemplified with the initial syllable of the Mongolian tögrög (ᠲᠥ‍᠂)

When written between words, punctuation marks use space on both sides of them. They can also appear at the very end of a line, regardless of where the preceding word ends.[33]: 99  Red (cinnabar) ink is used in many manuscripts, to either symbolize emphasis or respect.[33]: 241  Modern punctuation incorporates Western marks: parentheses; quotation, question, and exclamation marks; including precomposed and .[28]: 535–536 

Punctuation[32]: 106, 168, 203 [3]: 28 [40]: 30 [33]: 99 [34]: 3 [28]: 535–536 [19]
Form(s) Name Function(s)
Birga[note 12] Marks start of a book, chapter, passage, or first line
'Dot'[note 13] Comma
'Double-dot'[note 14] Period / full stop
'Four-fold dot'[note 15] Marks end of a passage, paragraph, or chapter
'Dotted line'[note 16] Ellipsis
[...][note 17] Colon
'Spine, backbone'[note 18] Mongolian soft hyphen (wikt:᠆)
Mongolian non-breaking hyphen, or stem extender (wikt:᠊)


Main article: Mongolian numerals

15 on 'year of 15' on a 1925 tögrög coin, with the number written across the baseline.[41] ᠑᠕
89 (top) written vertically on a hillside, with the number written on the baseline.
Khoroo 11, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia - panoramio (10).jpg
Qančui 3, with the numeral rotated 90 degrees clockwise.[19] ᠬᠠᠨᠴᠤᠢ ᠓
Traditional Clothing Felt Coat (35670324566).jpg
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Mongolian numerals are either written from left to right, or from top to bottom.[3]: 54 [35]: 9  For typographical reasons, they are rotated 90° in modern books to fit on the line.[25]: 56 

Components and writing styles


Listed in the table below are letter components (graphemes)[note 19] commonly used across the script. Some of these are used with several letters, and others to contrast between them. As their forms and usage may differ between writing styles, however, examples of these can be found under this section below.

Common components
[32][2]: 539–540, 545–546 [35]: 4–5 [40]: 29–30, 205 [43][44]: 111, 115 [33]: 82–83, 86, 108–112 [1]: 35–36 [21]: 1 [45][46]: 20 [18]: 211–212 [47]: 10–11 [48][49][19]
Form Name(s) Use
᠊ᠡ‍ 'Tooth'[note 20] Main part of a and e (from Old Uyghur aleph), n and first part of ng (nun), q and γ (gimel-heth), m (mem), l (hooked resh), d and t (taw), etc. Historically also part of k and g (kaph), as well as r (resh).
'Tooth'[note 21]
ᠡ‍ 'Crown'[note 22] Exaggerated initial (swash) tooth. Used for the leading aleph of initial vowels (a, e, i, o, u, ö, ü, ē), and with some initial consonants (n , m, l, h = nun, mem, hooked resh, ha etc).
᠊᠊ 'Spine, backbone'[note 23] The vertical line running through words.
‍᠊ᠠ 'Tail'[note 24] The swash final of a, e, n, d, etc.
‍᠊ᠰ᠋ 'Short tail'[note 25] The swash final of q and γ, m, and s (samekh-shin and zayin).
᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩ Crook[note 26] Separated final a/e.
Crook, 'Sprinkling, dusting'[note 27] Connected lower part of final a/e; the lower part of final (kaph) g.
‍ᡳ᠌ 'Hook'[note 28] Lower part of final i (after bow-shaped b, k and g) and d.
ᠵ‍ 'Shin, stick'[note 29] A main part of i, ǰ, and y, and final part of initial ö and ü (yodh); the upper part of final (kaph) g; etc.
'Straight shin'[note 30]
'Long tooth'[note 31]
ᠶ‍ 'Shin with upturn'[note 32] Initial and medial y (yodh).
ᠸ‍ Shin with downturn[note 33] Any ē and w (bet).
ᠷ‍ Horned shin[note 34] Any r (resh). Historically also the upper part of final g and separated a/e.
ᠳ᠋‍ 'Looped shin'[note 35] Lamedh t and d. Historically with its enclosed (counter) endpoint varying in shape: open/closed, hook-shaped, pointy/round etc.
ᡁ‍ 'Hollow shin'[note 36] Letters h and zh (from the Tibetan script) .
‍ᠢ 'Bow'[note 37] Final i, oü, and r; ng, b and p (pe), k and g, etc.
‍᠊ᠣ‍ 'Belly, stomach,' loop, contour[note 38] The counter of oü (waw), b, p, initial t and d, etc.
ᠲ‍ 'Hind-gut'[note 39] Initial t and d.
[...][note 40] Initial q and γ.
‍᠊ᠮ‍ 'Braid, pigtail'[note 41] and 'Horn'[note 42] Letters m and l.
‍᠊ᠰ‍ 'Corner of the mouth'[note 43] Letters s and š (samekh-shin).
‍ᠴ‍ [...][note 44] The letter č (angular tsade).
'Fork'[note 45]
‍ᠵ‍ [...][note 46] The letter ǰ (smooth tsade).
'Tusk, fang'[note 47]
‍᠊ᠹ‍ Flaglet, tuft[note 48] The left-side diacritic of f, z, etc. Names only used for such components created for foreign words .

Writing styles

As exemplified in this section, the shapes of glyphs may vary widely between different styles of writing and choice of medium with which to produce them. The development of written Mongolian can be divided into the three periods of pre-classical (beginning – 17th century), classical (16/17th century – 20th century), and modern (20th century onward):[32][3]: 2–3, 17, 23, 25–26 [25]: 58–59 [2]: 539–540, 545–546 [35]: 62–63 [44]: 111, 113–114 [27]: 40–42, 100–101, 117 [1]: 34–37 [50]: 8–11 [18]: 211–215 

Cursive sample in (pre-classical) Middle Mongol: Uridu maqam‑un qaǰiun medekü
Cursive sample in (pre-classical) Middle Mongol: Uridu maqam‑un qaǰiun medekü

Rounded letterforms

Block‑printed Pen-written form Modern brush‑​written​ form Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. form semi-modern forms
arban 'ten'


Examples of lengthened letterforms d and n in ‑daγan (left), and their regular equivalents (right)
Block‑printed Pen-written forms Modern brush‑​written​ forms Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. forms semi-modern forms
ba 'and'


Block‑printed Pen-written forms Modern brush‑​written​ forms Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. forms semi-modern forms
sain/sayin 'good'
yeke 'great'



Block‑printed Pen-written forms Modern brush‑​written​ forms Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. forms semi-modern forms
bi 'I'
ab (intensifying particle)

Gimel-heth and kaph

Block‑printed Pen-written forms Modern brush‑​written​ forms Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. forms semi-modern forms
[...] (emphatic particle)
köke 'blue'
köge 'soot'
ǰüg 'direction'


The word čiγšabd in a Uyghur Mongolian style: exemplifying a dotted syllable-final γ, and a final bd ligature.[citation needed]

Short tail

Block‑printed Pen-written forms Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. forms semi-modern forms
es(‑)e 'not, no', (negation)
ulus 'nation'
nom 'book'
čaγ 'time'

Taw and lamedh

Block‑printed Pen-written forms Modern brush‑​written​ forms Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. forms semi-modern forms
[...] toli 'mirror'
[...] ‑daki/‑deki
[...] ‑tur/‑tür
[...] metü 'as'


Block‑printed Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. form semi-modern form
čečeg 'flower'
Block-printed semi-modern form Pen-written form Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
qačar/γaǰar 'cheek/place'


Block‑printed Pen-written form Modern brush‑​written​ form Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. form semi-modern forms
sar(‑)a 'moon/month'


Wikipedia slogan
Manuscript Type Unicode Transliteration
(first word)
ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠠᠢ᠃
ᠸᠢ‍ wi/vi
‍ᠺᠢ‍ gi/ki
‍ᠫᠧ‍ /
‍ᠳᠢ‍ di
‍ᠶ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩ y‑a or ‍ᠶᠠ ya
  • Transliteration: Wikipēdiya čilügetü nebterkei toli bičig bolai.
  • Cyrillic: Википедиа чөлөөт нэвтэрхий толь бичиг болой.
  • Transcription: Vikipedia chölööt nevterkhii toli bichig boloi.
  • Gloss: Wikipedia free omni-profound mirror scripture is.
  • Translation: Wikipedia is the free encyclopedia.



The Mongolian script was added to the Unicode standard in September 1999 with the release of version 3.0. However, several design issues have been pointed out.[51]


Main articles: Mongolian (Unicode block) and Mongolian Supplement (Unicode block)

The Unicode block for Mongolian is U+1800–U+18AF. It includes letters, digits and various punctuation marks for Hudum Mongolian, Todo Mongolian, Xibe (Manchu), Manchu proper, and Ali Gali, as well as extensions for transcribing Sanskrit and Tibetan.

Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+180x FVS
1.^ As of Unicode version 15.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

The Mongolian Supplement block (U+11660–U+1167F) was added to the Unicode Standard in June 2016 with the release of version 9.0:

Mongolian Supplement[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1166x 𑙠 𑙡 𑙢 𑙣 𑙤 𑙥 𑙦 𑙧 𑙨 𑙩 𑙪 𑙫 𑙬
1.^ As of Unicode version 15.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Keyboard layout

The Windows Mongolian traditional script keyboard layout for personal computers is as follows:[54]

Unshifted layout

FVS3 1










NNBSP = Backspace
Tab Q























Caps A



















FVS1 Enter
Shift \ Z
















. Shift
Ctrl Alt Alt Ctrl

Shifted layout

~ 1
















MVS + Backspace
Tab W










Caps H







FVS2 Enter
Shift Z








? Shift
Ctrl Alt Alt Ctrl

See also


  1. ^ In Mongolian script: ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ mongγol bičig; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол бичиг mongol bichig
  2. ^ In Mongolian script: ᠬᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ qudum mongγol bičig; Khalkha: худам монгол бичиг, khudam mongol bichig; Buryat: Худам Монгол бэшэг, Hudam Mongol bèšèg; Kalmyk: Хуудм Моңһл бичг, Huudm Mon̦ḥl bičg[citation needed]
  3. ^ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷᠵᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ uyiγurǰin mongγol bičig (уйгар/уйгаржин/уйгуржин монгол бичиг/үсэг uigar/uigarjin/uigurjin mongol bichig/üseg)
  4. ^ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ qaγučin bičig (хуучин бичиг khuuchin bichig)
  5. ^ ᠰᠢᠨᠡ/ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ sine/sin‑e bičig (шинэ үсэг shine üseg)
  6. ^ ᠬᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ qudum mongγol bičig (худам монгол бичиг khudam mongol bichig)
  7. ^ ᠲᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ/ᠦᠰᠦᠭ todo bičig/üsüg (тод бичиг/үсэг tod bichig/üseg)
  8. ^ In digital typesetting, this shaping is achieved by inserting a U+180E MONGOLIAN VOWEL SEPARATOR (MVS) between the separated letters.
  9. ^ In digital typesetting, this shaping is achieved by inserting a U+202F NARROW NO-BREAK SPACE (NNBSP) between the separated letters.
  10. ^ Examples of such include: (dotless š) gšan 'moment' (), gkir 'dirt' (), or bodisdv 'Bodhisattva' ().[3]: 15, 32 [25]: 9 [32]: 385 
  11. ^ a b Scholarly/Scientific transliteration.[34]
  12. ^ ᠪᠢᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩ birγ‑a (бярга byarga)
  13. ^ ᠴᠡᠭ čeg (цэг tseg)
  14. ^ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠷ ᠴᠡᠭ dabqur čeg (давхар цэг davkhar tseg)
  15. ^ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠭ dörbelǰin čeg (дөрвөлжин цэг dörvöljin tseg)
  16. ^ ᠴᠤᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ/ᠴᠤᠪᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩ ᠴᠡᠭ čubaγ‑a/čubuγ‑a čeg (цуваа цэг tsuvaa tseg)
  17. ^ ᠬᠣᠣᠰ ᠴᠡᠭ qoos čeg (хос цэг khos tseg)[citation needed]
  18. ^ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ niruγu (нуруу nuruu)
  19. ^ Mongolian: ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩ ǰirulγ‑a / зурлага zurlaga
  20. ^ ᠠᠴᠤᠭ ačuγ (ацаг atsag)
  21. ^ ᠰᠢᠳᠦ sidü (шүд shüd)
  22. ^ ᠲᠢᠲᠢᠮ titim (тит(и/э)м tit(i/e)m)
  23. ^ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ niruγu (нуруу nuruu)
  24. ^ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ segül (сүүл süül)
  25. ^ ᠪᠣᠭᠤᠨᠢ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ boγuni segül (богино/богонь сүүл bogino/bogoni süül)
  26. ^ ᠣᠷᠬᠢᠴᠠ orkiča (орхиц orkhits)
  27. ^ ᠴᠠᠴᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩ čačulγ‑a (цацлага tsatslaga)
  28. ^ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡ degege (дэгээ degee)
  29. ^ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢ silbi (шилбэ shilbe)
  30. ^ ᠰᠢᠯᠤᠭᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢ siluγun silbi (шулуун шилбэ shuluun shilbe)
  31. ^ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠰᠢᠳᠦ urtu sidü (урт шүд urt shüd)
  32. ^ ᠡᠭᠡᠲᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢ egeteger silbi (э(э)тгэр шилбэ e(e)tger shilbe)
  33. ^ ᠮᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢ mataγar silbi (матгар шилбэ matgar shilbe)
  34. ^ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠰᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢ örgesütei silbi (өргөстэй шилбэ örgöstei shilbe)
  35. ^ ᠭᠣᠭᠴᠤᠭᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢ γoγčuγatai silbi (гогцоотой шилбэ gogtsootoi shilbe)
  36. ^ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠪᠢ köndei silbi (хөндий шилбэ khöndii shilbe)
  37. ^ ᠨᠤᠮᠤ numu (нум num)
  38. ^ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠰᠦ gedesü (гэдэс gedes)
  39. ^ ᠠᠷᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠰᠦ⟨?⟩ aru‑yin gedesü (арын гэдэс aryn gedes)
  40. ^ [...] (ятгар зартиг yatgar zartig)
  41. ^ ᠭᠡᠵᠢᠭᠡ geǰige (гэзэг gezeg)
  42. ^ ᠡᠪᠡᠷ eber (эвэр ever)
  43. ^ ᠵᠠᠪᠠᠵᠢ ǰabaǰi (зав(и/ь)ж zavij)
  44. ^ ᠰᠡᠷᠡᠭᠡ ᠡᠪᠡᠷ serege eber (сэрээ эвэр seree ever)
  45. ^ ᠠᠴᠠ ača (ац ats)
  46. ^ [...] (жалжгар эвэр jaljgar ever)
  47. ^ ᠰᠣᠶᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ⟨?⟩ soyuγ‑a (соёо soyoo)
  48. ^ ᠵᠠᠷᠲᠢᠭ ǰartiγ (зартиг zartig Wylie: 'jar-thig)


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  23. ^ a b by Manchu convention
  24. ^ a b in Inner Mongolia.
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Keyboards Mongolian script layout online