Psalter Pahlavi
Cross of Herat - Psalter Pahlavi Inscription.png
Sample of text taken from the Cross of Herat
Script type
Time period
Mid-6th to 7th century CE
Directionright-to-left script Edit this on Wikidata
LanguagesMiddle Persian
Related scripts
Parent systems
ISO 15924
ISO 15924Phlp, 132 Edit this on Wikidata, ​Psalter Pahlavi
Unicode
Unicode alias
Psalter Pahlavi
U+10B80–U+10BAF
You may need rendering support to display the uncommon Unicode characters in this article correctly.

Psalter Pahlavi is a cursive abjad that was used for writing Middle Persian on paper; it is thus described as one of the Pahlavi scripts.[1] It was written right to left, usually with spaces between words.[1]

It takes its name from the Pahlavi Psalter, part of the Psalms translated from Syriac to Middle Persian and found in what is now western China.[2]

Letters

Letters (Isolated Form)
Name[a] Image Text IPA[3]
Aleph
U+10B80.png
𐮀 /a/, /aː/
Beth
U+10B81.png
𐮁 /b/, /w/
Gimel
U+10B82.png
𐮂 /g/, /j/
Daleth
U+10B83.png
𐮃 /d/, /j/
He
U+10B84.png
𐮄 /h/
Waw-Ayin-Resh
U+10B85.png
𐮅 /w/, /r/
Zayin
U+10B86.png
𐮆 /z/
Heth
U+10B87.png
𐮇 /h/, /x/
Yodh
U+10B88.png
𐮈 /j/, /ē̆/, /ī̆/, /d͡ʒ/
Kaph
U+10B89.png
𐮉 /k/, /g/
Lamedh
U+10B8A.png
𐮊 /l/, /r/
Mem-Qoph
U+10B8B.png
𐮋 /m/, /q/
Nun
U+10B8C.png
𐮌 /n/
Samekh
U+10B8D.png
𐮍 /s/, /h/
Pe
U+10B8E.png
𐮎 /p/, /b/, /f/
Sadhe
U+10B8F.png
𐮏 /t͡ʃ/, /d͡ʒ/, /z/
Shin
U+10B90.png
𐮐 /ʃ/
Taw
U+10B91.png
𐮑 /t/, /d/

Punctuation

Four different large section-ending punctuation marks were used:

Mark Description
Image Text
U+10B99 color.png
𐮙 Section mark
U+10B9A color.png
𐮚 Turned section mark
U+10B9B color.png
𐮛 Four dots with cross
U+10B9C color.png
𐮜 Four dots with dot

Numbers

Psalter Pahlavi had its own numerals:

Value 1 2 3 4 10 20 100
Sign Image
U+10BA9.png
U+10BAA.png
U+10BAB.png
U+10BAC.png
U+10BAD.png
U+10BAE.png
U+10BAF.png
Text 𐮩 𐮪 𐮫 𐮬 𐮭 𐮮 𐮯

Some numerals have joining behavior (with both numerals and letters).[1] Numbers are written right-to-left. Numbers without corresponding numerals are additive. For example, 96 is written as 𐮮𐮮𐮮𐮮𐮭𐮫𐮫‎ (20 + 20 + 20 + 20 + 10 + 3 + 3).[1]

Unicode block

Main article: Psalter Pahlavi (Unicode block)

Psalter Pahlavi script was added to the Unicode Standard in June, 2014 with the release of version 7.0.

The Unicode block is U+10B80–U+10BAF:

Psalter Pahlavi[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+10B8x 𐮀 𐮁 𐮂 𐮃 𐮄 𐮅 𐮆 𐮇 𐮈 𐮉 𐮊 𐮋 𐮌 𐮍 𐮎 𐮏
U+10B9x 𐮐 𐮑 𐮙 𐮚 𐮛 𐮜
U+10BAx 𐮩 𐮪 𐮫 𐮬 𐮭 𐮮 𐮯
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 14.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Notes

  1. ^ The names are based on the corresponding Imperial Aramaic characters

References

  1. ^ a b c d Everson, Michael; Pournader, Roozbeh (2011-05-06). "N4040: Proposal for encoding the Psalter Pahlavi script in the SMP of the UCS" (PDF). Working Group Document, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2.
  2. ^ Encyclopædia Iranica: Pahlavi Psalter
  3. ^ Daniels, Peter T.; Bright, William, eds. (1996). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press, Inc. pp. 518. ISBN 978-0195079937.