Old Sundanese script
ᮃᮊ᮪ᮞᮛ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ ᮊᮥᮔ
Aksara Sunda Buhun
Old sundanese script.svg


upright=1
Script type
Abugida
Time period
Circa 14th–18th centuries
Directionleft-to-right Edit this on Wikidata
LanguagesOld Sundanese language
Cirebonese language[1]
Related scripts
Parent systems
Child systems
Standard Sundanese script
Sister systems
Balinese
Batak
Baybayin scripts
Javanese
Lontara
Lampung
Makasar
Rencong
Rejang
ISO 15924
ISO 15924Sund (362), ​Sundanese
Unicode
Unicode alias
Sundanese
[a] The Semitic origin of the Brahmic scripts is not universally agreed upon.
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

Old Sundanese script (Sundanese: ᮃᮊ᮪ᮞᮛ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ ᮘᮥᮠᮥᮔ᮪, romanized: Aksara Sunda Buhun) is a script that developed in West Java in the 14th–18th centuries which was originally used to write Old Sundanese language. The Old Sundanese script is a development of the Pallava script which has reached the stage of modifying its distinctive form as used in lontar texts in the 16th century.

History

Consonant table in old Sundanese script (CRP's model), from ka to ha
Consonant table in old Sundanese script (CRP's model), from ka to ha

The use of Old Sundanese script in its earliest form is found in the inscriptions found in Astana Gede, Kawali District, Ciamis Regency, and the Kebantenan Inscription in Jatiasih District, Bekasi City.

Edi S. Ekajati revealed that the existence of the Old Sundanese script had been displaced for a long time due to the expansion of the Islamic Mataram Kingdom into the Priangan region, except for Cirebon and Banten. At that time the Sundanese conquerors made Javanese culture their role model and ideal type. As a result, Sundanese culture was displaced by Javanese culture. In fact, many Sundanese writers and cultural observers use Javanese writings and icons.

Even the VOC made a decree that the official script in the West Java area only included Latin script, Bald Arabic script (Pegon) and Javanese script (Cacarakan). This decision was made on 3 November 1705. This decision was also supported by the Cirebon rulers who issued a similar decree on 9 February 1706. Since then the Old Sundanese script has been forgotten for centuries. The Sundanese people no longer recognize the script. Even if it was still taught in schools until the end of the 1950s, it seems that it was wrong. The reason is, what was studied at that time was not the Old Sundanese script, but the Javanese script which was adopted from Mataram and was called the Cacarakan script.

Old Sundanese script is generally found in manuscripts made from palm leaves whose writing is scratched with a knife. Manuscripts written using this script include Bujangga Manik, Sewaka Darma, Carita Ratu Pakuan, Carita Parahyangan, Carita Parahyangan Fragment, and Carita Waruga Guru. Old Sundanese script is found in columns 89 – 92 in Table van Oud en Nieuw Indische Alphabetten (Holle, 1882).

During its development, Old Sundanese Script did not retain letters from Kawi script which were not used in Old Sundanese language. The letters of the Kawi Script that are extinct in the Old Sundanese Script are:

  1. Consonants; includes the letters kha, gha, cha, jha, ṭa (cerebral), ṭha (cerebral), ḍa (cerebral), ḍha (cerebral), ṇa (cerebral), tha, dha, pha, bha, ṣa (cerebral), and śa (palatal).
  2. Vowel; includes the letters ā (a long), ī (long i), ū (long u), ṝ (ṛ long), and ḹ (ḷ long). Most of the manuscripts and inscriptions do not distinguish letters and diacritical signs between the sound ӗ (e pepet) and ӧ (long e pepet), however some texts distinguish letters and diacritic marks between the sounds ӗ and ӧ.

Old Sundanese and Standard Sundanese

In the early 2000s, the people of West Java generally only recognized one type of script from the area of West Java which was known as Sundanese script. However, there are at least four types of characters bearing the name Sundanese script, namely Old Sundanese Script, Sundanese Cacarakan script, Pegon Sundanese script, and Standard/Modern Sundanese Script. Of these four types of Sundanese script, Old Sundanese script and Standard Sundanese script can be called similar but not the same. The Standard Sundanese script is a modification of the Old Sundanese script which has been adapted in such a way that it can be used to write contemporary Sundanese. These modifications include adding letters (for example, the letters va and fa), reducing letters (for example, the letters re pepet and le pepet), and changing the shape of the letters (for example, the letters na and ma).

However, there are now at least two types of Old Sundanese script models that are well documented so that they can be digitized and made into fonts. The two models are the Carita Ratu Pakuan's Model and Kawali's Model.

Carita Ratu Pakuan's (CRP) Model

CRP Sundanese script
(Aksara Sunda CRP)
ᮃᮊ᮪ᮞᮛ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ ᮎ᮪ᮛ᮪ᮕ᮪
Old sundanese script.svg
Script type
Abugida
Time period
Circa 18th centuries
Directionleft-to-right Edit this on Wikidata
LanguagesOld Sundanese language
Related scripts
Parent systems
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

This type of script is found in one of the ancient Sundanese manuscripts entitled: Carita Ratu Pakuan. It is often used as a representation for the whole Old Sundanese script.

The Carita Ratu Pakuan manuscript comes from kropak 410 at the National Library of Indonesia (PNRI) which is now in the Sri Baduga Museum Bandung. This manuscript was written by "Kai Raga".

We can read Kai Raga's profile from Ratu Pakuan (1970) by Atja and Three Enchantments of Old Sundanese (2009) composed of J. Noorduyn and A. Teeuw. Based on the two books, Kai Raga is a hermit who lives around Sutanangtung, Mount Larang Srimanganti. This mountain is the ancient name of Mount Cikuray, Garut, today.

Through Pleyte's search and interpretation of Ratu Pakuan and the Three Enchantments of Old Sundanese, Kai Raga is thought to have lived in the early 18th century. Pleyte's search and interpretation is based on comparisons of the manuscripts he wrote with the Carita Waruga Guru manuscript which shows the similarity of the characters.

Kai Raga's writings and collections were passed down to his relatives. He himself did not leave any offspring. And, when Raden Saleh in 1856 searched for ancient relics at the initiative of the Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences (BGKW), Kai Raga's legacy manuscripts were handed over to the painter.

Carita Ratu Pakuan, as noted by Atja (1970), is divided into two parts. First, regarding the hermitages of the pohaci who will incarnate the daughters of the official candidates for the wife of Ratu Pakuan or Prabu Siliwangi. Second, regarding the story of Putri Ngambetkasih as the wife of Ratu Pakuan.

Apart from the Carita Ratu Pakuan Manuscript, other manuscripts that use a similar script are usually written on manuscripts that use palm leaf media, including: Kawih Panyaraman manuscript, Pakeling manuscript etc. Apart from being written on palm leaf media, similar characters were also written on bamboo media, including: Sanghyang Jati Maha Pitutur manuscript and Carita Waruga Guru manuscript.

Below is a table image containing the letters in the Carita Ratu Pakuan's Model script:

Ngalagena or Consonants Letters

Ngalagena Letters in CRP Script.svg

Swara or Vocals Letters

Swara Letters in CRP Script.svg

Pasangan or Hangers Letters

Pasangan Letters in CRP Script.svg

Angka or Numbers Letters

Number Letters in CRP Script.svg

Khusus or Specials Letters

Special Letters in CRP Script.svg

Rarangkén or Vocalizations Letters

Rarangken Letters in CRP Script.svg

Kawali's Model

Kawali Sundanese script
(Aksara Sunda Kawali)
ᮃᮊ᮪ᮞᮛ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ ᮊᮝᮜᮤ
Kawali Sundanese script (SVG).svg
Script type
Abugida
Time period
Circa 14th centuries
Directionleft-to-right Edit this on Wikidata
LanguagesOld Sundanese language
Related scripts
Parent systems
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.
Kawali Inscription in kabuyutan area of Astana Gede, Kawali.
Kawali Inscription in kabuyutan area of Astana Gede, Kawali.

Some of the characters in the Old Sundanese script in the Kawali inscription have a slightly different form from the type of script in the ancient Sundanese manuscripts. It has been stated earlier that the Sundanese script in the Kawali inscription is the oldest type of Sundanese script ever found.[2]

As for in total, there are six inscriptions. All of these inscriptions use Old Sundanese language. Although it does not contain a candrasangkala, it is thought to be from the second half of the 14th century by the name of the king.

Based on comparisons with other historical relics such as the Carita Parahyangan manuscript and Pustaka Rajya Rajya i Bhumi Nusantara, it can be concluded that the Kawali I Inscription is a sakakala or a memorial monument to commemorate the triumph of King Niskala Wastu Kancana, the Sundanese ruler who reigned in Kawali, the son of King Linggabuana who died. in Bubat.[2]

Below is a table image containing the letters in the Kawali Model's script:

Ngalagena or Consonants Letters

Ngalagena in Kawali Script.svg

Swara or Vocals Letters

Swara Letters in Kawali Script.svg

Rarangkén or Vocalizations Letters

Rarangkén Letters in Kawali Script.svg

References

  1. ^ "Aksara Sunda Kuna". Kairaga.com. (in Indonesian). Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Font Kawali". Kairaga.com. (in Indonesian). Retrieved 24 April 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)

See also