Cursive Hebrew (Hebrew: כתב עברי רהוט ktav ivri rahut, "flowing Hebrew writing", or כתב יד עברי ktav yad 'ivri, "Hebrew handwriting", often called simply כתב ktav, "writing") is a collective designation for several styles of handwriting the Hebrew alphabet. Modern Hebrew, especially in informal use in Israel, is handwritten with the Ashkenazi cursive script that had developed in Central Europe by the 13th century.[1] This is also a mainstay of handwritten Yiddish.[2][3] It was preceded by a Sephardi cursive script, known as Solitreo, that is still used for Ladino.[4]

Contemporary forms

As with all handwriting, cursive Hebrew displays considerable individual variation. The forms in the table below are representative of those in present-day use.[5] The names appearing with the individual letters are taken from the Unicode standard and may differ from their designations in the various languages using them—see Hebrew alphabet § Pronunciation for variation in letter names. (Table is organized right-to-left reflecting Hebrew's lexicographic mode.)

Alef א Bet ב Gimel ג Daled ד He ה Vav ו Zayin ז Het ח Tet ט Yod י Kaf כ / ך
Hebrew letter Alef handwriting.svg
Hebrew letter Bet handwriting.svg
Hebrew letter Gimel handwriting.svg
Hebrew letter Daled handwriting.svg
Hebrew letter He handwriting.svg
Hebrew letter Vav handwriting.svg
Hebrew letter Zayin handwriting.svg
Hebrew letter Het handwriting.svg
Hebrew letter Tet handwriting.svg
Hebrew letter Yud handwriting.svg
Hebrew letter Kaf handwriting.svg
/
Hebrew letter Kaf-final handwriting.svg
Lamed ל Mem מ / ם Nun נ / ן Samekh ס Ayin ע Pe פ / ף Tsadi צ / ץ Qof ק Resh ר Shin ש Tav ת
Hebrew letter Lamed handwriting.svg
Hebrew letter Mem handwriting.svg
/
Hebrew letter Mem-final handwriting.svg
Hebrew letter Nun handwriting.svg
/
Hebrew letter Nun-final handwriting.svg
Hebrew letter Samekh handwriting.svg
Hebrew letter Ayin handwriting.svg
Hebrew letter Pe handwriting.svg
/
Hebrew letter Pe-final handwriting.svg
Hebrew letter Tsadik handwriting.svg
/
Hebrew letter Tsadik-final handwriting.svg
Hebrew letter Kuf handwriting.svg
Hebrew letter Resh handwriting.svg
Hebrew letter Shin handwriting.svg
Hebrew letter Taf handwriting.svg

Note: Final forms are to the left of the initial/medial forms.

Historical forms

This table shows the development of cursive Hebrew from the 7th through the 19th centuries. This is discussed in the following section, which makes reference to the columns in the table, numbered 1 through 14.

CursiveWritingHebrew.png

Figure 3: "Cursive Writing" (Jewish Encyclopedia, 1901–1906).

Column:

  1. Incantation upon Babylonian dish[6]
  2. Egyptian, 12th century.
  3. Constantinople, 1506.
  4. 10th century.
  5. Spanish, dated 1480.
  6. Spanish, 10th century.
  7. Provençal, 10th century.
  8. Italian, 10th century.
  9. Greek, dated 1375.
  10. Italian, dated 1451.
  11. Italian, 10th century.
  12. German, 10th century.
  13. Eleazer of Worms, copied at Rome in 1515 by Elias Levita[7]
  14. Ashkenazi, 19th century.

History

Figure 1: Signature of the Baal Shem Tov some time in the 1700s, written in the cursive Hebrew script.
Figure 1: Signature of the Baal Shem Tov some time in the 1700s, written in the cursive Hebrew script.

The brief inscriptions daubed in red ink upon the walls of the catacombs of Venosa are probably the oldest examples of cursive script. Still longer texts in a cursive alphabet are furnished by the clay bowls found in Babylonia and bearing exorcisms against magical influences and evil spirits. These bowls date from the 7th or 8th century, and some of the letters are written in a form that is very antiquated (Figure 3, column 1). Somewhat less of a cursive nature is the manuscript, which dates from the 8th century.[8] Columns 2–14 exhibit cursive scripts of various countries and centuries. The differences visible in the square alphabets are much more apparent. For instance, the Sephardi rounds off still more, and, as in Arabic, there is a tendency to run the lower lines to the left, whereas the Ashkenazi script appears cramped and disjointed. Instead of the little ornaments at the upper ends of the stems, in the letters

Image1Letters.jpg
a more or less weak flourish of the line appears. For the rest the cursive of the Codices remains fairly true to the square text.

Documents of a private nature were certainly written in a much more running hand, as the sample from one of the oldest Arabic letters written with Hebrew letters (possibly the 10th century) clearly shows in the papyrus, in "Führer durch die Ausstellung", Table XIX., Vienna, 1894, (compare Figure 3, column 4). However, since the preservation of such letters were not held to be of importance, material of this nature from the earlier times is very scarce, and as a consequence the development of the script is very hard to follow. The last two columns of Figure 3 exhibit the Ashkenazi cursive script of a later date. The next to the last is taken from a manuscript of Elias Levita. The accompanying specimen presents Sephardi script. In this flowing cursive alphabet the ligatures appear more often. They occur especially in letters which have a sharp turn to the left (ג, ז, כ, נ, צ, ח), and above all in נ, whose great open bow offers ample space for another letter (see Figure 2).

The following are the successive stages in the development of each letter:

Samaritan Hebrew

The Samaritans are an ethnic group descended from the Israelites and are a sister people to the Jews. Whereas the Israelites and later Hebrews suffered a number of exoduses and deportations over the course of history, Samaritans for the most part remained in Israel since ancient times. As a result, the Hebrew language of the Samaritans is written in a unique abjad from that of Hebrew; this abjad is called the Samaritan alphabet. Thanks to the Samaritans' sedentary residence in Israel, the script of Samaritan Hebrew is a direct descendant of the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, the script which the Jews abandoned in favor of the modern Ktav Ashuri script in the 4th century BCE. Samaritan Hebrew, as standard Hebrew does, has its own cursive script.

A'laf Bit Ga'man Da'lat Iy Ba Zen It Tit Yut Kaf
Samaritan cursive alep.png
Samaritan cursive bet.png
Samaritan cursive gimel.png
Samaritan cursive dalet.png
Samaritan cursive he.png
Samaritan cursive vav.png
Samaritan cursive zayin.png
Samaritan cursive het.png
Samaritan cursive tet.png
Samaritan cursive yud.png
Samaritan cursive kaf.png
La'bat Mim Nun Sin'gat In Fi Sa'diy Quf Rish Shan Taf
Samaritan cursive lamed.png
Samaritan cursive mem.png
Samaritan cursive nun.png
Samaritan cursive samek.png
Samaritan cursive ayin.png
Samaritan cursive pe.png
Samaritan cursive tsade.png
Samaritan cursive quf.png
Samaritan cursive resh.png
Samaritan cursive shin.png
Samaritan cursive tav.png

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Yardeni, Ada (2002). The Book of Hebrew Script: History, Palaeography, Script Styles, Calligraphy & Design. The British Library. p. 97. ISBN 1-58456-087-8.
  2. ^ Zucker, Sheva (1994). Yiddish: an Introduction to the Language, Literature, and Culture. Vol. 1. New York City. ISBN 1-877909-66-1.
  3. ^ Zucker, Sheva (2002). Yiddish: an Introduction to the Language, Literature, and Culture. Vol. 2. New York City. ISBN 1-877909-75-0.
  4. ^ Varol, Marie-Christine (2008). Manual of Judeo-Spanish: Language and Culture. University of Maryland Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-934309-19-3.
  5. ^ Orr-Stav, Jonathan (2006). Learn to Write the Hebrew Script: Aleph through the Looking Glass. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10841-9.
  6. ^ In Corpus Inscriptionum Hebraicarum 18.
  7. ^ German-Ashkenazi, British Museum, Additional Manuser. of 27199 (Paleographical Society, Oriental series lxxix.).
  8. ^ Hebrew Papyri: Steinschneider, Hebräische Papyrusfragmente aus dem Fayyum, in Aegyptische Zeitschrift, xvii. 93 et seq., and table vii.; C. I. H. cols. 120 et seq.; Erman and Krebs, Aus den Papyrus der Königlichen Museen, p. 290, Berlin, 1899. For the Hebrew papyri in The Collection of Erzherzog Rainer, see D. H. Müller and D. Kaufmann, in Mitteilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer, i. 38, and in Führer durch die Sammlung, etc. pp. 261 et seq.