.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{box-sizing:border-box;width:100%;padding:5px;border:none;font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .hidden-title{font-weight:bold;line-height:1.6;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .hidden-content{text-align:left}This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Hebrew. (August 2012) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Hebrew article. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 363 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Hebrew Wikipedia article at [[:he:ניקוד העברית בת ימינו]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|he|ניקוד העברית בת ימינו)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
Gen. 1:9 And God said, "Let the waters be collected".Letters in black, pointing in red, cantillation in blue[1]
Gen. 1:9 And God said, "Let the waters be collected".
Letters in black, pointing in red, cantillation in blue[1]

Hebrew orthography includes three types of diacritics:

Several diacritical systems were developed in the Early Middle Ages. The most widespread system, and the only one still used to a significant degree today, was created by the Masoretes of Tiberias in the second half of the first millennium in the Land of Israel (see Masoretic Text, Tiberian Hebrew). The Niqqud signs and cantillation marks developed by the Masoretes are small in size compared to consonants, so they could be added to the consonantal texts without retranscribing them.

Pointing (niqqud)

Main article: Niqqud

In modern Israeli orthography, vowel and consonant pointing is seldom used, except in specialised texts such as dictionaries, poetry, or texts for children or for new immigrants. Israeli Hebrew has five vowel phonemes—/i/, /e/, /a/, /o/ and /u/—but many more written symbols for them. Niqqud distinguish the following vowels and consonants; for more detail, see the main article.

Name Symbol Unicode Israeli Hebrew Keyboard input Hebrew Alternate
Names
IPA Transliteration English
Example
Letter Key
Hiriq
Hebrew Hiriq.svg
U+05B4 [i] i seek 4 חִירִיק
Tzere
Hebrew Zeire.svg
U+05B5 [] and [ei̯] e and ei men 5 צֵירֵי‎ or צֵירֶה
Segol
Hebrew Segol.svg
U+05B6 [], ([ei̯] with
succeeding yod)
e, (ei with
succeeding yod)
men 6 סֶגוֹל
Patach
Hebrew Patah.svg
U+05B7 [ä] a far 7 פַּתָּח
Kamatz
Hebrew Qamaz.svg
U+05B8 [ä], (or []) a, (or o) far 8 קָמָץ
Sin dot (left)
Hebrew Sin.svg
U+05C2 [s] s sour 9 שִׂי״ן
Shin dot (right)
0 Shin.svg
U+05C1 [ʃ] sh shop 0 שִׁי״ן
Holam Haser
Hebrew Holam.svg
U+05B9 [] o bore -
MinusKey.PNG
חוֹלָם חָסֵר
Holam Male or Vav Haluma וֹ U+05B9 חוֹלָם מָלֵא
Dagesh or Mappiq;

Shuruk or Vav Shruqa

Hebrew Equal Dagesh.svg
U+05BC N/A N/A N/A = דָּגֵשׁ‎ or מַפִּיק
Hebrew Equal Shuruk.svg
U+05BC [u] u cool שׁוּרוּק
Kubutz
Hebrew Backslash Qubuz.svg
U+05BB \ קֻבּוּץ
Below: Two vertical dots underneath the letter (called sh'va) make the vowel very short.
Shva
Tilde Schwa.svg
U+05B0 [] or [-] apostrophe, e,
or nothing
silent ~
TildeKey.PNG
שְׁוָא
Reduced Segol
Hataf Segol.svg
U+05B1 [] e men 1 חֲטַף סֶגוֹל Hataf Segol
Reduced Patach
Hataf Patah.svg
U+05B2 [ä] a far 2 חֲטַף פַּתָּח Hataf Patakh
Reduced Kamatz
Hataf Qamaz.svg
U+05B3 [] o bore 3 חֲטַף קָמָץ Hataf Kamatz

Note 1: The symbol "ס" represents whatever Hebrew letter is used.
Note 2: The letter "ש" is used since it can only be represented by that letter.
Note 3: The dagesh, mappiq, and shuruk are different, however, they look the same and are inputted in the same manner. Also, they are represented by the same Unicode character.
Note 4: The letter "ו" is used since it can only be represented by that letter.

Vowel comparison table

Vowel Comparison Table
Vowel length[1] IPA Transliteration English
example
Long Short Very short
ָ [3]
Hebrew Patah.svg
 
Hataf Patah.svg
[2] [ä] a far
וֹ [4]
Hebrew Qamaz.svg
[3][4]
Hataf Qamaz.svg
[2] [] o cold
Hebrew Equal Shuruk.svg
[5]
Hebrew Backslash Qubuz.svg
[5]   N/A [u] u you
ִ י  
Hebrew Hiriq.svg
    N/A [i] i ski
Hebrew Zeire.svg
 
Hebrew Segol.svg
 
Hataf Segol.svg
[2] [] e let

Notes:

Meteg

Main article: Meteg

Meteg is a vertical bar placed below a character next to the niqqud for various purposes, including marking vowel length and secondary stress. Its shape is identical to the cantillation mark sof pasuq.

Geresh

Main article: Geresh

Geresh is a mark, ⟨׳‎⟩ that may be used as a diacritic, as a punctuation mark for initialisms, or as a marker of Hebrew numerals. It is also used in cantillation.

As a diacritic, the geresh is combined with the following consonants:

letter value with
geresh
value English example usage
ג [ɡ] ג׳ [dʒ] age slang and loanwords
(phonologically native
sounds)
ז [z] ז׳ [ʒ] vision
צ [ts] צ׳ [tʃ] change
(non standard[2])
ו [v] ו׳[2] [w] quiet
ד [d] ד׳ [ð] there For transliteration of
sounds in foreign
languages (non-native
sounds, i.e. sounds
foreign to Hebrew
phonology
).[3]
ח [ħ] ח׳ [χ][3] loch
ס [s] ס׳ [sˤ]
ע [ʕ] ע׳ [ɣ]
ר [r] ר׳
ת [t] ת׳ [θ] think

Cantillation

Main article: Hebrew cantillation

Cantillation has a more limited use than vowel pointing, as it is only used for reciting the Tanakh, and is not found in children's books or dictionaries.

Gershayim

Main article: Gershayim

Gershayim between the penultimate and last letters ( ״‎  e.g. פזצט״א‎) marks acronyms, alphabetic numerals, names of Hebrew letters, linguistic roots and, in older texts, transcriptions of foreign words. Placed above a letter (◌֞‎  e.g. פְּרִ֞י‎) it is one of the cantillation marks.

Disputes among Protestant Christians

Protestant literalists who believe that the Hebrew text of the Old Testament is the inspired Word of God are divided on the question of whether or not the vowel points should be considered an inspired part of the Old Testament. In 1624, Louis Cappel, a French Huguenot scholar at Saumur, published a work in which he concluded that the vowel points were a later addition to the biblical text and that the vowel points were added not earlier than the fifth century AD. This assertion was hotly contested by Swiss theologian Johannes Buxtorf II in 1648. Brian Walton's 1657 polyglot bible followed Cappel in revising the vowel points. In 1675, the 2nd and 3rd canons of the so-called Helvetic Consensus of the Swiss Reformed Church confirmed Buxtorf's view as orthodox and affirmed that the vowel points were inspired.[citation needed]

Torah scrolls in Jewish synagogues do not have any diacritical marks whatsoever, only the letters themselves. It is expected of anyone reading out-loud to know the correct intonations.

See also

Notes

*^ The rafe sign (רפה‎,  ֿ ‎ ) which is used to mark fricative consonants in the YIVO orthography of Yiddish; is no longer used in modern printed Hebrew. Rafe may appear in masoretic manuscripts as well as other older texts where the soft fricative consonants and sometimes matres lectionis are indicated by this sign.

References

  1. ^ Cantillation
  2. ^ a b Vav with geresh, "ו׳‎", is non standard and its usage is therefore inconsistent: "Transliteration Rules" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-28. issued by the Academy of the Hebrew Language states that both [v] and [w] be indistinguishably represented in Hebrew using the letter Vav. To pronounce foreign words and loanwords containing the sound [w], Hebrew readers must therefore rely on former knowledge and context, see also pronunciation of Hebrew Vav.
  3. ^ a b The sound [χ] represented by ח׳is a native sound in Hebrew; the geresh is however used only to distinguish Arabic "خ" from "ح" when transcribing Arabic (in which context just ח‎—without geresh—represents "ح" / [ħ]), whereas in everyday usage ח‎ without geresh is pronounced [ħ] only dialectically but [χ] commonly.