A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph added to a letter or to a basic glyph. The term derives from the Ancient Greek διακριτικός (diakritikós, "distinguishing"), from διακρίνω (diakrī́nō, "to distinguish"). The word diacritic is a noun, though it is sometimes used in an attributive sense, whereas diacritical is only an adjective. Some diacritics, such as the acute ( ◌́ ) and grave ( ◌̀ ), are often called accents. Diacritics may appear above or below a letter or in some other position such as within the letter or between two letters.

The main use of diacritics in Latin script is to change the sound-values of the letters to which they are added. Historically, English has used the diaeresis to indicate the correct pronunciation of ambiguous words, such as "coöperate", without which the <oo> letter sequence could be misinterpreted to be pronounced /ˈkuːpəreɪt/. Other examples are the acute and grave accents, which can indicate that a vowel is to be pronounced differently than is normal in that position, for example not reduced to /ə/ or silent as in the case of the two uses of the letter e in the noun résumé (as opposed to the verb resume) and the help sometimes provided in the pronunciation of some words such as doggèd, learnèd, blessèd, and especially words pronounced differently than normal in poetry (for example movèd, breathèd).

Most other words with diacritics in English are borrowings from languages such as French to better preserve the spelling, such as the diaeresis on naïve and Noël, the acute from café, the circumflex in the word crêpe, and the cedille in façade. All these diacritics, however, are frequently omitted in writing, and English is the only major modern European language that does not use diacritics in common.[1][2]

In Latin-script alphabets in other languages, diacritics may distinguish between homonyms, such as the French ("there") versus la ("the"), which are both pronounced /la/. In Gaelic type, a dot over a consonant indicates lenition of the consonant in question.

In other alphabetic systems, diacritics may perform other functions. Vowel pointing systems, namely the Arabic harakat ( ـِ ,ـُ ,ـَ, etc.) and the Hebrew niqqud ( ַ◌, ֶ◌, ִ◌, ֹ◌, ֻ◌ etc.) systems, indicate vowels that are not conveyed by the basic alphabet. The Indic virama (  etc.) and the Arabic sukūn ( ـْـ ) mark the absence of vowels. Cantillation marks indicate prosody. Other uses include the Early Cyrillic titlo stroke ( ◌҃ ) and the Hebrew gershayim ( ״ ), which, respectively, mark abbreviations or acronyms, and Greek diacritical marks, which showed that letters of the alphabet were being used as numerals. In Vietnamese and the Hanyu Pinyin official romanization system for Chinese, diacritics are used to mark the tones of the syllables in which the marked vowels occur.

In orthography and collation, a letter modified by a diacritic may be treated either as a new, distinct letter or as a letter–diacritic combination. This varies from language to language and may vary from case to case within a language.

In some cases, letters are used as "in-line diacritics", with the same function as ancillary glyphs, in that they modify the sound of the letter preceding them, as in the case of the "h" in the English pronunciation of "sh" and "th".[3] Such letter combinations are sometimes even collated as a single distinct letter. For example, the spelling sch was traditionally often treated as a separate letter in German. Words with that spelling were listed after all other words spelled with s in card catalogs in the Vienna public libraries, for example (before digitization).

Types

Among the types of diacritic used in alphabets based on the Latin script are:

The tilde, dot, comma, titlo, apostrophe, bar, and colon are sometimes diacritical marks, but also have other uses.

Not all diacritics occur adjacent to the letter they modify. In the Wali language of Ghana, for example, an apostrophe indicates a change of vowel quality, but occurs at the beginning of the word, as in the dialects ’Bulengee and ’Dolimi. Because of vowel harmony, all vowels in a word are affected, so the scope of the diacritic is the entire word. In abugida scripts, like those used to write Hindi and Thai, diacritics indicate vowels, and may occur above, below, before, after, or around the consonant letter they modify.

The tittle (dot) on the letter i or the letter j, of the Latin alphabet originated as a diacritic to clearly distinguish i from the minims (downstrokes) of adjacent letters. It first appeared in the 11th century in the sequence ii (as in ingeníí), then spread to i adjacent to m, n, u, and finally to all lowercase is. The j, originally a variant of i, inherited the tittle. The shape of the diacritic developed from initially resembling today's acute accent to a long flourish by the 15th century. With the advent of Roman type it was reduced to the round dot we have today.[4]

Several languages of eastern Europe use diacritics on both consonants and vowels, whereas in western Europe digraphs are more often used to change consonant sounds. Most languages in Europe use diacritics on vowels, aside from English where there are typically none (with some exceptions).

Diacritics specific to non-Latin alphabets

Arabic

Further information: Arabic diacritics

Greek

Further information: Greek diacritics

These diacritics are used in addition to the acute, grave, and circumflex accents and the diaeresis:

Hebrew

Further information: Hebrew diacritics

Genesis 1:9 "And God said, Let the waters be collected".Letters in black, niqqud in red, cantillation in blue
Genesis 1:9 "And God said, Let the waters be collected".
Letters in black, niqqud in red, cantillation in blue

Korean

Hangul, the Korean alphabet
Hangul, the Korean alphabet

The diacritics and  , known as Bangjeom (방점; 傍點), were used to mark pitch accents in Hangul for Middle Korean. They were written to the left of a syllable in vertical writing and above a syllable in horizontal writing.

Sanskrit and Indic

Further information: Brahmic scripts

Devanagari script's (from Brahmic family) compound letters, which are vowels combined with consonants, have diacritics. Here क(Ka) is shown with vowel diacritics.  That is: ◌T, T ᷇◌, ◌ T᷆, ◌͜, ◌̯, ◌̜̜, ◌̙,etc.
Devanagari script's (from Brahmic family) compound letters, which are vowels combined with consonants, have diacritics. Here क(Ka) is shown with vowel diacritics. That is: ◌T, T ᷇◌, ◌ T᷆, ◌͜, ◌̯, ◌̜̜, ◌̙,etc.

Syriac

Further information: Syriac alphabet

In addition to the above vowel marks, transliteration of Syriac sometimes includes ə, or superscript e (or often nothing at all) to represent an original Aramaic schwa that became lost later on at some point in the development of Syriac.[5] Some transliteration schemes find its inclusion necessary for showing spirantization or for historical reasons.[6][7]

Non-alphabetic scripts

Some non-alphabetic scripts also employ symbols that function essentially as diacritics.

Alphabetization or collation

Main article: Collation

Different languages use different rules to put diacritic characters in alphabetical order. French and Portuguese treat letters with diacritical marks the same as the underlying letter for purposes of ordering and dictionaries.

The Scandinavian languages and the Finnish language, by contrast, treat the characters with diacritics å, ä, and ö as distinct letters of the alphabet, and sort them after z. Usually ä (a-umlaut) and ö (o-umlaut) [used in Swedish and Finnish] are sorted as equivalent to æ (ash) and ø (o-slash) [used in Danish and Norwegian]. Also, aa, when used as an alternative spelling to å, is sorted as such. Other letters modified by diacritics are treated as variants of the underlying letter, with the exception that ü is frequently sorted as y.

Languages that treat accented letters as variants of the underlying letter usually alphabetize words with such symbols immediately after similar unmarked words. For instance, in German where two words differ only by an umlaut, the word without it is sorted first in German dictionaries (e.g. schon and then schön, or fallen and then fällen). However, when names are concerned (e.g. in phone books or in author catalogues in libraries), umlauts are often treated as combinations of the vowel with a suffixed e; Austrian phone books now treat characters with umlauts as separate letters (immediately following the underlying vowel).

In Spanish, the grapheme ñ is considered a new letter different from n and collated between n and o, as it denotes a different sound from that of a plain n. But the accented vowels á, é, í, ó, ú are not separated from the unaccented vowels a, e, i, o, u, as the acute accent in Spanish only modifies stress within the word or denotes a distinction between homonyms, and does not modify the sound of a letter.

For a comprehensive list of the collating orders in various languages, see Collating sequence.

Generation with computers

keyboard
keyboard

Modern computer technology was developed mostly in English-speaking countries, so data formats, keyboard layouts, etc. were developed with a bias favoring English, a language with an alphabet without diacritical marks. Efforts have been made to create internationalized domain names that further extend the English alphabet (e.g., "pokémon.com").

Depending on the keyboard layout, which differs amongst countries, it is more or less easy to enter letters with diacritics on computers and typewriters. Some have their own keys; some are created by first pressing the key with the diacritic mark followed by the letter to place it on. Such a key is sometimes referred to as a dead key, as it produces no output of its own but modifies the output of the key pressed after it.

In modern Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems, the keyboard layouts US International and UK International feature dead keys that allow one to type Latin letters with the acute, grave, circumflex, diaeresis, tilde, and cedilla found in Western European languages (specifically, those combinations found in the ISO Latin-1 character set) directly: ¨ + e gives ë, ~ + o gives õ, etc. On Apple Macintosh computers, there are keyboard shortcuts for the most common diacritics; ⌥ Option+E followed by a vowel places an acute accent, ⌥ Option+U followed by a vowel gives an umlaut, ⌥ Option+C gives a cedilla, etc. Diacritics can be composed in most X Window System keyboard layouts, as well as other operating systems, such as Microsoft Windows, using additional software.

On computers, the availability of code pages determines whether one can use certain diacritics. Unicode solves this problem by assigning every known character its own code; if this code is known, most modern computer systems provide a method to input it. With Unicode, it is also possible to combine diacritical marks with most characters. However, as of 2019, very few fonts include the necessary support to correctly render character-plus-diacritic(s) for the Latin, Cyrillic and some other alphabets (exceptions include Andika).

Languages with letters containing diacritics

The following languages have letters that contain diacritics that are considered independent letters distinct from those without diacritics.

Latin/Roman letters

Baltic
  • Latvian has the following letters: ā, ē, ī, ū, č, ģ, ķ, ļ, ņ, š, ž
  • Lithuanian. In general usage, where letters appear with the caron (č, š and ž), they are considered as separate letters from c, s or z and collated separately; letters with the ogonek (ą, ę, į and ų), the macron (ū) and the superdot (ė) are considered as separate letters as well, but not given a unique collation order.
Celtic
  • Welsh uses the circumflex, diaeresis, acute, and grave on its seven vowels a, e, i, o, u, w, y (hence the composites â, ê, î, ô, û, ŵ, ŷ, ä, ë, ï, ö, ü, ẅ, ÿ, á, é, í, ó, ú, ẃ, ý, à, è, ì, ò, ù, ẁ, ỳ).
  • Following spelling reforms since the 1970s, Scottish Gaelic uses graves only, which can be used on any vowel (à, è, ì, ò, ù). Formerly acute accents could be used on á, ó and é, which were used to indicate a specific vowel quality. With the elimination of these accents, the new orthography relies on the reader having prior knowledge of pronunciation of a given word.
  • Manx uses the single diacritic ç combined with h to give the digraph ⟨çh⟩ (pronounced /tʃ/) to mark the distinction between it and the digraph ⟨ch⟩ (pronounced /h/ or /x/). Other diacritics used in Manx included â, ê, ï, etc. to mark the distinction between two similarly spelled words but with slightly differing pronunciation.
  • Irish uses only acute accents to mark long vowels, following the 1948 spelling reform.
  • Breton does not have a single orthography (spelling system), but uses diacritics for a number of purposes. The diaeresis is used to mark that two vowels are pronounced separately and not as a diphthong/digraph. The circumflex is used to mark long vowels, but usually only when the vowel length is not predictable by phonology. Nasalization of vowels may be marked with a tilde, or following the vowel with the letter <ñ>. The plural suffix -où is used as a unified spelling to represent a suffix with a number of pronunciations in different dialects, and to distinguish this suffix from the digraph <ou> which is pronounced as /u:/. An apostrophe is used to distinguish c'h, pronounced /x/ as the digraph <ch> is used in other Celtic languages, from the French-influenced digraph ch, pronounced /ʃ/.
Finno-Ugric
  • Estonian has a distinct letter õ, which contains a tilde. Estonian "dotted vowels" ä, ö, ü are similar to German, but these are also distinct letters, not like German umlauted letters. All four have their own place in the alphabet, between w and x. Carons in š or ž appear only in foreign proper names and loanwords. Also these are distinct letters, placed in the alphabet between s and t.
  • Finnish uses dotted (umlauted) vowels (ä and ö). As in Swedish and Estonian, these are regarded as individual letters, rather than vowel + umlaut combinations (as happens in German). It also uses the characters å, š and ž in foreign names and loanwords. In the Finnish and Swedish alphabets, å, ä and ö collate as separate letters after z, the others as variants of their base letter.
  • Hungarian uses the umlaut, the acute and double acute accent (unique to Hungarian): (ö, ü), (á, é, í, ó, ú) and (ő, ű). The acute accent indicates the long form of a vowel (in case of i/í, o/ó, u/ú) while the double acute performs the same function for ö and ü. The acute accent can also indicate a different sound (more open, like in case of a/á, e/é). Both long and short forms of the vowels are listed separately in the Hungarian alphabet, but members of the pairs a/á, e/é, i/í, o/ó, ö/ő, u/ú and ü/ű are collated in dictionaries as the same letter.
  • Livonian has the following letters: ā, ä, ǟ, , ē, ī, ļ, ņ, ō, ȯ, ȱ, õ, ȭ, ŗ, š, ț, ū, ž.
Germanic
  • Faroese uses acutes and other special letters. All are considered separate letters and have their own place in the alphabet: á, í, ó, ú, ý and ø.
  • Icelandic uses acutes and other special letters. All are considered separate letters, and have their own place in the alphabet: á, é, í, ó, ú, ý, and ö.
  • Danish and Norwegian use additional characters like the o-slash ø and the a-overring å. These letters come after z and æ in the order ø, å. Historically, the å has developed from a ligature by writing a small superscript a over a lowercase a; if an å character is unavailable, some Scandinavian languages allow the substitution of a doubled a. The Scandinavian languages collate these letters after z, but have different collation standards.
  • Swedish uses a-diaeresis (ä) and o-diaeresis (ö) in the place of ash (æ) and slashed o (ø) in addition to the a-overring (å). Historically, the diaeresis for the Swedish letters ä and ö, like the German umlaut, developed from a small Gothic e written above the letters. These letters are collated after z, in the order å, ä, ö.
Romance
Slavic
  • The Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian Latin alphabets have the symbols č, ć, đ, š and ž, which are considered separate letters and are listed as such in dictionaries and other contexts in which words are listed according to alphabetical order. They also have one digraph including a diacritic, , which is also alphabetized independently, and follows d and precedes đ in the alphabetical order. The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet has no diacritics, instead it has a grapheme (glyph) for every letter of its Latin counterpart (including Latin letters with diacritics and the digraphs dž, lj and nj).
  • The Czech alphabet uses the acute (á é í ó ú ý), caron (č ď ě ň ř š ť ž), and for one letter (ů) the ring. (Note that in ď and ť the caron is modified to look rather like an apostrophe.)
  • Polish has the following letters: ą ć ę ł ń ó ś ź ż. These are considered to be separate letters: each of them is placed in the alphabet immediately after its Latin counterpart (e.g. ą between a and b), ź and ż are placed after z in that order.
  • The Slovak alphabet uses the acute (á é í ó ú ý ĺ ŕ), caron (č ď ľ ň š ť ž dž), umlaut (ä) and circumflex accent (ô). All of those are considered separate letters and are placed directly after the original counterpart in the alphabet.[9]
  • The basic Slovenian alphabet has the symbols č, š, and ž, which are considered separate letters and are listed as such in dictionaries and other contexts in which words are listed according to alphabetical order. Letters with a caron are placed right after the letters as written without the diacritic. The letter đ may be used in non-transliterated foreign words, particularly names, and is placed after č and before d.
Turkic
  • Azerbaijani includes the distinct Turkish alphabet letters Ç, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ş and Ü.
  • Crimean Tatar includes the distinct Turkish alphabet letters Ç, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ş and Ü. Unlike Turkish, Crimean Tatar also has the letter Ñ.
  • Gagauz includes the distinct Turkish alphabet letters Ç, Ğ, I, İ, Ö and Ü. Unlike Turkish, Gagauz also has the letters Ä, Ê Ș and Ț. Ș and Ț are derived from the Romanian alphabet for the same sounds. Sometime the Turkish Ş may be used instead of Ș.
  • Turkish uses a G with a breve (Ğ), two letters with an umlaut (Ö and Ü, representing two rounded front vowels), two letters with a cedilla (Ç and Ş, representing the affricate /tʃ/ and the fricative /ʃ/), and also possesses a dotted capital İ (and a dotless lowercase ı representing a high unrounded back vowel). In Turkish each of these are separate letters, rather than versions of other letters, where dotted capital İ and lower case i are the same letter, as are dotless capital I and lowercase ı. Typographically, Ç and Ş are sometimes rendered with a subdot, as in ; when a hook is used, it tends to have more a comma shape than the usual cedilla[citation needed]. The new Azerbaijani, Crimean Tatar, and Gagauz alphabets are based on the Turkish alphabet and its same diacriticized letters, with some additions.
  • Turkmen includes the distinct Turkish alphabet letters Ç, Ö, Ş and Ü. In addition, Turkmen uses A with diaeresis (Ä) to represent /æ/, N with caron (Ň) to represent the velar nasal /ŋ/, Y with acute (Ý) to represent the palatal approximant /j/, and Z with caron (Ž) to represent /ʒ/.
Other
  • Albanian has two special letters Ç and Ë upper and lowercase. They are placed next to the most similar letters in the alphabet, c and e correspondingly.
  • Esperanto has the symbols ŭ, ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ and ŝ, which are included in the alphabet, and considered separate letters.
  • Filipino also has the character ñ as a letter and is collated between n and o.
  • Hawaiian uses the kahakō (macron) over vowels, although there is some disagreement over considering them as individual letters. The kahakō over a vowel can completely change the meaning of a word that is spelled the same but without the kahakō.
  • Kurdish uses the symbols Ç, Ê, Î, Ş and Û with other 26 standard Latin alphabet symbols.
  • Lakota alphabet uses the caron for the letters č, ȟ, ǧ, š, and ž. It also uses the acute accent for stressed vowels á, é, í, ó, ú, áŋ, íŋ, úŋ.
  • Malay uses some diacritics such as á, ā, ç, í, ñ, ó, š, ú. Uses of diacritics was continued until late 19th century except ā and ē.
  • Maltese uses a C, G, and Z with a dot over them (Ċ, Ġ, Ż), and also has an H with an extra horizontal bar. For uppercase H, the extra bar is written slightly above the usual bar. For lowercase H, the extra bar is written crossing the vertical, like a t, and not touching the lower part (Ħ, ħ). The above characters are considered separate letters. The letter 'c' without a dot has fallen out of use due to redundancy. 'Ċ' is pronounced like the English 'ch' and 'k' is used as a hard c as in 'cat'. 'Ż' is pronounced just like the English 'Z' as in 'Zebra', while 'Z' is used to make the sound of 'ts' in English (like 'tsunami' or 'maths'). 'Ġ' is used as a soft 'G' like in 'geometry', while the 'G' sounds like a hard 'G' like in 'log'. The digraph 'għ' (called għajn after the Arabic letter name ʻayn for غ) is considered separate, and sometimes ordered after 'g', whilst in other volumes it is placed between 'n' and 'o' (the Latin letter 'o' originally evolved from the shape of Phoenician ʻayin, which was traditionally collated after Phoenician nūn).
  • The romanization of Syriac uses the altered letters of. Ā, Č, , Ē, Ë, Ġ, , Ō, Š, , , Ū, Ž alongside the 26 standard Latin alphabet symbols.[10]
  • Vietnamese uses the horn diacritic for the letters ơ and ư; the circumflex for the letters â, ê, and ô; the breve for the letter ă; and a bar through the letter đ. Separately, it also has á, à, ả, ã and ạ, the five tones used for vowels besides the flat tone 'a'.

Cyrillic letters

  • Belarusian and Uzbek Cyrillic have a letter ў.
  • Belarusian, Bulgarian, Russian and Ukrainian have the letter й.
  • Belarusian and Russian have the letter ё. In Russian, this letter is usually replaced by е, although it has a different pronunciation. The use of е instead of ё does not affect the pronunciation. Ё is always used in children's books and in dictionaries. A minimal pair is все (vs'e, "everybody" pl.) and всё (vs'o, "everything" n. sg.). In Belarusian the replacement by е is a mistake; in Russian, it is permissible to use either е or ё for ё but the former is more common in everyday writing (as opposed to instructional or juvenile writing).
  • The Cyrillic Ukrainian alphabet has the letters ґ, й and ї. Ukrainian Latynka has many more.
  • Macedonian has the letters ќ and ѓ.
  • In Bulgarian and Macedonian the possessive pronoun ѝ (ì, "her") is spelled with a grave accent in order to distinguish it from the conjunction и (i, "and").
  • The acute accent " ́" above any vowel in Cyrillic alphabets is used in dictionaries, books for children and foreign learners to indicate the word stress, it also can be used for disambiguation of similarly spelled words with different lexical stresses.

Diacritics that do not produce new letters

Blackboard used in class at Harvard shows students' efforts at placing the ü and acute accent diacritic used in Spanish orthography.
Blackboard used in class at Harvard shows students' efforts at placing the ü and acute accent diacritic used in Spanish orthography.

English

Main article: English terms with diacritical marks

English is one of the few European languages that does not have many words that contain diacritical marks. Instead, digraphs are the main way the Modern English alphabet adapts the Latin to its phonemes. Exceptions are unassimilated foreign loanwords, including borrowings from French (and, increasingly, Spanish, like jalapeño and piñata); however, the diacritic is also sometimes omitted from such words. Loanwords that frequently appear with the diacritic in English include café, résumé or resumé (a usage that helps distinguish it from the verb resume), soufflé, and naïveté (see English terms with diacritical marks). In older practice (and even among some orthographically-conservative modern writers), one may see examples such as élite, mêlée and rôle.

English speakers and writers once used the diaeresis more often than now in words such as coöperation (from Fr. coopération), zoölogy (from Grk. zoologia), and seeër (now more commonly see-er or simply seer) as a way of indicating that adjacent vowels belonged to separate syllables, but this practice has become far less common. The New Yorker magazine is a major publication that continues to use the diaeresis in place of a hyphen for clarity and economy of space.[11]

A few English words, out of context, can only be distinguished from others by a diacritic or modified letter, including exposé, lamé, maté, öre, øre, pâté, and rosé. The same is true of résumé, alternatively resumé, but, nevertheless, it is regularly spelled resume. In a few words, diacritics that did not exist in the original have been added for disambiguation, as in maté (from Sp. and Port. mate), saké (the standard Romanization of the Japanese has no accent mark), and Malé (from Dhivehi މާލެ), to clearly distinguish them from the English words mate, sake, and male.

The acute and grave accents are occasionally used in poetry and lyrics: the acute to indicate stress overtly where it might be ambiguous (rébel vs. rebél) or nonstandard for metrical reasons (caléndar), the grave to indicate that an ordinarily silent or elided syllable is pronounced (warnèd, parlìament).

In certain personal names such as Renée and Zoë, often two spellings exist, and the preference will be known only to those close to the person themselves. Even when the name of a person is spelled with a diacritic, like Charlotte Brontë, this may be dropped in English-language articles, and even in official documents such as passports, due either to carelessness, the typist not knowing how to enter letters with diacritical marks, or technical reasons (California, for example, does not allow names with diacritics, as the computer system cannot process such characters). They also appear in some worldwide company names and/or trademarks, such as Nestlé or Citroën.

Other languages

The following languages have letter-diacritic combinations that are not considered independent letters.

Transliteration

Several languages that are not written with the Roman alphabet are transliterated, or romanized, using diacritics. Examples:

Limits

Orthographic

ཧྐྵྨླྺྼྻྂ

Possibly the greatest number of combining diacritics required to compose a valid character in any Unicode language is 8, for the "well-known grapheme cluster in Tibetan and Ranjana scripts" or HAKṢHMALAWARAYAṀ.[13]

It is U+0F67 TIBETAN LETTER HA, combined with TIBETAN LETTER HA + TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER KA + TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER SSA + TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER MA + TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER LA + TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER FIXED-FORM WA + TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER FIXED-FORM RA + TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER FIXED-FORM YA + TIBETAN SIGN NYI ZLA NAA DA (U+0F67 with U+0F90 U+0FB5 U+0FA8 U+0FB3 U+0FBA U+0FBC U+0FBB U+0F82).

Unorthographic/ornamental

c̳̻͚̻̩̻͉̯̄̏͑̋͆̎͐ͬ͑͌́͢h̵͔͈͍͇̪̯͇̞͖͇̜͉̪̪̤̙ͧͣ̓̐̓ͤ͋͒ͥ͑̆͒̓͋̑́͞ǎ̡̮̤̤̬͚̝͙̞͎̇ͧ͆͊ͅo̴̲̺͓̖͖͉̜̟̗̮̳͉̻͉̫̯̫̍̋̿̒͌̃̂͊̏̈̏̿ͧ́ͬ̌ͥ̇̓̀͢͜s̵̵̘̹̜̝̘̺̙̻̠̱͚̤͓͚̠͙̝͕͆̿̽ͥ̃͠͡

Some users have explored the limits of rendering in web browsers and other software by "decorating" words with multiple nonsensical diacritics per character. The result is called "Zalgo text". The composed bogus characters and words can be copied and pasted normally via the system clipboard.

List of diacritics in Unicode

Diacritics for Latin script in Unicode:

Character Character Name
Unicode code point
Mark General Category Script
◌̀
  • COMBINING GRAVE ACCENT
  • U+0300
Grave Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌́
  • COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT
  • U+0301
Acute Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̂
  • COMBINING CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT
  • U+0302
Circumflex Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̃
  • COMBINING TILDE
  • U+0303
Tilde Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̄
  • COMBINING MACRON
  • U+0304
Macron Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̅
  • COMBINING OVERLINE
  • U+0305
Overline Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̆
  • COMBINING BREVE
  • U+0306
Breve Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̇
  • COMBINING DOT ABOVE
  • U+0307
Dot Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̈
  • COMBINING DIAERESIS
  • U+0308
Diaeresis Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̉
  • COMBINING HOOK ABOVE
  • U+0309
Hook Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̊
  • COMBINING RING ABOVE
  • U+030A
Ring Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̋
  • COMBINING DOUBLE ACUTE ACCENT
  • U+030B
Double acute Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̌
  • COMBINING CARON
  • U+030C
Caron Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̍
  • COMBINING VERTICAL LINE ABOVE
  • U+030D
Vertical line Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̎
  • COMBINING DOUBLE VERTICAL LINE ABOVE
  • U+030E
Double vertical line Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̏
  • COMBINING DOUBLE GRAVE ACCENT
  • U+030F
Double grave Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̐
  • COMBINING CANDRABINDU
  • U+0310
Candrabindu Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̑
  • COMBINING INVERTED BREVE
  • U+0311
Inverted breve Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̒
  • COMBINING TURNED COMMA ABOVE
  • U+0312
Turned comma Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̓
  • COMBINING COMMA ABOVE
  • U+0313
Comma Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̔
  • COMBINING REVERSED COMMA ABOVE
  • U+0314
Reversed comma Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̕
  • COMBINING COMMA ABOVE RIGHT
  • U+0315
Comma right Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̖
  • COMBINING GRAVE ACCENT BELOW
  • U+0316
Grave Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̗
  • COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT BELOW
  • U+0317
Acute Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̘
  • COMBINING LEFT TACK BELOW
  • U+0318
Left tack Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̙
  • COMBINING RIGHT TACK BELOW
  • U+0319
Right tack Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̚
  • COMBINING LEFT ANGLE ABOVE
  • U+031A
Left angle Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̛
  • COMBINING HORN
  • U+031B
Horn Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̜
  • COMBINING LEFT HALF RING BELOW
  • U+031C
Left half ring Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̝
  • COMBINING UP TACK BELOW
  • U+031D
Up tack Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̞
  • COMBINING DOWN TACK BELOW
  • U+031E
Down tack Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̟
  • COMBINING PLUS SIGN BELOW
  • U+031F
Plus sign Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̠
  • COMBINING MINUS SIGN BELOW
  • U+0320
Minus sign Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̡
  • COMBINING PALATALIZED HOOK BELOW
  • U+0321
Palatalized hook Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̢
  • COMBINING RETROFLEX HOOK BELOW
  • U+0322
Retroflex hook Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̣
  • COMBINING DOT BELOW
  • U+0323
Dot Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̤
  • COMBINING DIAERESIS BELOW
  • U+0324
Diaeresis Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̥
  • COMBINING RING BELOW
  • U+0325
Ring Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̦
  • COMBINING COMMA BELOW
  • U+0326
Comma Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̧
  • COMBINING CEDILLA
  • U+0327
Cedilla Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̨
  • COMBINING OGONEK
  • U+0328
Ogonek Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̩
  • COMBINING VERTICAL LINE BELOW
  • U+0329
Vertical line Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̪
  • COMBINING BRIDGE BELOW
  • U+032A
Bridge Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̫
  • COMBINING INVERTED DOUBLE ARCH BELOW
  • U+032B
Double arch Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̬
  • COMBINING CARON BELOW
  • U+032C
Caron Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̭
  • COMBINING CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT BELOW
  • U+032D
Circumflex Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̮
  • COMBINING BREVE BELOW
  • U+032E
Breve Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̯
  • COMBINING INVERTED BREVE BELOW
  • U+032F
Inverted breve Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̰
  • COMBINING TILDE BELOW
  • U+0330
Tilde Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̱
  • COMBINING MACRON BELOW
  • U+0331
Macron Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̲
  • COMBINING LOW LINE
  • U+0332
Low line Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̳
  • COMBINING DOUBLE LOW LINE
  • U+0333
Double low line Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̴
  • COMBINING TILDE OVERLAY
  • U+0334
Tilde overlay Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̵
  • COMBINING SHORT STROKE OVERLAY
  • U+0335
Short stroke overlay Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̶
  • COMBINING LONG STROKE OVERLAY
  • U+0336
Long stroke overlay Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̷
  • COMBINING SHORT SOLIDUS OVERLAY
  • U+0337
Short solidus overlay Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̸
  • COMBINING LONG SOLIDUS OVERLAY
  • U+0338
Long solidus overlay Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̹
  • COMBINING RIGHT HALF RING BELOW
  • U+0339
Right half ring Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̺
  • COMBINING INVERTED BRIDGE BELOW
  • U+033A
Inverted bridge Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̻
  • COMBINING SQUARE BELOW
  • U+033B
Square Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̼
  • COMBINING SEAGULL BELOW
  • U+033C
Seagull Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̽
  • COMBINING X ABOVE
  • U+033D
X Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̾
  • COMBINING VERTICAL TILDE
  • U+033E
Vertical tilde Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̿
  • COMBINING DOUBLE OVERLINE
  • U+033F
Double overline Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌̀
  • COMBINING GRAVE TONE MARK
  • U+0340
Grave tone Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌́
  • COMBINING ACUTE TONE MARK
  • U+0341
Acute tone Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͆
  • COMBINING BRIDGE ABOVE
  • U+0346
Bridge Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͇
  • COMBINING EQUALS SIGN BELOW
  • U+0347
Equals sign Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͈
  • COMBINING DOUBLE VERTICAL LINE BELOW
  • U+0348
Double vertical line Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͉
  • COMBINING LEFT ANGLE BELOW
  • U+0349
Left angle Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͊
  • COMBINING NOT TILDE ABOVE
  • U+034A
Not tilde Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͋
  • COMBINING HOMOTHETIC ABOVE
  • U+034B
Homothetic Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͌
  • COMBINING ALMOST EQUAL TO ABOVE
  • U+034C
Almost equal to Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͍
  • COMBINING LEFT RIGHT ARROW BELOW
  • U+034D
Left right arrow Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͎
  • COMBINING UPWARDS ARROW BELOW
  • U+034E
Upwards arrow Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͐
  • COMBINING RIGHT ARROWHEAD ABOVE
  • U+0350
Right arrowhead Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͑
  • COMBINING LEFT HALF RING ABOVE
  • U+0351
Left half ring Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͒
  • COMBINING FERMATA
  • U+0352
Fermata Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͓
  • COMBINING X BELOW
  • U+0353
X Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͔
  • COMBINING LEFT ARROWHEAD BELOW
  • U+0354
Left arrowhead Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͕
  • COMBINING RIGHT ARROWHEAD BELOW
  • U+0355
Right arrowhead Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͖
  • COMBINING RIGHT ARROWHEAD AND UP ARROWHEAD BELOW
  • U+0356
Right arrowhead and up arrowhead Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͗
  • COMBINING RIGHT HALF RING ABOVE
  • U+0357
Right half ring Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͘
  • COMBINING DOT ABOVE RIGHT
  • U+0358
Dot right Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͙
  • COMBINING ASTERISK BELOW
  • U+0359
Asterisk Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͚
  • COMBINING DOUBLE RING BELOW
  • U+035A
Double ring Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͛
  • COMBINING ZIGZAG ABOVE
  • U+035B
Zigzag Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͜◌
  • COMBINING DOUBLE BREVE BELOW
  • U+035C
Double breve Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͝◌
  • COMBINING DOUBLE BREVE
  • U+035D
Double breve Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͞◌
  • COMBINING DOUBLE MACRON
  • U+035E
Double macron Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͟◌
  • COMBINING DOUBLE MACRON BELOW
  • U+035F
Double macron Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͠◌
  • COMBINING DOUBLE TILDE
  • U+0360
Double tilde Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͡◌
  • COMBINING DOUBLE INVERTED BREVE
  • U+0361
Double inverted breve Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌͢◌
  • COMBINING DOUBLE RIGHTWARDS ARROW BELOW
  • U+0362
Double rightwards arrow Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ͣ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER A
  • U+0363
Latin small letter a Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ͤ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER E
  • U+0364
Latin small letter e Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ͥ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER I
  • U+0365
Latin small letter i Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ͦ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER O
  • U+0366
Latin small letter o Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ͧ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER U
  • U+0367
Latin small letter u Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ͨ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER C
  • U+0368
Latin small letter c Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ͩ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER D
  • U+0369
Latin small letter d Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ͪ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER H
  • U+036A
Latin small letter h Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ͫ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER M
  • U+036B
Latin small letter m Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ͬ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER R
  • U+036C
Latin small letter r Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ͭ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER T
  • U+036D
Latin small letter t Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ͮ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER V
  • U+036E
Latin small letter v Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ͯ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER X
  • U+036F
Latin small letter x Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᪰
  • COMBINING DOUBLED CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT
  • U+1AB0
Doubled circumflex Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᪱
  • COMBINING DIAERESIS-RING
  • U+1AB1
Diaeresis-ring Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᪲
  • COMBINING INFINITY
  • U+1AB2
Infinity Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᪳
  • COMBINING DOWNWARDS ARROW
  • U+1AB3
Downwards arrow Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᪴
  • COMBINING TRIPLE DOT
  • U+1AB4
Triple dot Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᪵
  • COMBINING X-X BELOW
  • U+1AB5
X-x Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᪶
  • COMBINING WIGGLY LINE BELOW
  • U+1AB6
Wiggly line Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᪷
  • COMBINING OPEN MARK BELOW
  • U+1AB7
Open mark Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᪸
  • COMBINING DOUBLE OPEN MARK BELOW
  • U+1AB8
Double open mark Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᪹
  • COMBINING LIGHT CENTRALIZATION STROKE BELOW
  • U+1AB9
Light centralization stroke Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᪺
  • COMBINING STRONG CENTRALIZATION STROKE BELOW
  • U+1ABA
Strong centralization stroke Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᪻
  • COMBINING PARENTHESES ABOVE
  • U+1ABB
Parentheses Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᪼
  • COMBINING DOUBLE PARENTHESES ABOVE
  • U+1ABC
Double parentheses Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᪽
  • COMBINING PARENTHESES BELOW
  • U+1ABD
Parentheses Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᪿ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER W BELOW
  • U+1ABF
Latin small letter w Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᫀ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED W BELOW
  • U+1AC0
Latin small letter turned w Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷀
  • COMBINING DOTTED GRAVE ACCENT
  • U+1DC0
Dotted grave Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷁
  • COMBINING DOTTED ACUTE ACCENT
  • U+1DC1
Dotted acute Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷂
  • COMBINING SNAKE BELOW
  • U+1DC2
Snake Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷃
  • COMBINING SUSPENSION MARK
  • U+1DC3
Suspension mark Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷄
  • COMBINING MACRON-ACUTE
  • U+1DC4
Macron-acute Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷅
  • COMBINING GRAVE-MACRON
  • U+1DC5
Grave-macron Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷆
  • COMBINING MACRON-GRAVE
  • U+1DC6
Macron-grave Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷇
  • COMBINING ACUTE-MACRON
  • U+1DC7
Acute-macron Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷈
  • COMBINING GRAVE-ACUTE-GRAVE
  • U+1DC8
Grave-acute-grave Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷉
  • COMBINING ACUTE-GRAVE-ACUTE
  • U+1DC9
Acute-grave-acute Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷊
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER R BELOW
  • U+1DCA
Latin small letter r Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷋
  • COMBINING BREVE-MACRON
  • U+1DCB
Breve-macron Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷌
  • COMBINING MACRON-BREVE
  • U+1DCC
Macron-breve Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷍◌
  • COMBINING DOUBLE CIRCUMFLEX ABOVE
  • U+1DCD
Double circumflex Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷎
  • COMBINING OGONEK ABOVE
  • U+1DCE
Ogonek Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷏
  • COMBINING ZIGZAG BELOW
  • U+1DCF
Zigzag Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷐
  • COMBINING IS BELOW
  • U+1DD0
Is Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷑
  • COMBINING UR ABOVE
  • U+1DD1
Ur Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷒
  • COMBINING US ABOVE
  • U+1DD2
Us Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷓ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER FLATTENED OPEN A ABOVE
  • U+1DD3
Latin small letter flattened open a Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷔ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER AE
  • U+1DD4
Latin small letter ae Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷕ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER AO
  • U+1DD5
Latin small letter ao Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷖ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER AV
  • U+1DD6
Latin small letter av Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷗ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER C CEDILLA
  • U+1DD7
Latin small letter c cedilla Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷘ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER INSULAR D
  • U+1DD8
Latin small letter insular d Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷙ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER ETH
  • U+1DD9
Latin small letter eth Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷚ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER G
  • U+1DDA
Latin small letter g Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷛ
  • COMBINING LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL G
  • U+1DDB
Latin letter small capital g Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷜ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER K
  • U+1DDC
Latin small letter k Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷝ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER L
  • U+1DDD
Latin small letter l Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷞ
  • COMBINING LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL L
  • U+1DDE
Latin letter small capital l Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷟ
  • COMBINING LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL M
  • U+1DDF
Latin letter small capital m Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷠ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER N
  • U+1DE0
Latin small letter n Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷡ
  • COMBINING LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL N
  • U+1DE1
Latin letter small capital n Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷢ
  • COMBINING LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL R
  • U+1DE2
Latin letter small capital r Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷣ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER R ROTUNDA
  • U+1DE3
Latin small letter r rotunda Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷤ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER S
  • U+1DE4
Latin small letter s Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷥ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER LONG S
  • U+1DE5
Latin small letter long s Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷦ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER Z
  • U+1DE6
Latin small letter z Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷧ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER ALPHA
  • U+1DE7
Latin small letter alpha Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷨ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER B
  • U+1DE8
Latin small letter b Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷩ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER BETA
  • U+1DE9
Latin small letter beta Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷪ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER SCHWA
  • U+1DEA
Latin small letter schwa Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷫ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER F
  • U+1DEB
Latin small letter f Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷬ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER L WITH DOUBLE MIDDLE TILDE
  • U+1DEC
Latin small letter l with double middle tilde Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷭ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH LIGHT CENTRALIZATION STROKE
  • U+1DED
Latin small letter o with light centralization stroke Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷮ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER P
  • U+1DEE
Latin small letter p Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷯ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER ESH
  • U+1DEF
Latin small letter esh Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷰ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH LIGHT CENTRALIZATION STROKE
  • U+1DF0
Latin small letter u with light centralization stroke Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷱ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER W
  • U+1DF1
Latin small letter w Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷲ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH DIAERESIS
  • U+1DF2
Latin small letter a with diaeresis Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷳ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER O WITH DIAERESIS
  • U+1DF3
Latin small letter o with diaeresis Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌ᷴ
  • COMBINING LATIN SMALL LETTER U WITH DIAERESIS
  • U+1DF4
Latin small letter u with diaeresis Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷵
  • COMBINING UP TACK ABOVE
  • U+1DF5
Up tack Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷸
  • COMBINING DOT ABOVE LEFT
  • U+1DF8
Dot left Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷹
  • COMBINING WIDE INVERTED BRIDGE BELOW
  • U+1DF9
Wide inverted bridge Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷻
  • COMBINING DELETION MARK
  • U+1DFB
Deletion mark Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷼◌
  • COMBINING DOUBLE INVERTED BREVE BELOW
  • U+1DFC
Double inverted breve Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷽
  • COMBINING ALMOST EQUAL TO BELOW
  • U+1DFD
Almost equal to Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷾
  • COMBINING LEFT ARROWHEAD ABOVE
  • U+1DFE
Left arrowhead Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌᷿
  • COMBINING RIGHT ARROWHEAD AND DOWN ARROWHEAD BELOW
  • U+1DFF
Right arrowhead and down arrowhead Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃐◌
  • COMBINING LEFT HARPOON ABOVE
  • U+20D0
Left harpoon Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃑◌
  • COMBINING RIGHT HARPOON ABOVE
  • U+20D1
Right harpoon Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃒
  • COMBINING LONG VERTICAL LINE OVERLAY
  • U+20D2
Long vertical line overlay Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃓
  • COMBINING SHORT VERTICAL LINE OVERLAY
  • U+20D3
Short vertical line overlay Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃔◌
  • COMBINING ANTICLOCKWISE ARROW ABOVE
  • U+20D4
Anticlockwise arrow Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃕◌
  • COMBINING CLOCKWISE ARROW ABOVE
  • U+20D5
Clockwise arrow Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃖◌
  • COMBINING LEFT ARROW ABOVE
  • U+20D6
Left arrow Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃗◌
  • COMBINING RIGHT ARROW ABOVE
  • U+20D7
Right arrow Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃘
  • COMBINING RING OVERLAY
  • U+20D8
Ring overlay Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃙
  • COMBINING CLOCKWISE RING OVERLAY
  • U+20D9
Clockwise ring overlay Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃚
  • COMBINING ANTICLOCKWISE RING OVERLAY
  • U+20DA
Anticlockwise ring overlay Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃛◌
  • COMBINING THREE DOTS ABOVE
  • U+20DB
Three dots Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃜◌
  • COMBINING FOUR DOTS ABOVE
  • U+20DC
Four dots Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃡◌
  • COMBINING LEFT RIGHT ARROW ABOVE
  • U+20E1
Left right arrow Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃥
  • COMBINING REVERSE SOLIDUS OVERLAY
  • U+20E5
Reverse solidus overlay Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃦
  • COMBINING DOUBLE VERTICAL STROKE OVERLAY
  • U+20E6
Double vertical stroke overlay Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃧
  • COMBINING ANNUITY SYMBOL
  • U+20E7
Annuity symbol Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃨
  • COMBINING TRIPLE UNDERDOT
  • U+20E8
Triple underdot Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃩◌
  • COMBINING WIDE BRIDGE ABOVE
  • U+20E9
Wide bridge Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃪
  • COMBINING LEFTWARDS ARROW OVERLAY
  • U+20EA
Leftwards arrow overlay Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃫
  • COMBINING LONG DOUBLE SOLIDUS OVERLAY
  • U+20EB
Long double solidus overlay Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃬
  • COMBINING RIGHTWARDS HARPOON WITH BARB DOWNWARDS
  • U+20EC
Rightwards harpoon with barb downwards Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃭
  • COMBINING LEFTWARDS HARPOON WITH BARB DOWNWARDS
  • U+20ED
Leftwards harpoon with barb downwards Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃮
  • COMBINING LEFT ARROW BELOW
  • U+20EE
Left arrow Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃯
  • COMBINING RIGHT ARROW BELOW
  • U+20EF
Right arrow Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌⃰◌
  • COMBINING ASTERISK ABOVE
  • U+20F0
Asterisk Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌︠
  • COMBINING LIGATURE LEFT HALF
  • U+FE20
Ligature left half Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌︡
  • COMBINING LIGATURE RIGHT HALF
  • U+FE21
Ligature right half Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌︢
  • COMBINING DOUBLE TILDE LEFT HALF
  • U+FE22
Double tilde left half Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌︣
  • COMBINING DOUBLE TILDE RIGHT HALF
  • U+FE23
Double tilde right half Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌︤
  • COMBINING MACRON LEFT HALF
  • U+FE24
Macron left half Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌︥
  • COMBINING MACRON RIGHT HALF
  • U+FE25
Macron right half Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌︦◌
  • COMBINING CONJOINING MACRON
  • U+FE26
Conjoining macron Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌︧
  • COMBINING LIGATURE LEFT HALF BELOW
  • U+FE27
Ligature left half Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌︨
  • COMBINING LIGATURE RIGHT HALF BELOW
  • U+FE28
Ligature right half Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌︩
  • COMBINING TILDE LEFT HALF BELOW
  • U+FE29
Tilde left half Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌︪
  • COMBINING TILDE RIGHT HALF BELOW
  • U+FE2A
Tilde right half Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌︫
  • COMBINING MACRON LEFT HALF BELOW
  • U+FE2B
Macron left half Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌︬
  • COMBINING MACRON RIGHT HALF BELOW
  • U+FE2C
Macron right half Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited
◌︭
  • COMBINING CONJOINING MACRON BELOW
  • U+FE2D
Conjoining macron Mn: Mark, nonspacing Inherited

See also

References

  1. ^ As an example, an article containing a diaeresis in "" and a as well as a (Grafton, Anthony (2006-10-23). "Books: The Nutty Professors, The history of academic charisma". The New Yorker.)
  2. ^ "The New Yorker's odd mark — the diaeresis". 16 December 2010. Archived from the original on 16 December 2010.
  3. ^ Henry Sweet (1877) A Handbook of Phonetics, p 174–175: "Even letters with accents and diacritics [...] being only cast for a few founts, act practically as new letters. [...] We may consider the h in sh and th simply as a diacritic written for convenience on a line with the letter it modifies."
  4. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  5. ^ Nestle, Eberhard (1888). Syrische Grammatik mit Litteratur, Chrestomathie und Glossar. Berlin: H. Reuther's Verlagsbuchhandlung. [translated to English as Syriac grammar with bibliography, chrestomathy and glossary, by R. S. Kennedy. London: Williams & Norgate 1889].
  6. ^ Coakley, J. F. (2002). Robinson's Paradigms and Exercises in Syriac Grammar (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-926129-1.
  7. ^ Michaelis, Ioannis Davidis (1784). Grammatica Syriaca.
  8. ^ Gramática de la Llingua Asturiana (PDF) (3rd ed.). Academia de la Llingua Asturiana. 2001. section 1.2. ISBN 84-8168-310-8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-05-25. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  9. ^ http://www.juls.savba.sk/ediela/psp2000/psp.pdf page 12, section I.2
  10. ^ S.P. Brock, "An Introduction to Syriac Studies", in J.H. Eaton (Ed.,), Horizons in Semitic Studies (1980)
  11. ^ Norris, Mary (26 April 2012). "The Curse of the Diaeresis". The New Yorker. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  12. ^ van Geloven, Sander (2012). Diakritische tekens in het Nederlands (in Dutch). Utrecht: Hellebaard. Archived from the original on 2013-10-29.
  13. ^ Steele, Shawn (2010-01-25). "Most combining characters in a Unicode glyph/character/whatever". Microsoft. Archived from the original on 2019-05-16. Retrieved 2019-11-25.