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QWERTY, along with its direct derivatives such as QWERTZ and AZERTY, is the primary keyboard layout for the Latin alphabet. However, there are also keyboard layouts that do not resemble QWERTY very closely, if at all. Some of these are used for languages[which?] where QWERTY may be unsuitable.[why?][citation needed] Others are specially designed to reduce finger movement and are claimed by some proponents to offer higher typing speed along with ergonomic benefits.


This is a chart of alternative keyboard layouts for typing Latin-script characters. National and specialized versions of QWERTY which do not change the letter keys are not included.

Layout Design priorities Base language, country[clarification needed] Created year # changes from QWERTY Backspace location Extra arrow keys? Programmer features? Math and symbols? Modifiers (#core, #aux) Dead keys?
QWERTY Various[1] English, United States 1870 (approx.)[citation needed] 0 top right No No mostly no Varies Varies
Dvorak Ergonomics (hand alternation) English, United States 1936 28 top right No Varies No 1 main, 1 aux Varies
Colemak Ergonomics (total movement, combos); QWERTY learning[2][3][4] English, United States 2006 17 center left (QWERTY capslock) No No No 1 main, 1 aux 14 aux; acute accent non-dead
Workman Ergonomics (lateral extension, finger-specific); QWERTY learning[5] English, United States 2010 22 center left (QWERTY capslock) No Varies No 1 main, 1 aux 14 aux; acute accent non-dead
Neo Ergonomics (home row, alternation)[6] German, Germany 2010 28 top right, and shifted alternate Yes Yes (home-area shifted punctuation) Yes (<100) 3 main 3 main; 8 shifted; 6 aux
BÉPO Ergonomics (combos, home row)[7] French, France 2004-2006 29 center left (QWERTY capslock) No Yes (unshifted punctuation) Some (<50) 1 main, 1 aux 14 aux
Asset QWERTY similarity; Ergonomics (combos, home row)[8] English, United States 2006 15 center left (QWERTY capslock) No No No 1 main No
Minimak QWERTY learning; Ergonomics (total movement, repetition)[9] English, United States 2012 8 default (versions with 4 or 12 available) center left (QWERTY capslock) No No No 1 main, 1 aux ?
QWPR QWERTY learning; Ergonomics (total movement, repetition)[10] English, United States 2013 11 left (QWERTY tab), top right Yes Yes (home-area shifted punctuation) Yes (>>100) 2 main 1 main, 2 shifted, 14 aux, 6 doubled
JCUKEN (Latin) Phonetic similarity to ЙЦУКЕН International, Soviet Union 1919 30 top right No No No ? ?
Turkish (F-keyboard) Ergonomics for Turkish (letter frequency and hand muscles) Turkish, Turkey 1955 27 top right No No No ? ?

See also


  1. ^ Yasuoka, Koichi; Yasuoka, Motoko (March 2011). "On the Prehistory of QWERTY" (PDF). ZINBUN. 42: 161–174. doi:10.14989/139379. S2CID 53616602.
  2. ^ "Easy to learn". Colemak. 2009-11-21. Retrieved 2015-02-24.
  3. ^ "Colemak computer design process (Page 1) / General / Colemak forum". Retrieved 2015-02-24.
  4. ^ "Shai how did you come up with Colemak? (Page 1) / General / Colemak forum". Retrieved 2015-02-24.
  5. ^ "The Layout Designed with Hands in Mind". Workman Layout. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
  6. ^ "Paradigmen – Neo-Layout". Retrieved 2013-08-18.
  7. ^ "Qu'est-ce que le bépo ? - Disposition de clavier francophone et ergonomique bépo" (in French). Retrieved 2013-08-18.
  8. ^ "Qwerty, Dvorak and the Asset Keyboard". 2004-05-17. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
  9. ^ "FAQ". Minimak. 2012-10-21. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
  10. ^ "Qwpr keylayout and layout translator : Wiki : Home". Retrieved 2013-08-18.