Mandarin Chinese, like many languages, can be romanized in a number of ways; above: Traditional and Simplified Chinese, and Hanyu Pinyin, Gwoyeu Romatzyh, Wade-Giles and Yale.

In linguistics, romanization is the conversion of text from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so. Methods of romanization include transliteration, for representing written text, and transcription, for representing the spoken word, and combinations of both. Transcription methods can be subdivided into phonemic transcription, which records the phonemes or units of semantic meaning in speech, and more strict phonetic transcription, which records speech sounds with precision.

Methods

There are many consistent or standardized romanization systems. They can be classified by their characteristics. A particular system's characteristics may make it better-suited for various, sometimes contradictory applications, including document retrieval, linguistic analysis, easy readability, faithful representation of pronunciation.

Transliteration

Main article: Transliteration

If the romanization attempts to transliterate the original script, the guiding principle is a one-to-one mapping of characters in the source language into the target script, with less emphasis on how the result sounds when pronounced according to the reader's language. For example, the Nihon-shiki romanization of Japanese allows the informed reader to reconstruct the original Japanese kana syllables with 100% accuracy, but requires additional knowledge for correct pronunciation.

Transcription

Main article: Transcription (linguistics)

Phonemic

See also: Phonemic orthography

Most romanizations are intended to enable the casual reader who is unfamiliar with the original script to pronounce the source language reasonably accurately. Such romanizations follow the principle of phonemic transcription and attempt to render the significant sounds (phonemes) of the original as faithfully as possible in the target language. The popular Hepburn Romanization of Japanese is an example of a transcriptive romanization designed for English speakers.

Phonetic

See also: Phonetic transcription

A phonetic conversion goes one step further and attempts to depict all phones in the source language, sacrificing legibility if necessary by using characters or conventions not found in the target script. In practice such a representation almost never tries to represent every possible allophone—especially those that occur naturally due to coarticulation effects—and instead limits itself to the most significant allophonic distinctions. The International Phonetic Alphabet is the most common system of phonetic transcription.

Trade

For most language pairs, building a usable romanization involves trade between the two extremes. Pure transcriptions are generally not possible, as the source language usually contains sounds and distinctions not found in the target language, but which must be shown for the romanized form to be comprehensible. Furthermore, due to diachronic and synchronic variance no written language represents any spoken language with perfect accuracy and the vocal interpretation of a script may vary by a great degree among languages. In modern times the chain of transcription is usually spoken foreign language, written foreign language, written native language, spoken (read) native language. Reducing the number of those processes, i.e. removing one or both steps of writing, usually leads to more accurate oral articulations. In general, outside a limited audience of scholars, romanizations tend to lean more towards transcription. As an example, consider the Japanese martial art 柔術: the Nihon-shiki romanization zyûzyutu may allow someone who knows Japanese to reconstruct the kana syllables じゅうじゅつ, but most native English speakers, or rather readers, would find it easier to guess the pronunciation from the Hepburn version, jūjutsu.

Romanization of specific writing systems

See also: Category:Romanization

This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (May 2021)

Arabic

Main articles: Romanization of Arabic and Maltese alphabet

The Arabic alphabet is used to write Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Pashto and Sindhi as well as numerous other languages in the Muslim world, particularly African and Asian languages without alphabets of their own. Romanization standards include the following:

Persian

Main article: Romanization of Persian

See also: Category:Persian orthography

Consonants
Unicode Persian
letter
IPA DMG (1969) ALA-LC (1997) BGN/PCGN (1958) EI (1960) EI (2012) UN (1967) UN (2012) Pronunciation
U+0627 ا ʔ, [a] ʾ, —[b] ʼ, —[b] ʾ - as in uh-oh
U+0628 ب b b B as in Bob
U+067E پ p p P as in pet
U+062A ت t t T as in tall
U+062B ث s t͟h s S as in sand
U+062C ج ǧ j j d͟j j j J as in jam
U+0686 چ č ch ch č ch č Ch as in Charlie
U+062D ح h ḩ/ḥ[c] h H as in holiday
U+062E خ x kh kh k͟h kh x somewhat resembling German Ch
U+062F د d d D as in Dave
U+0630 ذ z d͟h z Z as in zero
U+0631 ر r r R as in rabbit
U+0632 ز z z Z as in zero
U+0698 ژ ʒ ž zh zh z͟h ž zh ž S as in television

or G as in genre

U+0633 س s s S as in Sam
U+0634 ش ʃ š sh sh s͟h š sh š Sh as in sheep
U+0635 ص s ş/ṣ[c] ş s S as in Sam
U+0636 ض z ż ż z Z as in zero
U+0637 ط t ţ/ṭ[c] ţ t t as in tank
U+0638 ظ z z̧/ẓ[c] z Z as in zero
U+0639 ع ʕ ʿ ʻ ʼ[b] ʻ ʻ ʿ ʿ _____
U+063A غ ɢ~ɣ ġ gh gh g͟h gh q somewhat resembling French R
U+0641 ف f f F as in Fred
U+0642 ق ɢ~ɣ q q somewhat resembling French R
U+06A9 ک k k C as in card
U+06AF گ ɡ g G as in go
U+0644 ل l l L as in lamp
U+0645 م m m M as in Michael
U+0646 ن n n N as in name
U+0648 و v~w[a][d] v v, w[e] v V as in vision
U+0647 ه h[a] h h h[f] h h[f] h[f] H as in hot
U+0629 ة ∅, t h[g] t[h] h[g]
U+06CC ی j[a] y Y as in Yale
U+0621 ء ʔ, ʾ ʼ ʾ
U+0623 أ ʔ, ʾ ʼ ʾ
U+0624 ؤ ʔ, ʾ ʼ ʾ
U+0626 ئ ʔ, ʾ ʼ ʾ
Vowels[i]
Unicode Final Medial Initial Isolated IPA DMG (1969) ALA-LC (1997) BGN/PCGN (1958) EI (2012) UN (1967) UN (2012) Pronunciation
U+064E ـَ ـَ اَ اَ æ a a a a a a A as in cat
U+064F ـُ ـُ اُ اُ o o o o u o o O as in go
U+0648 U+064F ـوَ ـوَ o[j] o o o u o o O as in go
U+0650 ـِ ـِ اِ اِ e e i e e e e E as in ten
U+064E U+0627 ـَا ـَا آ آ ɑː~ɒː ā ā ā ā ā ā O as in hot
U+0622 ـآ ـآ آ آ ɑː~ɒː ā, ʾā[k] ā, ʼā[k] ā ā ā ā O as in hot
U+064E U+06CC ـَی ɑː~ɒː ā á á ā á ā O as in hot
U+06CC U+0670 ـیٰ ɑː~ɒː ā á á ā ā ā O as in hot
U+064F U+0648 ـُو ـُو اُو اُو uː, [e] ū ū ū u, ō[e] ū u U as in actual
U+0650 U+06CC ـِی ـِیـ اِیـ اِی iː, [e] ī ī ī i, ē[e] ī i Y as in happy
U+064E U+0648 ـَو ـَو اَو اَو ow~aw[e] au aw ow ow, aw[e] ow ow O as in go
U+064E U+06CC ـَی ـَیـ اَیـ اَی ej~aj[e] ai ay ey ey, ay[e] ey ey Ay as in play
U+064E U+06CC ـیِ –e, –je –e, –ye –i, –yi –e, –ye –e, –ye –e, –ye –e, –ye Ye as in yes
U+06C0 ـهٔ –je –ye –ʼi –ye –ye –ye –ye Ye as in yes

Notes:

  1. ^ a b c d Used as a vowel as well.
  2. ^ a b c Hamza and ayn are not transliterated at the beginning of words.
  3. ^ a b c d The dot below may be used instead of cedilla.
  4. ^ At the beginning of words the combination خو was pronounced /xw/ or /xʷ/ in Classical Persian. In modern varieties the glide /ʷ/ has been lost, though the spelling has not been changed. It may be still heard in Dari as a relict pronunciation. The combination /xʷa/ was changed to /xo/ (see below).
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i In Dari.
  6. ^ a b c Not transliterated at the end of words.
  7. ^ a b In the combination یة at the end of words.
  8. ^ When used instead of ت at the end of words.
  9. ^ Diacritical signs (harakat) are rarely written.
  10. ^ After خ from the earlier /xʷa/. Often transliterated as xwa or xva. For example, خور /xor/ "sun" was /xʷar/ in Classical Persian.
  11. ^ a b After vowels.

Armenian

Main article: Romanization of Armenian

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2015)

Georgian

Main article: Romanization of Georgian

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2015)
Georgian letter IPA National system
(2002)
BGN/PCGN
(1981—2009)
ISO 9984
(1996)
ALA-LC
(1997)
Unofficial system Kartvelo translit NGR2
/ɑ/ a a a a a a a
/b/ b b b b b b b
/ɡ/ g g g g g g g
/d/ d d d d d d d
/ɛ/ e e e e e e e
/v/ v v v v v v v
/z/ z z z z z z z
[a] /eɪ/ ey ē ē é ej
/tʰ/ t T[b] or t t t / t̊
/i/ i i i i i i i
/kʼ/ k k k k ǩ
/l/ l l l l l l l
/m/ m m m m m m m
/n/ n n n n n n n
[a] /i/, /j/ j y y j ĩ
/ɔ/ o o o o o o o
/pʼ/ p p p p
/ʒ/ zh zh ž ž J,[b] zh or j ž
/r/ r r r r r r r
/s/ s s s s s s s
/tʼ/ t t t t
[a] /w/ w w ŭ
/u/ u u u u u u u
/pʰ/ p p or f p p / p̊
/kʰ/ k q or k q or k k / k̊
/ʁ/ gh gh ġ g, gh or R[b] g, gh or R[b]
/qʼ/ q q q y[c] q q
/ʃ/ sh sh š š sh or S[b] š x
/t͡ʃ(ʰ)/ ch chʼ č̕ čʻ ch or C[b] č
/t͡s(ʰ)/ ts tsʼ c or ts c c
/d͡z/ dz dz j ż dz or Z[b] ʒ
/t͡sʼ/ tsʼ ts c c w, c or ts ʃ
/t͡ʃʼ/ chʼ ch č č W,[b] ch or tch ʃ̌
/χ/ kh kh x x x or kh (rarely) x
[a] /q/, /qʰ/
/d͡ʒ/ j j ǰ j j - j
/h/ h h h h h h h
[a] /oː/ ō ō ȯ


Notes:

  1. ^ a b c d e Archaic letters.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h These are influenced by aforementioned layout, and are preferred to avoid ambiguity, as an expressions: t, j, g, ch can mean two letters.
  3. ^ Initially, the use of letter y for ყ is most probably due to their resemblance to each other.

Greek

Main article: Romanization of Greek

There are romanization systems for both Modern and Ancient Greek.

Hebrew

Main article: Romanization of Hebrew

The Hebrew alphabet is romanized using several standards:

Indic (Brahmic) scripts

See also: Devanagari transliteration, Romanization of Bengali, and Romanisation of Malayalam

The Brahmic family of abugidas is used for languages of the Indian subcontinent and south-east Asia. There is a long tradition in the west to study Sanskrit and other Indic texts in Latin transliteration. Various transliteration conventions have been used for Indic scripts since the time of Sir William Jones.[13]

Devanagari–nastaʿlīq (Hindustani)

Hindustani is an Indo-Aryan language with extreme digraphia and diglossia resulting from the Hindi–Urdu controversy starting in the 1800s. Technically, Hindustani itself is recognized by neither the language community nor any governments. Two standardized registers, Standard Hindi and Standard Urdu, are recognized as official languages in India and Pakistan. However, in practice the situation is,

The digraphia renders any work in either script largely inaccessible to users of the other script, though otherwise Hindustani is a perfectly mutually intelligible language, essentially meaning that any kind of text-based open source collaboration is impossible among devanagari and nastaʿlīq readers.

Initiated in 2011, the Hamari Boli Initiative[15] is a full-scale open-source language planning initiative aimed at Hindustani script, style, status & lexical reform and modernization. One of primary stated objectives of Hamari Boli is to relieve Hindustani of the crippling devanagari–nastaʿlīq digraphia by way of romanization.[16]

Chinese

Main article: Romanization of Chinese

Romanization of the Sinitic languages, particularly Mandarin, has proved a very difficult problem, although the issue is further complicated by political considerations. Because of this, many romanization tables contain Chinese characters plus one or more romanizations or Zhuyin.

Mandarin

Mainland China
Taiwan

Main article: Chinese language romanization in Taiwan

  1. Gwoyeu Romatzyh (GR, 1928–1986, in Taiwan 1945–1986; Taiwan used Japanese Romaji before 1945),
  2. Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II (MPS II, 1986–2002),
  3. Tongyong Pinyin (2002–2008),[19][20] and
  4. Hanyu Pinyin (since January 1, 2009).[21][22]
Singapore

Main article: Chinese language romanisation in Singapore

Cantonese

Wu

See also: Romanization of Wu Chinese

Min Nan or Hokkien

See also: Comparison of Hokkien writing systems

Teochew

Min Dong

Min Bei

Japanese

Main article: Romanization of Japanese

Romanization (or, more generally, Roman letters) is called "rōmaji" in Japanese. The most common systems are:

Korean

Main article: Romanization of Korean

While romanization has taken various and at times seemingly unstructured forms, some sets of rules do exist:

Several problems with MR led to the development of the newer systems:

Thai

Main article: Romanization of Thai

Thai, spoken in Thailand and some areas of Laos, Burma and China, is written with its own script, probably descended from mixture of Tai–Laotian and Old Khmer, in the Brahmic family.

Nuosu

The Nuosu language, spoken in southern China, is written with its own script, the Yi script. The only existing romanisation system is YYPY (Yi Yu Pin Yin), which represents tone with letters attached to the end of syllables, as Nuosu forbids codas. It does not use diacritics, and as such due to the large phonemic inventory of Nuosu, it requires frequent use of digraphs, including for monophthong vowels.

Cyrillic

In English language library catalogues, bibliographies, and most academic publications, the Library of Congress transliteration method is used worldwide.

In linguistics, scientific transliteration is used for both Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets. This applies to Old Church Slavonic, as well as modern Slavic languages that use these alphabets.

Belarusian

Main article: Romanization of Belarusian

See also: Belarusian Latin alphabet

Bulgarian

Main article: Romanization of Bulgarian

A system based on scientific transliteration and ISO/R 9:1968 was considered official in Bulgaria since the 1970s. Since the late 1990s, Bulgarian authorities have switched to the so-called Streamlined System avoiding the use of diacritics and optimized for compatibility with English. This system became mandatory for public use with a law passed in 2009.[29] Where the old system uses <č,š,ž,št,c,j,ă>, the new system uses <ch,sh,zh,sht,ts,y,a>.

The new Bulgarian system was endorsed for official use also by UN in 2012,[30] and by BGN and PCGN in 2013.[31]

Kyrgyz

Main article: Romanization of Kyrgyz

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (June 2015)

Macedonian

Main article: Romanization of Macedonian

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (June 2015)

Russian

Main article: Romanization of Russian

There is no single universally accepted system of writing Russian using the Latin script—in fact there are a huge number of such systems: some are adjusted for a particular target language (e.g. German or French), some are designed as a librarian's transliteration, some are prescribed for Russian travellers' passports; the transcription of some names is purely traditional.   All this has resulted in great reduplication of names.   E.g. the name of the Russian composer Tchaikovsky may also be written as Tchaykovsky, Tchajkovskij, Tchaikowski, Tschaikowski, Czajkowski, Čajkovskij, Čajkovski, Chajkovskij, Çaykovski, Chaykovsky, Chaykovskiy, Chaikovski, Tshaikovski, Tšaikovski, Tsjajkovskij etc. Systems include:

Syriac

Main article: Syriac alphabet § Latin alphabet and romanization

The Latin script for Syriac was developed in the 1930s, following the state policy for minority languages of the Soviet Union, with some material published.[40]

Ukrainian

Main article: Romanization of Ukrainian

See also: Ukrainian Latin alphabet

The 2010 Ukrainian National system has been adopted by the UNGEGN in 2012 and by the BGN/PCGN in 2020. It is also very close to the modified (simplified) ALA-LC system, which has remained unchanged since 1941.

Overview and summary

The chart below shows the most common phonemic transcription romanization used for several different alphabets. While it is sufficient for many casual users, there are multiple alternatives used for each alphabet, and many exceptions. For details, consult each of the language sections above. (Hangul characters are broken down into jamo components.)

Romanized IPA Greek Cyrillic Amazigh Hebrew Arabic Persian Katakana Hangul Bopomofo
A a A А ַ, ֲ, ָ َ, ا ا, آ
AE ai̯/ɛ ΑΙ
AI ai י ַ
B b ΜΠ, Β Б בּ ﺏ ﺑ ﺒ ﺐ ﺏ ﺑ
C k/s Ξ
CH ʧ TΣ̈ Ч צ׳ چ
CHI ʨi
D d ΝΤ, Δ Д ⴷ, ⴹ ד ﺩ — ﺪ, ﺽ ﺿ ﻀ ﺾ د
DH ð Δ דֿ ﺫ — ﺬ
DZ ʣ ΤΖ Ѕ
E e/ɛ Ε, ΑΙ Э , ֱ, י ֵֶ, ֵ, י ֶ
EO ʌ
EU ɯ
F f Φ Ф פ (or its final form ף ) ﻑ ﻓ ﻔ ﻒ
FU ɸɯ
G ɡ ΓΓ, ΓΚ, Γ Г ⴳ, ⴳⵯ ג گ
GH ɣ Γ Ғ גֿ, עֿ ﻍ ﻏ ﻐ ﻎ ق غ
H h Η Һ ⵀ, ⵃ ח, ה ﻩ ﻫ ﻬ ﻪ, ﺡ ﺣ ﺤ ﺢ ه ح ﻫ
HA ha
HE he
HI hi
HO ho
I i/ɪ Η, Ι, Υ, ΕΙ, ΟΙ И, І ִ, י ִ دِ
IY ij دِي
J ʤ TZ̈ ДЖ, Џ ג׳ ﺝ ﺟ ﺠ ﺞ ج
JJ ʦ͈/ʨ͈
K k Κ К ⴽ, ⴽⵯ כּ ﻙ ﻛ ﻜ ﻚ ک
KA ka
KE ke
KH x X Х כ, חֿ (or its final form ך ) ﺥ ﺧ ﺨ ﺦ خ
KI ki
KK
KO ko
KU
L l Λ Л ל ﻝ ﻟ ﻠ ﻞ ل
M m Μ М מ (or its final form ם ) ﻡ ﻣ ﻤ ﻢ م
MA ma
ME me
MI mi
MO mo
MU
N n Ν Н נ (or its final form ן ) ﻥ ﻧ ﻨ ﻦ ن
NA na
NE ne
NG ŋ
NI ɲi
NO no
NU
O o Ο, Ω О , ֳ, וֹֹ ُا
OE ø
P p Π П פּ پ
PP
PS ps Ψ
Q q Θ ק ﻕ ﻗ ﻘ ﻖ غ ق
R r Ρ Р ⵔ, ⵕ ר ﺭ — ﺮ ر
RA ɾa
RE ɾe
RI ɾi
RO ɾo
RU ɾɯ
S s Σ С ⵙ, ⵚ ס, שׂ ﺱ ﺳ ﺴ ﺲ, ﺹ ﺻ ﺼ ﺺ س ث ص
SA sa
SE se
SH ʃ Σ̈ Ш שׁ ﺵ ﺷ ﺸ ﺶ ش
SHCH ʃʧ Щ
SHI ɕi
SO so
SS
SU
T t Τ Т ⵜ, ⵟ ט, תּ, ת ﺕ ﺗ ﺘ ﺖ, ﻁ ﻃ ﻄ ﻂ ت ط
TA ta
TE te
TH θ Θ תֿ ﺙ ﺛ ﺜ ﺚ
TO to
TS ʦ ΤΣ Ц צ (or its final form ץ )
TSU ʦɯ
TT
U u ΟΥ, Υ У , וֻּ دُ
UI ɰi
UW uw دُو
V v B В ב و
W w Ω ו, וו ﻭ — ﻮ
WA wa
WAE
WE we
WI y/ɥi
WO wo
X x/ks Ξ, Χ
Y j Υ, Ι, ΓΙ Й, Ы, Ј י ﻱ ﻳ ﻴ ﻲ ی
YA ja Я
YAE
YE je Е, Є
YEO
YI ji Ї
YO jo Ё
YU ju Ю
Z z Ζ З ⵣ, ⵥ ז ﺯ — ﺰ, ﻅ ﻇ ﻈ ﻆ ز ظ ذ ض
ZH ʐ/ʒ Ζ̈ Ж ז׳ ژ

See also

References

  1. ^ "Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft". Dmg-web.de. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  2. ^ "Standards, Training, Testing, Assessment and Certification". BSI-Global.com. BSI Group. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  3. ^ "Arabic" (PDF). Eki.ee. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  4. ^ "Qalam: A Convention for Morphological rabic-Latin-Arabic Transliteration". EServer.org. Archived from the original (TXT) on 2009-02-08. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  5. ^ "Buckwalter Arabic Transliteration". Qamus.org. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  6. ^ Beesley, Ken (2010-11-22). "The Buckwalter Transliteration". Xerox Research Centre Europe. Archived from the original on 2002-04-24. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  7. ^ "Arabic" (PDF). Library of Congress. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  8. ^ "Greek" (PDF). Library of Congress. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  9. ^ "The TLG® Beta Code Manual 2004" (PDF). Thesaurus Linguae Graecae. University of California, Irvine. June 23, 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 29, 2006.
  10. ^ Lefort, Francois; Roubelakis-Angelakis, Kalliopi A. "Transliteration scheme ISO 843". biology.uoc.gr. University of Crete. Archived from the original on December 10, 2004.
  11. ^ "Hebrew" (PDF). Eki.ee. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  12. ^ "Hebrew and Yiddish" (PDF). Library of Congress. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  13. ^ Gabriel Pradīpaka. "Sanskrit 3: comparing transliteration systems". Sanskrit-Sanscrito.com.ar. Archived from the original on 2004-03-15. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  14. ^ "Hindi" (PDF). Library of Congress. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  15. ^ "What is HamariBoli?". HamariBoli. 2011-06-15. Archived from the original on 2013-06-01. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  16. ^ The News International - Dec 29, 2011 Archived June 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine – "Hamari Boli (our language) is perhaps one of the very first serious undertakings to explore, develop and encourage the growth of Roman script in the use of Urdu/Hindi language."
  17. ^ "Chinese" (PDF). Library of Congress. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  18. ^ "New Chinese Romanization Guidelines". Library of Congress. 1998-11-03. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  19. ^ "Tongyong Pinyin the new system for romanization". Taipei Times. 2002-07-11.
  20. ^ "Taiwan Authority Concerned Passes Tongyong Pinyin Scheme". People's Daily Online. 2002-07-12.
  21. ^ "Hanyu Pinyin to be standard system in 2009". Taipei Times. 2008-09-18.
  22. ^ "Gov't to improve English-friendly environment". The China Post. 2008-09-18. Archived from the original on 2008-09-19.
  23. ^ "Japanese" (PDF). Library of Congress. Retrieved 2014-09-28.
  24. ^ "Korean" (PDF). Library of Congress. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  25. ^ "A superficial comparison between the two". Sori.org. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  26. ^ "Korean Romanization Reference". Glossika.com. Archived from the original on February 14, 2006.
  27. ^ "Thai" (PDF). Library of Congress. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  28. ^ "Belarusian" (PDF). Library of Congress. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  29. ^ State Gazette # 19, Sofia, 13 March 2009. (in Bulgarian)
  30. ^ "UN Romanization of Bulgarian for Geographical Names (1977)". Eki.ee. Retrieved 2015-06-27.
  31. ^ "Romanization System for Bulgarian, BGN/PCGN 1952 System" (PDF). earth-info.nga.mil. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 19, 2007.
  32. ^ "Cyrillic Translations". DSpace.Dial.Pipex.com. Archived from the original on 2012-07-16. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  33. ^ "Russian" (PDF). Library of Congress. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  34. ^ Dimiter Dobrev. "Транслитерация" [Transliteration]. Metodii.com (in Russian). Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  35. ^ Basic and Optimized Archived 2016-04-12 at the Wayback Machine Romanization of Russian. 2006–2016.
  36. ^ L. Ivanov. "Streamlined Romanization of Russian Cyrillic". Contrastive Linguistics. XLII (2017) No. 2. pp. 66-73. ISSN 0204-8701
  37. ^ Interscript. Streamlined Romanization of Russian Cyrillic (Basic Streamlined System).
  38. ^ Interscript. Streamlined Romanization of Russian Cyrillic (Optimized Streamlined System).
  39. ^ "Транслитерация русского алфавита" [Transliteration of the Russian alphabet]. Russki-mat.net (in Russian). Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  40. ^ S.P. Brock, "Three Thousand Years of Aramaic literature", in Aram,1:1 (1989)
  41. ^ "Ukrainian" (PDF). Library of Congress. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  42. ^ "Додаток до рішення № 9". hostmaster.net.ua. Archived from the original on March 7, 2005.
  43. ^ "Ukrainian" (PDF). Eki.ee. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
  44. ^ "Ukrainian" (PDF). Transliteration.Eki.ee. Retrieved 2015-07-02.
About romanization
Romanization online

For Persian Romanization

For Cantonese Romanization