Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II
Traditional Chinese國語注音符號第二式
Simplified Chinese国语注音符号第二式

Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II (Chinese: 國語注音符號第二式), abbreviated MPS II, is a romanization system formerly used in the Republic of China (Taiwan). It was created to replace the complex tonal-spelling Gwoyeu Romatzyh, and to co-exist with the popular Wade–Giles (romanization) and Zhuyin (non-romanization). It is sometimes referred to as Gwoyeu Romatzyh 2 or GR2.

History

Based on the earlier and more complex Gwoyeu Romatzyh, the tentative version of MPS II was released on May 10, 1984, by the Taiwanese Ministry of Education. After two years of feedback from the general public, the official version was established on January 28, 1986.[1] To distinguish Zhuyin from the Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II ("Mandarin Zhuyin Symbols II"), the first Zhuyin is officially called "Mandarin Phonetic Symbols I" (國語注音符號第一式).

Despite its official status for almost two decades until it was replaced by Tongyong Pinyin in 2002, MPS II existed only in some governmental publications (such as travel brochures and dictionaries). However, MPS II was not used for the official Romanized names of Taiwanese places (though many road signs replaced during this period use MPS II). It never gained the same status as did Wade-Giles. In mainstream overseas communities, it is virtually unused and unheard of.

Table

Initials

Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Retroflex Alveolo-palatal Velar
Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiceless
Nasal m [m]
m
n [n]
n
Plosive Unaspirated b [p]
b
d [t]
d
g [k]
g
Aspirated p [pʰ]
p
t [tʰ]
t
k [kʰ]
k
Affricate Unaspirated tz [ts]
z
j [ʈʂ]
zh
j [tɕ]
j
Aspirated ts [tsʰ]
c
ch [ʈʂʰ]
ch
ch [tɕʰ]
q
Fricative f [f]
f
s [s]
s
sh [ʂ]
sh
sh [ɕ]
x
h [x]
h
Liquid l [l]
l
r [ɻ~ʐ]
r

Finals

Coda
/i/ /u/ /n/ /ŋ/ /ɻ/
Medial r/z [ɨ]
MoeKai Bopomofo U+312D.svg
-i
e [ɤ]
e
a [a]
a
ei [ei]
ei
ai [ai]
ai
ou [ou]
ou
au [au]
ao
en [ən]
en
an [an]
an
eng [əŋ]
eng
ang [aŋ]
ang
er [aɚ]
er
/j/ i [i]
i
ie [je]
ㄧㄝ ie
ia [ja]
ㄧㄚ ia
iou [jou]
ㄧㄡ iu
iau [jau]
ㄧㄠ iao
in [in]
ㄧㄣ in
ian [jɛn]
ㄧㄢ ian
ing [iŋ]
ㄧㄥ ing
iang [jaŋ]
ㄧㄤ iang
/w/ u [u]
u
uo [wo]
ㄨㄛ uo
ua [wa]
ㄨㄚ ua
uei [wei]
ㄨㄟ ui
uai [wai]
ㄨㄞ uai
uen [wən]
ㄨㄣ un
uan [wan]
ㄨㄢ uan
ung [ʊŋ]
ㄨㄥ ong
uang [waŋ]
ㄨㄤ uang
/y/ iu [y]
ü
iue [ɥe]
ㄩㄝ üe
iun [yn]
ㄩㄣ ün
iuan [ɥɛn]
ㄩㄢ üan
iung [jʊŋ]
ㄩㄥ iong

Features

An example of MPS II: "國語注音符號第二式" is written as

guó-yǔ jù-yīn fú-hàu dì-èr shr̀.

In pinyin that would be

guóyǔ zhùyīn fúhào dì'èr shì.

In Gwoyeu Romatzyh, it would be written thus:

gwoyeu juh'in fwuhaw dih'ell shyh.

Spaces are generally used in place of hyphens, except in personal names, which use hyphens in between the syllables of the given names.

References

  1. ^ "MPS2". Pinyin Info. March 10, 2004.