Xiangxiang dialect
湘乡话
Native toChina
RegionXiangxiang, Hunan province
Sino-Tibetan
Language codes
ISO 639-3
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

The Xiangxiang dialect (Chinese: 湘乡话; pinyin: Xiāngxiānghuà) is a dialect of Xiang Chinese, spoken in Xiangxiang, Hunan province, China. It is part of a group of dialects called the Central Xiang dialects.[1]

Geographic distribution

The linguistic maps below are derived from the Digital Language Atlas of China,[2] which is derived from the Language Atlas of China,[3] the first atlas to comprehensively catalog and chart the distribution of Chinese dialects.[4] This atlas refers to the two main dialects in Xiangxiang City and its surroundings as Changyi (长益片 / 長益片) and Loushao (娄邵片 / 婁邵片).

The division of Xiang into New Xiang and Old Xiang was introduced by Yuan Jiahua,[5] but has been superseded by the Language Atlas of China classifications.[6]

Dialect map of Hunan Province according to the Language Atlas of China[2]

Dialects of Hunan Province

The Language Atlas of China serves as the starting point for many efforts to further detail, map and classify Xiang dialects, including the many studies of Bao Houxing and Chen Hui.[7][8]

Dialect map of Hunan Province according to Chen and Bao (2007)[9]

Hunan Dialects per Chen and Bao

Linguistic map of Xianxiang City and surrounding counties[3]

Linguistic map of Xiangxiang City and surrounding counties

Sample Locations of Xiangxiang Dialect Studies[1][3][10][11]

Sample Locations of Xiangxiang Dialect Studies

History and strategic value

The Xiang dialect group forms a transitional zone between northern and southern Chinese dialects.[5]

Prehistorically, the main inhabitants were Ba, Nanman, Baiyue and other tribes whose languages cannot be studied. During the Warring States Period, large numbers of Chu migrated into Hunan. Their language blended with that of the original natives to produce a new dialect Nanchu (Southern Chu). The culture of Xiangxiang at the center of Hunan is considered to be mainly Chu. The language of Shaoshan, Loudi, Shuangfeng and Xiangxiang (Old Xiang) is considered as originating from a synthesis of Chu and the languages of original natives.[12]

Migrations into Hunan can be divided into three periods . Before the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, migrants came mainly from the North. Between the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period and the Ming dynasty, migrants came mainly from Jiangxi. In the early Ming dynasty, large numbers of migrants came from Jiangxi and settled in present day Yueyang, Changsha, Zhuzhou, Xiangtan, and Hengyang districts. Migrants from Jiangxi concentrated mainly in southeastern Hunan and present day Shaoyang and Xinhua districts. They came for two reasons: the first is that Jiangxi became too crowded and its people sought expansion. The second is that Hunan suffered greatly during the Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty, when there was mass slaughter,[1] and needed to replenish its population. After the middle of the Ming dynasty, migration gradually became more diverse and economically and commercially motivated. Migrants who came from the North settled mainly in northern Hunan followed by western Hunan. For this reason northern and western Hunan are Mandarin districts.[12]

Phonology

Comparison with Standard Chinese

Comparison of Xiangxiang Area Loushao and Changyi Dialects with Standard Chinese
Feature Standard Chinese Xiangxiang Locations Ninxiang Location
Dictionary[13] Chao[14] Chengguan[1] Yueshan[11] Jinsou[10] Baitian[10] Huitang[10]
Consonants
and Initials
21 23 29 28 24 26 24
Vowels
and Finals
35 37 37 38 42 37 38
Tones 4 4 7 5 6 6 6

General

These phonetic charts use IPA phonetic symbols with the addition of curly-tail alveolo-palatal symbols[15] and follow the format set forth by Chao.[14]

Consonants

Consonants of the Xiangxiang dialect[1]
  bilabial alveolar denti-alveolar alveolo-palatal retroflex velar
nasal m n   ȵ   ŋ
plosives voiced b d       ɡ
voiceless unaspirated p t       k
voiceless aspirated      
fricatives voiced           ɣ
voiceless     s ɕ ʂ x
affricates voiced     dz  
voiceless unaspirated     ts  
voiceless aspirated     tsʰ tɕʰ tʂʰ  
lateral approximants   l        

Tones

Phonemically, Xiangxiang dialect has seven tones.[1]

Tone chart of the Xiangxiang dialect
Tone number Tone name Tone contour Description
1 yin ping (陰平) ˥ (55) high
2 yang ping (陽平) ˩˧ (13) extra low rising
2' ci yang ping (次陽平) ˨˧ (23) low rising
3 shang sheng (上聲) ˨˩ (21) low
5 yin qu (陰去) ˦˥ (45) high rising
5' ci yin qu (次陰去) ˧˥ (35) high rising
6 yang qu (陽去) ˧ (33) mid

Jinsou Town

Consonants

Consonants of the Xiangxiang dialect, Jinsou Town
  bilabial alveolar denti-alveolar alveolo-palatal retroflex velar Laryngeal
nasal m n   ȵ   ŋ  
plosives voiced b d       ɡ  
voiceless unaspirated p t       k Ø
voiceless aspirated        
fricatives voiced           ɣ  
voiceless     s ɕ ʂ   x
affricates voiced     dz    
voiceless unaspirated     ts    
voiceless aspirated     tsʰ tɕʰ tʂʰ  
lateral approximants   l          

Yueshan Town

Tones

Tone chart of the Xiangxiang dialect, Yueshan Town[11]
Tone number Tone name Tone contour Description
1 yin ping (陰平) ˥ (55) high
2 yang ping (陽平) ˩˧ (13) low rising
3 shang sheng (上聲) ˨˩ (21) low
4 yin qu (陰去) ˦˥ (45) high rising
5 yang qu (陽去) ˨ (22) mid

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Coblin, W. South (2011). Comparative Phonology of the Central Xiāng Dialects. Taipei, Taiwan: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica. ISBN 978-986-02-9803-1.
  2. ^ a b Crissman, Lawrence W. (23 November 2012). "Digital Language Atlas of China". Harvard Dataverse. hdl:1902.1/18939. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ a b c Lavely, William; Berman, Lex (18 October 2012). "Language Atlas of China". Harvard Dataverse. hdl:1902.1/19004. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  4. ^ Cao, Zhiyun; Liu, Xiaohai (14 December 2012). "The Introduction of Linguistic Atlas of Chinese Dialects". Papers from the First International Conference on Asian Geolinguistics: 141–151. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  5. ^ a b Wu, Yunji (2011). A Synchronic and Diachronic Study of the Grammar of the Chinese Xiang Dialects. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. ISBN 978-3-11-018366-5.
  6. ^ Kurpaska, Maria (2010). Chinese Languages: A Look Through the Prism of the Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. ISBN 978-3-11-021914-2.
  7. ^ Bao, Houxing 鲍厚星; Chen, Hui 陈晖 (2005). "Xiāngyǔ de fēnqū (gǎo)" 湘语的分区(稿) [The Classification of Xiang Group]. Fāngyán 方言 (in Chinese). 2005 (3): 261–270.
  8. ^ Li, Kang-cheng 李康澄 (2014). "Jìn 30 nián Húnán Hànyǔ fāngyán bǐjiào yánjiū shùpíng" 近30年湖南汉语方言比较研究述评 [Comparative Study Reviews of Chinese Dialects in Hunan in Recent Thirty Years]. Húnán Kējì Dàxué xuébào (shèhuì kēxué bǎn) 湖南科技大学学报(社会科学版) (in Chinese). 17 (4): 136–143. doi:10.13582/j.cnki.1672-7835.2014.04.022.
  9. ^ Chen, Hui 陈晖; Bao, Houxing 鲍厚星 (2007). "Húnán Shěng de Hànyǔ fāngyán (gǎo)" 湖南省的汉语方言(稿). Fāngyán 方言 (in Chinese). 2007 (3): 250–259.
  10. ^ a b c d e Wen, Dan 文丹 (2004). Húnán Níngxiāng yǔ Xiāngxiāng biānjiè dōng duàn de fāngyán zhuàngkuàng 湖南宁乡与湘乡边界东段的方言状况 (in Chinese). Changsha, China: Hunan Normal University. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  11. ^ a b c Nakajima, Motoki 中嶋 幹起 (1990). Shōhōgen chōsa hōkoku-ka saku 湘方言調査報告下冊 [Report on Xiang Dialects Part 2] (in Japanese). Tōkyō: Tōkyō Gaikokugo Daigaku Ajia Afurika Gengo Bunka Kenkyūjo. hdl:10108/81503. ISBN 4-87297-025-X.
  12. ^ a b Jiang, Junfeng (2006). A Phonological Study of Xiangxiang Dialect (PhD thesis). Hunan Normal University.
  13. ^ Xiàndài Hànyǔ cídiǎn 现代汉语词典 (in Chinese) (6th ed.). Beijing: Shangwu yinshuguan. 2012. ISBN 978-7-100-08467-3.
  14. ^ a b Chao, Yuen Ren (1968). A Grammar of Spoken Chinese. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0520002199.
  15. ^ Cook, Richard S. Jr. (2000). "On the Status of the Curly-Tail Alveolo-Palatal (舌面前) Symbols [ȶ, ȡ, ȴ, ȵ, ɕ, ʑ]" (PDF). Retrieved 3 December 2018 – via stedt.berkeley.edu.

Bibliography

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