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Anung
Anong, Nung
Pronunciation[ɑ˧˩ nuŋ˧˥]
Native toChina, Myanmar
RegionFugong County
Ethnicity(Southern) Anung of Nu nationality
Native speakers
450 (2000–2007)[1]
7,000 in China
Language codes
ISO 639-3nun
Glottolognung1282
ELPAnong
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Southern Anung (autonym: [ɑ˧˩ nuŋ˧˥]; Chinese: 阿侬语; pinyin: Ānóngyǔ;[a] Lisu: Fuche Naw[citation needed]) is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by the Nung people in Fugong County, China, and Kachin State, Myanmar. The Anung language is closely related to the Derung and Rawang languages. Most of the Anung speakers in China have shifted to Lisu, although the speakers are classified as Nu people. The Northern Anung people speak a dialect of Derung, which is also called Anung ([ə˧˩ nuŋ˥˧]), but is not the same Anung discussed in this article.

The Burmese and Chinese dialects of Anung have 87% lexical similarity with each other.[2] Anung has 73-76% lexical similarity with Derung, and 77-83% lexical similarity with the Matwang dialect of Rawang.[2]

Demographics

Besides China and Myanmar, there are Anong people in Thailand and India.

China

Anong is spoken by over 7,000 people in China in the following townships.[3]

Myanmar

The majority of Anong speakers in Myanmar are found in Kachin State, specifically Myitkyina, Putao, Naungmun, Machanbaw, Tannai, and Khaunglangphu. There are over 5000 Naw (Anong) people in Kachin State, Myanmar.

In Myitkyina and Putao, there are literacy and language trainings every year.

Some Naw people live in Shan State, but it is not clear whether they still use Anong or not. There are also many living in cities such as Yangon, Khamti, and Taunggyi. Naw people are still mixed with the Lisu population.

Phonology

Consonants

Nung has 43 single consonants.[47 listed below][3]

Labial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal voiceless ɳ̥ ɲ̥ ŋ̊
voiced m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
Plosive aspirated ʈʰ
tenuis p t ʈ k ʔ
voiced b d ɖ ɡ
Affricate aspirated tsʰ tʂʰ tɕʰ
tenuis ts
voiced dz ɖʐ
Fricative voiceless f s ʂ ɕ x h
voiced v z ʐ ʑ ɣ
Lateral voiceless
voiced l ɭ
Rhotic voiced ɹ

Notes

  1. ^ Sometimes misread as Āyī 阿依

References

  1. ^ Anung at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ a b "Myanmar". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 2016. Archived from the original on 2016-10-10.
  3. ^ a b 孙宏开; 刘光坤 (2005). 阿侬语研究 [A Grammar of Anong]. 北京: 民族出版社. ISBN 978-7-105-06814-2.
  • Sun Hongkai; Liu Guangkun (2009). A Grammar of Anong. Language Death Under Intense Contact. Leiden • Boston: Brill. ISBN 90-04-17686-1.
  • Wu, Nye. 2013. A Sociolinguistic Study of the Vitality of Anung (Anong) In Myanmar. Master’s thesis, Payap University.
  • Shintani, Tadahiko. 2018. The Khwingsang language. Linguistic survey of Tay cultural area, no. 113. Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa (ILCAA).