Bugan
Pakan
Native toChina
RegionYunnan
Native speakers
2,700 (2005)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3bbh
Glottologbuga1247
ELPBugan

Bugan, Bogan, Pakan, or Bugeng (布甘语, 布干语, or 布赓语) is an Austroasiatic language.[2] The existence of the Bugan language was not known by the rest of world until recently. There are about 3000 speakers, mostly in some villages in southern Guangnan (广南) and northern Xichou (西畴), Yunnan Province, China. Bugan is an analytic language, and word order and auxiliary words have important functions in the grammar.[3]

Distribution

Li Jinfang (1996)

According to Li Jinfang (1996), the Bugan-speaking population is distributed in seven villages across southern Guangnan (广南) and northern Xichou (西畴), Yunnan Province, China. As the language is highly uniform, it is not divided into any dialects.

Li Yunbing (2005)

According to a more recent survey by Li Yunbing (2005), the Bugan people, comprising a total of 500+ households and 2,700+ individuals, live in the following locations.

Li Yunbing also uses the term Bùgēng (布赓) in place of Bùgān (布甘).

People

The Bugan people's autonym is pə55 ka̠n33, while the surrounding Han Chinese call them Huazu (Chinese: 花族; literally "flower people") or Hualo (Chinese: 花倮) due to their colorful clothing.[10] Other autonyms are pu55 qe̠ŋ44 (in Manlong, Xichou County) and pə55 qe̠ŋ44 (in Nala and Xinwalong in Guangnan County). They are an unrecognized ethnic minority, and are currently classified as Yi. The Bugan are endogamous, and thus do not usually marry people from other ethnic groups[11]

The Bugan people also hold their own New Year's Day celebration in April of the Chinese lunar calendar, which is separate from that of the Han Chinese New Year.

Common Bugan surnames include Li 李, Wang 王, Guo 郭, Luo 罗, Yan 严, Lu 卢, Pu 普, and Yi.

Phonology

Bugan is a tonal SVO language. Unlike the Bolyu language, Bugan distinguishes between tense and lax voice qualities. In current linguistic publications on Bugan, tense voice is indicated by underlining vowels. Bugan has a total of 49 onsets (including various consonant clusters) and 67 possible rimes.[12]

Notes

  1. ^ Bugan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr., ed. (2005). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (15th ed.). Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  3. ^ "[Buganyu]". Zhōngguó mínzú yǔyán yánjiū wǎng 中国民族语言研究网 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2012-03-22.
  4. ^ "Guǎngnán Xiàn Nàsǎ Zhèn Lóngwāngdòng Cūnwěihuì Lǎowālóng Zìráncūn" 广南县那洒镇龙汪洞村委会老挖聋自然村 [Laowalong Natural Village, Longwangdong Village Committee, Nasa Town, Guangnan County]. ynszxc.gov.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2018-08-15. Retrieved 2012-09-23.
  5. ^ "Guǎngnán Xiàn Nàsǎ Zhèn Lóngwāngdòng Cūnwěihuì Xīnwālóng Zìráncūn" 广南县那洒镇龙汪洞村委会新挖聋自然村 [Xinwalong Natural Village, Longwangdong Village Committee, Nasa Town, Guangnan County]. ynszxc.gov.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2018-08-15. Retrieved 2012-09-23.
  6. ^ "Guǎngnán Xiàn Nàsǎ Zhèn Lóngwāngdòng Cūnwěihuì Nàlà Zìráncūn" 广南县那洒镇龙汪洞村委会那腊自然村 [Nala Natural Village, Longwangdong Village Committee, Nasa Town, Guangnan County]. ynszxc.gov.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2012-09-23.
  7. ^ "Guǎngnán Xiàn Zhuànjiǎo Xiāng Dàpíng Cūnmín Wěiyuánhuì Jiǔpíng Zìráncūn" 广南县篆角乡大坪村民委员会九坪自然村 [Jiuping Natural Village, Daping Village Committee, Zhuanjiao Township, Guangnan County]. ynszxc.gov.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2016-12-20. Retrieved 2012-09-23.
  8. ^ "Guǎngnán Xiàn Zhuànjiǎo Xiāng Dàpíng Cūnmín Wěiyuánhuì Shíbēipō Zìráncūn" 广南县篆角乡大坪村民委员会石碑坡自然村 [Shibeipo Natural Village, Daping Village Committee, Zhuanjiao Township, Guangnan County]. ynszxc.gov.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2012-09-23.
  9. ^ "Xīchóu Xiàn Jījiē Xiāng Hǎizi Cūnwěihuì Mànlóng Zìráncūn" 西畴县鸡街乡海子村委会曼龙自然村 [Manlong Natural Village, Haizi Village Committee, Jijie Township, Xichou County]. ynszxc.gov.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2015-04-19. Retrieved 2012-09-23.
  10. ^ Li (1996)
  11. ^ Li (2006)
  12. ^ Li (2005)

References

  • Li, Jinfang (1996). "Bugan – A New Mon–Khmer Language of Yunnan Province, China" (PDF). Mon–Khmer Studies. 26: 135–160.
  • Li, Jinfang 李锦芳 (2006). Xīnán dìqū bīnwēi yǔyán diàochá yánjiū 西南地区濒危语言调查研究 [Studies on Endangered Languages in the Southwest China] (in Chinese). Beijing shi: Zhongyang minzu daxue chubanshe.
  • Li, Yunbing 李云兵 (2005). Bùgēngyǔ yánjiū 布赓语研究 [A Study of Bugeng [Bugan]] (in Chinese). Beijing: Minzu chubanshe.