Proto-Khmeric
Reconstruction ofKhmer dialects
Reconstructed
ancestor

The Proto-Khmeric language is the reconstructed proto-language of the Khmeric languages. It has been reconstructed by Sidwell & Rau (2015), whose reconstruction is based on the sound laws provided in Ferlus (1992). It is agreed by most scholars that this language was phased out by 300 CE.

Reconstructed forms

The reconstructed Proto-Khmeric forms below are from Sidwell & Rau (2015: 273, 340-363).

Gloss Proto-Khmeric
all *grɔp
ashes *pheːh
bark (of tree) *smpɔːk
belly *buŋ
big *luoŋ ~ *ruoŋ
to bite *tkiːr ~ *tkɛːr, *kat
black *kmaw
blood *ɟhaːm
boat *duok
bone *cʔəŋ
breast *tɔh
to burn (vt.) *tut, *ʔus
candle *dian
claw/nail *krcɔːk
cloud *-(b/w)ɔːk
cold *rŋaː(r)
to come/arrive *mɔːk
die (of a person) *slap
dog *cɔː, *ckɛː
to drink (water) *phik
dry (adj./stat.) *praŋ
ear *(t/c)rciək
earth/soil *tiː
to eat *cie
eye *pnɛːk
fat/grease/oil *klaɲ
feather *slaːp
fire *ʔus
fish (n.) *triː
fly (v.) *həːr
foot *ɟəːŋ
full (vessel) *beːɲ
give *ʔoːj
good *lʔɔː
green *kciː
group *buak
hair (of head) *suk
hand *təj
to hear/listen *stap
heart *klim
horn *sneːŋ
I *ʔaɲ
to kill *psiət, *smlap
know *cih, *sgal
leaf *slik
to learn *rian
to lie (down) *tiek
liver *tləːm
long *wɛːŋ
louse (head) *ciː
man/husband *ɟmoːl
meat/flesh *sac
moon *khɛː
mountain/hill *bnɔm, *duol
mouth *mat
name *ɟmɔh
neck *kɔː
new *tmiː
night *jɔp
nose *crmuh
not *ʔət ~ *ʔɔt ~ *ʔit
oil *prieŋ
one *muoj
person/human *ʔnak
rain *pliəŋ
red *krhɔːm
road, path *gnlɔːŋ
root (of a tree) *ris
round (object) *wiel, *rwiəl, *rwɔŋ
sand *ksac
see *jɔl, *ghəːɲ
sit *guj
skin *spɛːk
sleep *tiːk
small *tic, *cmaːr
smoke (n.) (?*psɛːɲ)
to offer *ɟuon
to speak, say *srtiː
to stand *ɟhɔːr
star *pkaːj
stone *tmɔː
sun *tŋaj
to swim *hɛːl(?)
that (dist.) *nɔh
this (prox.) *nih
tongue *ʔntaːt
tree *ɟhəː
two *bier
to walk, go *təːr
warm/hot *ktaw
water *tɨk
white *skuː, *sɔː
woman/wife *knsaj, *kntaj

Lexical innovations

Selected Khmeric lexical innovations:[1]

Gloss Proto-Austroasiatic Old Khmer Modern Khmer Surin Khmer
‘fish’ *kaʔ triː~treː trəj trɛj
‘chicken’ *ʔiər moan mɯan
‘dog’ *cɔːʔ cʰkɛː ckae ʨkɛː

See also

References

  1. ^ Sidwell, Paul (2021). "Classification of MSEA Austroasiatic languages". The Languages and Linguistics of Mainland Southeast Asia. De Gruyter. pp. 179–206. doi:10.1515/9783110558142-011.