Proto-Munda
Reconstruction ofMunda languages
Reconstructed
ancestor

Proto-Munda is the reconstructed proto-language of the Munda languages of South Asia. It has been reconstructed by Sidwell & Rau (2015).

Reconstruction

The following Proto-Munda lexical proto-forms have been reconstructed by Sidwell & Rau (2015: 319, 340-363).[1] Two asterisks are given to denote the tentative, preliminary state of the proto-language reconstruction.

Gloss Proto-Munda
belly **(sə)laɟ
big **məraŋ
to bite **kaˀp
black **kE(n)dE
blood **məjam
bone **ɟaːˀŋ
to burn (vt.) **gEˀp
claw/nail **rəmAj
cloud **tərIˀp
cold **raŋ
die (of a person) **gOˀj
dog **sOˀt
to drink (water) **uˀt, **uˀk
dry (adj./stat.) **(ə)sAr
ear **lutur, **luˀt
earth/soil **ʔOte
to eat **ɟOm
egg **(ə)tAˀp
eye **maˀt
fat/grease/oil **sunum
feather **bəlEˀt
fire **səŋal
fish (n.) **ka, **kadO(ŋ)
fly (v.) **pEr
foot **ɟəːˀŋ
give **ʔam
hair (of head) **suˀk
hand **tiːˀ
to hear/listen **ajɔm
heart, liver **(gə)rE, **ʔim
horn **dəraŋ
I **(n)iɲ
to kill **(bə)ɡOˀɟ
leaf **Olaːˀ
to lie (down) **gətiˀc
long **ɟəlƏŋ
louse (head) **siːˀ
man/husband, person/human **kOrOˀ
meat/flesh **ɟəlU(Uˀ)
moon **harkE, **aŋaj
mountain/hill **bəru(uˀ)
mouth **təmOˀt
name **ɲUm
neck **kO, **gOˀk
new **təmI
night **(m)ədiˀp
nose **muːˀ
not **əˀt
one **mOOˀj
rain **gəma
red **ɟəŋAˀt
road, path **kOrA
root (of a tree) **rEˀt
sand **kEˀt
see **(n)El
sit **kO
skin **usal
sleep **gətiˀc
smoke (n.) **mOˀk
to speak, say **sun, **gam, **kaj
to stand **tənaŋ, **tƏŋgə
stone **bərƏl, **sərEŋ
sun **siŋi(iˀ)
tail **pata
thigh **buluuˀ
that (dist.) **han
this (prox.) **En
thou/you **(n)Am
tongue **laːˀŋ
tooth **gənE
tree **ɟiːˀ
two **baːˀr
to walk, go **sEn
to weave **ta(aˀ)ɲ
water **daːˀk
woman/wife **selA, **kəni
yellow **saŋsaŋ

Proto-Munda reconstruction has since been revised and improved by Rau (2019).

See also

References

  1. ^ Sidwell, Paul and Felix Rau (2015). "Austroasiatic Comparative-Historical Reconstruction: An Overview." In Jenny, Mathias and Paul Sidwell, eds (2015). The Handbook of Austroasiatic Languages. Leiden: Brill.