Wa
Va, Vo, Awa
RegionChina, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand
EthnicityWa
Native speakers
900,000 (2000–2008)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
prk – Parauk
wbm – Vo
vwa – Awa
Glottologwaaa1245
ELPWa
 Phalok[2]

Wa (Va) is an Austroasiatic language spoken by the Wa people of Myanmar and China. There are three distinct varieties, sometimes considered separate languages; their names in Ethnologue are Parauk, the majority and standard form; Vo (Zhenkang Wa, 40,000 speakers) and Awa (100,000 speakers), though all may be called Wa, Awa, Va, Vo. David Bradley (1994) estimates there are total of 820,000 Wa speakers.

Distribution and variants

Gerard Diffloth refers to the Wa geographic region as the "Wa corridor", which lies between the Salween and Mekong Rivers. According to Diffloth, variants include South Wa, "Bible Wa" and Kawa (Chinese Wa).

Christian Wa are more likely to support the use of Standard Wa, since their Bible is based on a standard version of Wa, which is in turn based on the variant spoken in Bang Wai, 150 miles north of Kengtung (Watkins 2002). Bang Wai is located in Northern Shan State, Burma, close to the Chinese border where Cangyuan County is located.

Certain dialects of Wa preserve a final -/s/. They include the variants spoken in Meung Yang and Ximeng County (such as a variety spoken in Zhongke 中课, Masan 马散, Ximeng County that was documented by Zhou & Yan (1984)) (Watkins 2002:8).

Burma

David Bradley (1994) estimates that there is a total of about 500,000 Wa speakers in Burma.

A small number of Wa speakers also reside in Taunggyi, Mandalay and Yangon.

China

The PRC writing system for Wa is based on the Wa variant in Aishuai, Cangyuan County, Yunnan.

David Bradley (1994) estimates that there are 322,000 Wa speakers in China. In China, the Wa people live in (Watkins 2002):

A small number of Wa speakers also reside in Kunming and throughout various parts of Yunnan.

The three dialects of Wa (and their respective subdialects) according to Zhou, et al. (2004) are:[3]

Jackson Sun (2018a)[5] lists the Awa dialects and their alternate names as follows.

The Dai exonym for the Wa of Yongde, Zhenkang and Nanla 南腊 is la˧˩. In Sipsongpanna, the Dai call them the va˩, va˩dip˥ ("Raw Va" 生佤), va˩ʔău˥ho˥ ("Head-carrying Wa" 拿头佤), va˩sə˥să˥na˥˧ ("Religious Wa" 信教佤). In Ximeng and Menglian counties, the Wa autonym is xa˧˩va˥˧, while in Cangyuan and Gengma counties it is xa˧˩va˥˧lɒi˥˧ (Zhou, et al. 2004:2).

Yan & Zhou (2012:138)[7] list the following names for Wa in various counties.

A language known as Bujiao 补角 (autonym: Puga 仆嘎) in Mengla County was mentioned in Yunnan (1960)[8] The Bujiao were classified as ethnic Bulang and had a population of 212 in 1960.

The Kela 克拉 (Dai exonym: Kala 卡拉; population: 393 people) live in District 3 三区 of Tengchong County 腾冲县, Yunnan (You 2013:359).[9] The Kela used to speak a variety of Wa, but now speak only Chinese. The Kela also refer to themselves as the Wama 佤妈.[8]

Thailand

Wa have also migrated to Thailand in the past several decades, mainly from Burma. There are about 10,000 Wa speakers in Thailand. Wa villages can be found in (Watkins 2002:6):

Phonology

Standard Wa is a non-tonal language. However, tone has developed in some of the dialects. There is correspondence between tones in tonal dialects and tenseness in non-tonal dialects.[10]

In Wa, there are 44 phonemes;[11] 35 consonants[12] and 9 vowels. All of these vowels can be tense or lax. Tenseness is a phonemic feature in syllables with unaspirated initials.[10]

Vowels

Vowel phonemes
Front Back
unrounded rounded
Close i ɯ u
Close-mid e ɤ o
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a

There are 15 diphthongs: iu, ɯi, ui, ia, ɤi, ua, ei, ou, oi~ɔi, ai, aɯ, au and 2 triphthongs: iau, uai. The general syllabic structure of Wa is C(C)(V)V(V)(C). Only a few words have zero-initials.[10]

Consonants

Consonant phonemes
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal plain m n ɲ ŋ
aspirated ɲʱ ŋʱ
Stop voiceless plain p t c k ʔ
aspirated
prenasalized voiced ᵐb ⁿd ᶮɟ ᵑɡ
aspirated ᵐbʱ ⁿdʱ ᶮɟʱ ᵑɡʱ
Fricative plain v s
aspirated h
Approximant plain l j
aspirated
Trill plain r
aspirated

Script

Wa writing and cultural symbols on a T-shirt
Wa writing and cultural symbols on a T-shirt

The Wa language formerly had no script and some of the few Wa that were literate used Chinese characters, while others used the Shan language and its script. Christian missionary work among the Wa began at the beginning of the 20th century first in the Burmese and later in the Chinese areas of the Wa territory. It was led by William Marcus Young, from Nebraska. The first transcription of the Wa language was devised by Young and Sara Yaw Shu Chin (Joshua) in 1931 with the purpose of translating the Bible. This first Wa alphabet was based on the Latin script and the very first publication was a compilation of Wa hymns in 1933,[13] the Wa New Testament being completed in 1938. This transcription, known as Bible orthography, is known as lǎowǎwén 老佤文 old Wa orthography in Chinese, and is now used mainly in the Burmese Wa areas and among the Wa in Thailand through the materials published by the Wa Welfare Society (Cub Yuh Bwan Ka son Vax, Cub Pa Yuh Phuk Lai Vax, Phuk Lai Hak Tiex Vax) in Chiang Mai.[14]

In 1956, a transcription adapted to the new pinyin romanization, known as new Wa orthography, "PRC orthography" or "Chinese orthography", was developed for the Wa people in China. However, its publications, mainly propagated through the Yunnan administration, are yet to reach a wider public beyond academics. This transcription, which originally included even a couple of letters of the Cyrillic script, has also since been revised. Despite the revisions, both the Chinese and the Bible orthography are still marred by inconsistencies.[15]

Recently, a revised Bible orthography adopting some features from the Chinese orthography has been adopted as Wa State Wa orthography or "official Wa spelling" by the central authorities of the Wa State in Pangkham which have published a series of primers in order to improve the literacy of the United Wa State Army troops. Also, after 2000 Wa people in social networks such as Facebook, as well as Wa songwriters in karaoke lyrics of Wa songs, use this Myanmar (revised Bible) orthography in its main variations.[16]

Wa Bible Orthography[11]
WBO IPA WBO IPA WBO IPA WBO IPA WBO IPA WBO IPA
p [p] bh [ᵐbʱ] nh [nʰ] rh [rʰ] o [o] e [ei]
p [pʰ] d [ⁿd] ny [ɲ] y [j] ie [ɛ] o [ou]
t [t] dh [ⁿdʱ] nyh [ɲʰ] yh [jʰ] aw [ɔ] oi, oe, we [oi~ɔi]
th [tʰ] j [ᶮɟ] ng [ŋ] l [l] a [a] ai [ai]
c [c] jh [ᶮɟʱ] ngh [ŋʰ] lh [lʰ] iu [iu] au [aɯ]
ch [cʰ] g [ᵑg] s [s] i [i] eei, ui [ɯi] au, ao [au]
k [k] gh [ᵑgʱ] h [h] ee [ɯ] ui, wi [ui] iao [iau]
kh [kʰ] m [m] v [v] u [u] ia [ia] oe [uai]
x [ʔ] mh [mʰ] vh, f [vʱ] e [e] eue [ɤi]
b [ᵐb] n [n] r [r] eu [ɤ] ua, wa [ua]

See also

References

  1. ^ Parauk at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Vo at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Awa at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Endangered Languages Project data for Phalok.
  3. ^ Zhou Zhizhi [周植志], Yan Qixiang [颜其香], Chen Guoqing [陈国庆]. 2004. A study of Wa dialects [佤语方言硏究]. Beijing: Ethnic Publishing House.
  4. ^ 澜沧拉祜族自治县东回镇东岗村细允
  5. ^ a b Sun, Jackson T.-S. 2018. New contributions to Waic phonological studies: Va. Taipei: Academia Sinica.
  6. ^ Sun, Jackson T.-S. 2018. New contributions to Palaungic phonological studies: Lavïa. Taipei: Academia Sinica.
  7. ^ Yan Qixiang [颜其香] & Zhou Zhizhi [周植志] (2012). Mon-Khmer languages of China and the Austroasiatic family [中国孟高棉语族语言与南亚语系]. Beijing: Social Sciences Academy Press [社会科学文献出版社].
  8. ^ a b Yunnan minzu shibie zonghe diaocha zubian 云南民族识别综合调查组编 (1960).Yunnan minzu shibie zonghe diaocha baogao 云南民族识别综合调查报告. Kunming: Yunnan minzu shibie zonghe diaochazu 云南民族识别综合调查组.
  9. ^ You Weiqiong [尤伟琼]. 2013. Classifying ethnic groups of Yunnan [云南民族识别研究]. Beijing: Ethnic Publishing House [民族出版社].
  10. ^ a b c "佤语研究", edited by 王敬骝.
  11. ^ a b Ma Seng Mai, A Descriptive Grammar of Wa
  12. ^ Steve Parker, ed. The Sonority Controversy. p. 154
  13. ^ The Young Family’s Work with the Wa People
  14. ^ A Bibliography of materials in or about Wa language and culture
  15. ^ SOAS - Writing of the Wa Language
  16. ^ Justin Watkins, Wa Dictionary, 2 vols. Introduction

Further reading

  • Bradley, David. 1994. "East and Southeast Asia." In Moseley, Christopher, et al. Atlas of the world's languages. London: Routledge.
  • Seng Mai, Ma (2011) A Descriptive Grammar of Wa. M.A. Thesis. Payap University. Chiang Mai, Thailand.
  • Schiller, Eric. (1985). An (Initially) Surprising Wa language and Mon-Khmer Word Order. University of Chicago Working Papers in Linguistics (UCWIPL) 1.104–119.
  • Watkins, Justin. "A Themed Selection of Wa Proverbs and Sayings." Journal of Burma Studies 17, no. 1 (2013): 29-60.
  • Watkins, Justin. 2013. Dictionary of Wa (2 vols). Leiden: Brill.
  • Watkins, Justin. 2013. 'Grammatical aesthetics in Wa'. In: Williams, Jeffrey P., (ed.), The Aesthetics of Grammar: Sound and Meaning in the Languages of Mainland Southeast Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp 99–117.
  • Watkins, Justin (2010) 'Topicalisation, focus-clefts and stranded prepositions in Wa' In: 20th Meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society, 10–11 June 2010, University of Zurich. https://eprints.soas.ac.uk/10274/
  • Watkins, Justin William. 2002. The phonetics of Wa: experimental phonetics, phonology, orthography and sociolinguistics. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.