Eastern Pwo
ဖၠုံ, ဖၠုံယှိုဝ်
Native toMyanmar, Thailand
EthnicityPwo Karen people
Native speakers
(1,050,000 cited 1998)[1]
Mon-Burmese script (various alphabets)
Leke script, Thai script
Language codes
ISO 639-3kjp
Glottologpwoe1235
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Eastern Pwo or Phlou, (Burmese: အရှေ့ပိုးကရင်) is a Karen language spoken by Eastern Pwo people and over a million people in Myanmar and by about 50,000 in Thailand, where it has been called Southern Pwo. It is not intelligible with other varieties of Pwo, with which it shares 63 to 65% lexical similarity.[2] The Eastern Pwo dialects share 91 to 97% lexical similarity.[3]

A script called Leke was developed between 1830 and 1860 and is used by members of the millenarian Leke sect of Buddhism. Otherwise, a variety of Mon-Burmese alphabets are used, and refugees in Thailand have created a Thai alphabet that is in limited use.

Distribution

Phonology

The following displays the phonological features of two of the eastern Pwo Karen dialects, Pa'an and Tavoy:

Consonants

Labial Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular/
Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ
Plosive/
Affricate
voiceless p t k ʔ
aspirated tɕʰ
voiced b d
implosive (ɓ) (ɗ)
Fricative voiceless ɕ x h
voiced ɣ ʁ
Trill r
Approximant central w j
lateral l

Vowels

Front Central Back
High i ɨ ɯ u
Near-high ɪ ʊ
High-mid e ɤ o
Low-mid ɛ ɔ
Low a

Tones

Four tones are present in Eastern Pwo:

Tones
˦
˧
˨
˥˩

Dialects

Alphabet

History

The alphabet used for Eastern Pwo Karen language is in Mon-Burmese script.

က
ka(/kaˀ/)

kha(/kʰaˀ/)

ga(/gaˀ/)

gha(/kʰaˀ/)

ṅa(/ŋa̰ˀ/)

ca(/ca̰ˀ/)

cha(/cʰa̰ˀ/)

sa(/sa̰/)

sa(/sa̰ˀ/)

ña(/ñaˀ/)

ṭa(/taˀ/)

ṭha(/tʰaˀ/)

ḍa(/ɗaˀ/)

ḍha(/ɗʰaˀ/)

ṇ(/na̰/)

ta(/taˀ/)

tha(/tʰaˀ/)

da(/da̰ˀ/)

dha(/tʰa̰ˀ/)

na(/na̰ˀ/)

pa(/pa̰ˀ/)

pha(/pʰa̰ˀ/)

ba(/ba̰ˀ/)

bha(/bʰa̰ˀ/)

ma(/ma̰ˀ/)

ya(/ya̰ˀ/)

ra(/ra̰ˀ/)

la(/la̰ˀ/)

wa(/wa̰ˀ/)

sa(/sa̰ˀ/)

ha(/ha̰ˀ/)

la(/la̰ˀ/)

a(/ʔaˀ/)

ba(/ɓaˀ/)

hha(/ŋga̰ˀ/)

ghwa(/ŋghɛ̀ˀˀ/)
Numbers
Number Eastern Pwo Karen
Numeral Written Pronounce
0 ပၠဝ်ပၠေ ပ္လေါဟ်ပ္လိဟ်

ploh plih

1 လ်ု လုဟ်

luh

2 ဏီ့ ဏီး

née

3 သိုငၲ့ သုဟ်

thuh

4 လီႉ လီး

Lee

း lee

5 ယဲါ ယေဟ်

yeh

6 ၰူ့ ဟု

hu

7 နိူဲ့ နွေ့ယ်

nwey

8 ၰိုဝၲ ၐိုဝ်

xoh

9 ခိုဲႉ ခွေး

khwee

10 ၁၀ လ်ုဆီ့(ဆီ့) luh chi/chi
11 ၁၁


ဆီ့လ်ု chi luh
12 ၁၂


ဆီ့ဏီ့ chi ne
20 ၂၀ ဏီ့ဆီ့ ne chi
21 ၂၁ ဏီ့ဆီ့လ်ု ne chi luh
22 ၂၂ ဏီ့ဆီ့ဏီ့ ne chi ne
100 ၁၀၀ လ်ုဖငၲႉ(ဖငၲႉ) luh pong/pong
101 ၁၀၁ လ်ုဖငၲႉလ်ု luh pong luh
1000 ၁၀၀၀ လ်ုမိုငၲ့(မိုငၲ့) luh muh/muh
10000 ၁၀၀၀၀ လ်ုလါ(လါ) luh lah/lah
100000 ၁၀၀၀၀၀ လ်ုသိငၲႉ(သိငၲႉ) luh thay/thay

The Eastern Pwo Karen numeric symbols have been proposed for encoding in a future Burmese Unicode block.

Decimals

Due to the close approximation to Thailand, the Eastern Pwo Karen adopts Thai's decimal word, chut, (Karen: ကျူဒၲ, ကျူ(ဒၲ); Thai: จุด; English: and, dot). For example, 1.01 is luh chut ploh plih luh (လ်ု ပၠဝ်ပၠေလ်ု).

Fractions

Fractions are formed by saying puh (ပုံႉ) after the numerator and the denominator. For example, one-third (1/3) would be luh puh thuh puh (လ်ုပုံသိုငၲ့ပုံ) and three over one, three-"oneths" (3/1) would be thuh puh luh puh (သိုငၲ့ပုံလ်ုပုံ).

References

  1. ^ Eastern Pwo at Ethnologue (25th ed., 2022) Closed access icon
  2. ^ "Myanmar". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 2016. Archived from the original on 2016-10-10.
  3. ^ "Myanmar". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 2016. Archived from the original on 2016-10-10.
  4. ^ "Myanmar". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 2016. Archived from the original on 2016-10-10.
  5. ^ "Myanmar". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 2016. Archived from the original on 2016-10-10.
  6. ^ Kato, Atsuhiko (1995). The phonological systems of three Pwo Karen dialects. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 18. pp. 63–103.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location (link) CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  7. ^ "Myanmar". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 2016. Archived from the original on 2016-10-10.
  8. ^ "Myanmar". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 2016. Archived from the original on 2016-10-10.
  9. ^ "Myanmar". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 2016. Archived from the original on 2016-10-10.