Jingpo
Kachin
Jinghpaw ga
ဈိာင်ဖေါစ်
Pronunciationtɕiŋ˧˩pʰɔʔ˧˩
Native toMyanmar, China, India
RegionKachin State, Yingjiang County
EthnicityJingpho
Native speakers
(c. 940,000 cited 1999–2001)[1]
Dialects
Latin
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-2kac
ISO 639-3Variously:
kac – Jinghpaw
sgp – Singpho
tcl – Taman
Glottologjing1260
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Jingpo (Jinghpaw ga, Jìngphòʔ gà, ဈိာင်ဖေါစ်) or Kachin (Burmese: ကချင်ဘာသာ, [kətɕɪ̀ɰ̃ bàðà]) is a Tibeto-Burman language of the Sal branch spoken primarily in Kachin State, Myanmar; Northeast India; and Yunnan, China. The Jingpo (or Kachin) peoples, a confederation of several ethnic groups who live in the Kachin Hills, are the primary speakers of Jingpo language,[2] numbering approximately 1,000,000 speakers.[3] The term "Kachin language" may refer to the Jingpo language or any of the other languages spoken by the Jingpo peoples, such as Lisu, Lashi, Rawang, Zaiwa, Lhao Vo, and Achang. These languages are from distinct branches of the highest level of the Tibeto-Burman family.

Jingpo is written using a modified Latin alphabet; a Burmese alphabet is used by some speakers, but it has largely been phased out. Jingpo syllable finals can consist of vowels, nasals, or oral stops.

The Turung of Assam in India speak a Jingpo dialect with many Assamese loanwords, called Singpho, which shares 50% lexical similarity with Jingpo.[4]

Dialects

There are at least 16 Jingpoish (Kachinic) varieties (Kurabe 2014:59). The demographic and location information listed below is drawn from Kurabe (2014). Standard Jingpo and Nkhum are the best described varieties, whereas the Jingpoish varieties of India have been recently documented by Stephen Morey. Jingpoish varieties in northern Kachin State remain little described.

The Ethnologue lists Duleng (Dalaung, Dulong[5]), Dzili (Jili), Hkaku (Hka-Hku), and Kauri (Gauri, Guari, Hkauri). According to the Ethnologue, Dzili might be a separate language, whereas Hkaku and Kauri are only slightly different.

Other underdescribed Jingpoish varieties include Mungji and Zawbung.[6] Shanke is a recently described language closely related to Jingpo, although its speakers identify themselves as Naga.[7]

Southern

Small pockets of Jingpo speakers are also scattered across Gengma County 耿马县, including the following villages (Dai Qingxia 2010).[9] Dai (2010) also includes 1,000-word vocabulary lists of the Yingjiang 盈江, Xinzhai 新寨, and Caoba 草坝 dialects.

Northeastern

Northwestern

Singpho (Northwestern Jingpoish) varieties of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, India include the following.

Internal classification

Kurabe (2014) classifies seven Jingpoish dialects as follows.

The Southern branch is characterized the loss of Proto-Jingpo final stop *-k in some lexical items. The Northern branch is characterized by the following mergers of Proto-Jingpo phonemes (Kurabe 2014:60).

Grammar

Jingpo has verbal morphology that marks the subject and the direct object. Here is one example (the tonemes are not marked). The verb is 'to be' (rai).

present past
1st person singular rai n ngai rai sa ngai
plural rai ga ai rai sa ga dai
2nd person singular rai n dai rai sin dai
plural rai ma dai rai ma sin dai
3rd person singular rai ai rai sai
plural rai ma ai rai ma sai

Phonology

The following is in Standard Jingpo:[citation needed]

Consonants

Labial Dental/
Alveolar
(Alveolo-)
palatal
Retroflex Velar Glottal
plain pal. fric. plain pal. plain pal. fric.
Nasal voiced m n ŋ
glottalized ˀm ˀmʲ ˀn ˀnʲ ˀŋ
Plosive voiceless p pᶼ t k kᶼ ʔ
aspirated pʰʲ pʰᶼ kʰʲ kʰᶼ
voiced b bᶼ d ɡ ɡʲ ɡᶼ
Affricate voiceless ts
voiced dz
Fricative s ɕ (h)
Approximant central w l j ɻ
glottalized ˀw ˀl ˀj ˀɻ

Vowels

Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e ə o
Low a

Tones

Jingpo has four tones in open syllables, and two tones in closed syllables (high and low).[19] Tones are not usually marked in writing, although they can be transcribed using diacritics as follows:[19]

Tone Orthography
High á
Mid a
Low à
Falling â

Vocabulary

The Jingpo lexicon contains a large number of words of both Tibeto-Burman and non-Tibeto-Burman stock, including Burmese and Shan.[20] Burmese loan words reflect two stratas, an older stratum reflecting the phonology of conservative written Burmese, and a newer stratum reflecting words drawn from modern Burmese phonology.[20] The older strata consist of vocabulary borrowed from Burmese via Shan, which also exhibits the pre-modern phonology of Burmese vocabulary.[20] Jingpo has also borrowed a large number of lexical items from Shan, with which it has been in close ethnolinguistic contact for several centuries.[21] Jingpo, as the lingua franca in the northern highlands of Myanmar, has in turn been the source language of vocabulary into other regional languages like Rawang and Zaiwa.[20]

Latin orthography

The Jingpo writing system is a Latin-based alphabet consisting of 23 letters, and very little use of diacritical marks, originally created by American Baptist missionaries in the late 19th century. Ola Hanson, one of the people who created the alphabet, arrived in Myanmar in 1890, learnt the language and wrote the first Kachin–English dictionary.

Jinghpaw alphabet[22]
A
ʔà
Ă
ʔa̰
E
ʔɛ̰
Ē
ʔɛ̀
È
ʔɛ́
I
ʔì
O
ʔɔ̀
U
ʔù
AI
ʔàɪɴ
AU
ʔáʊɴ
AW
ʔɔ́
OI
ʔʊ̀ɛ́
B
ba̰
CHY
t͡ɕa̰
D
da̰
G
ɡa̰
GY
ɡa̰ja̰
H
ha̰
J
d͡ʑa̰
K
ka̰
KY
ka̰ja̰
HK
kʰa̰
HKY
kʰa̰ja̰
L
la̰
M
ma̰
N
na̰
NG
ŋa̰
NY
ɲa̰
P
pa̰
HP
pʰa̰
HPY
pʰa̰ja̰
R
ja̰
S
sʰa̰
SH
ʃa̰
T
ta̰
TS
sa̰
HT
tʰa̰
W
wa̰
Y
ja̰
Z
za̰

Burmese orthography

Jingpo is also written in the Burmese alphabet.[23]

Consonants

Vowels

[-a] is the inherent vowel in every syllable.

Other diacritics

References

  1. ^ Jinghpaw at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Singpho at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Taman at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ Chyauhpa Brang Li (2015). "Jinghpaw ngu ai kadai" [Who are the Jingpo]. The Kachin Times. Vol. 1, no. 4. p. 37.
  3. ^ "ISO 639 Code: kac". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 2007-12-10. Retrieved 2008-06-08.
  4. ^ "Myanmar". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 2016. Archived from the original on 2016-10-10.
  5. ^ Not to be confused with "Dulong", the Mandarin transcription of Derung people. the Chinese transcription of Duleng is "杜连" Dulian
  6. ^ Kurabe, Keita. "Kurabe Keita". Researchmap. Archived from the original on 2015-09-25. Field research on the Mungji and Zawbung dialects of Jingpho in Burma
  7. ^ Shintani, Tadahiko (2015). The Shanke Language. Linguistic Survey of Tay Cultural Area (LSTCA), No. 104. Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa (ILCAA).
  8. ^ a b Liu, Lu 刘璐 (1984). Jǐngpǒzú yǔyán jiǎnzhì 景颇族语言简志 [A Brief Description of the Jingpo Language] (in Chinese). Beijing: Minzu chubanshe. pp. 121–122.
  9. ^ a b Dai, Qingxia 戴庆厦 (2010). Gěngmǎ xiàn jǐngpǒzú yǔyán shǐyòng xiànzhuàng jíqí yǎnbiàn 耿马县景颇族语言使用现状及其演变 [The Status Quo and Evolution of Language Use of the Jingpo Nationality in Gengma] (in Chinese). Beijing: Shangwu yinshuguan. ISBN 978-7-100-07152-9.
  10. ^ a b c Yunnan sheng difangzhi bianzuan weiyuanhui, ed. (1998). Yúnnán shěngzhì, Juǎn wǔshíjiǔ: shǎoshù mínzú yǔyán wénzì zhì 云南省志. 卷五十九, 少数民族语言文字志 [Yunnan Provincial Gazetteer, Vol. 59: Minority Languages Orthographies Gazetteer] (in Chinese). Kunming: Yunnan renmin chubanshe. p. 391.
  11. ^ "Yíngjiāng Xiàn Tàipíng Zhèn Kǎyá Cūn Zhèngtōng Gǒng Zìráncūn" 盈江县太平镇卡牙村正通拱自然村 [Zhengtong Gong Natural Village, Kaya Village, Taiping Town, Yingjiang County]. ynszxc.gov.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2015-09-25. Retrieved 2015-09-24.
  12. ^ "Yíngjiāng Xiàn Tàipíng Zhèn Lóngpén Cūn" 盈江县太平镇龙盆村 [Longpen Village, Taiping Town, Yingjiang County]. ynszxc.gov.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2015-09-25. Retrieved 2015-09-24.
  13. ^ "Gěngmǎ Dǎizú Wǎzú Zìzhìxiàn Hèpài Xiāng Mángkàng Cūnmín Wěiyuánhuì Jǐngpǒ Zìráncūn" 耿马傣族佤族自治县贺派乡芒抗村民委员会景颇自然村 [Jingpo Natural Village, Mangkang Village Committee, Hepai Township, Gengma Dai and Wa Autonomous County]. ynszxc.gov.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2015-09-25. Retrieved 2015-09-24.
  14. ^ "Gěngmǎ Dǎizú Wǎzú Zìzhìxiàn Gěngmǎ Zhèn Nòngbā Cūnwěihuì Nòngbā Dàzhài (Nàlǒng) Zìráncūn" 耿马傣族佤族自治县耿马镇弄巴村委会弄巴大寨(那拢)自然村 [Nongba Dazhai (Nalong) Natural Village, Nongba Village Committee, Gengma Town, Gengma Dai and Wa Autonomous County]. ynszxc.gov.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2015-09-25. Retrieved 2015-09-24.
  15. ^ "Gěngmǎ Dǎizú Wǎzú Zìzhìxiàn Mèngdìng Zhèn Jǐngxìn Cūnwěihuì Hèwěn Zìráncūn" 耿马傣族佤族自治县孟定镇景信村委会贺稳自然村 [Hewen Natural Village, Jingxin Village Committee, Mengding Town, Gengma Dai and Wa Autonomous County]. ynszxc.gov.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2015-09-25. Retrieved 2015-09-24.
  16. ^ "Gěngmǎ Dǎizú Wǎzú Zìzhìxiàn Mèngdìng Zhèn Qiūshān Cūnwěihuì Hébiānzhài Zìráncūn" 耿马傣族佤族自治县孟定镇邱山村委会河边寨自然村 [Hebianzhai Natural Village, Qiushan Village Committee, Mengding Town, Gengma Dai and Wa Autonomous County]. ynszxc.gov.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2015-09-25. Retrieved 2015-09-24.
  17. ^ "Gěngmǎ Dǎizú Wǎzú Zìzhìxiàn Mèngdìng Zhèn Mángài Cūnwěihuì" 耿马傣族佤族自治县孟定镇芒艾村委会 [Mang'ai Village Committee, Mengding Town, Gengma Dai and Wa Autonomous County]. ynszxc.gov.cn (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2015-09-25. Retrieved 2015-09-24.
  18. ^ Yue, Ma La (2006). "Jingpo Dulianhua gaikuang" [An Overview of Duleng Jingpo]. Minzu yuwen (in Chinese). 2006 (4): 68–81.
  19. ^ a b Kurabe, Keita (2014). "Phonological Inventories of Seven Jingphoish Languages and Dialects". Kyōtodaigaku gengogaku kenkyū / Kyoto University Linguistic Research. 33: 57–88. doi:10.14989/196278. hdl:2433/196278.
  20. ^ a b c d Kurabe, Keita (2016). "Phonology of Burmese Loanwords in Jinghpaw". Kyōtodaigaku gengogaku kenkyū / Kyoto University Linguistic Research. 35: 91–128. doi:10.14989/219015. hdl:2433/219015.
  21. ^ Kurabe, Keita (2017). "A Classified Lexicon of Shan Loanwords in Jinghpaw". Asian and African Languages and Linguistics. 2017 (11): 129–166. hdl:10108/89212.
  22. ^ [1]
  23. ^ a b "Jingpho (Jìngphòʔ gà / ဈိာင်ေဖါစ်)". Omniglot. Archived from the original on 7 February 2021. Retrieved 8 February 2021.

Bibliography