Nasu
Eastern Yi
Native toChina
EthnicityNasu (Yi)
Native speakers
1.0 million (2007)[1]
Pollard script, Yi script
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
ywq – Nasu (Wulu)
ygp – Gepo (Köpu)
yig – Wusa Nasu
ywu – Wumeng Nasu
Glottologwudi1238  Wuding-Luquan Yi = Wulu
gepo1234  Gepo
nesu1235  Nesu = Wusa–Wumeng

Nasu (Naisu, Eastern Yi), or Nasu proper, is a Loloish language spoken by a quarter million Yi people of China. Nasu proper and Wusa Nasu are two of six Yi languages recognized by the government of China. Unlike most written Yi languages, Nasu proper uses the Pollard (Miao) script. A distinct form of the Yi script was traditionally used for Wusa, though few can still read it.

Names

According to the Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002),[2] Yi autonyms include Nasu 哪苏,[3] Tusu 兔苏,[4] Lagou 腊勾,[5] Guo 果,[6] and so forth.

Most of Yi people of the Luquan area do not have the autonym Luoluo and Nasu (transliterated into Chinese as 纳苏) means "black", hence the Black Yi (黑彝 Hei Yi),[7] though Black Yi is an aristocratic caste distinction among the Yi People, and Black Yi Script (Heiyiwen) was a Latin script for Yi introduced by missionaries.[8]

Classification

Chen (1985)

Chen, et al. (1985:108) recognizes 3 major varieties of Eastern Yi (i.e., Nasu) that are spoken in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, namely Dianqian 滇黔 (Yunnan-Guizhou), Pan 盘县 (Pan County of Guizhou), and Diandongbei 滇东北 (Northeastern Yunnan).[9] Autonyms include no55su55 (alternatively nɤ55su13), na33su33 pʰo55 (including na33so33 pʰo55, nɤ55su33 pʰu55, and ni55su33 pʰu55), nɒ55 pʰo55, and ko33 pʰo55.

Huang (1993)

In his description of the Yi script (not the spoken language) Huáng Jiànmíng (1993) holds that the Nasu variety of Yi script is used by the groups speaking languages of the Nasu language cluster of Northern Yi in south-eastern Sìchuān, eastern Yúnnán, Gùizhōu, as well as in Guǎngxī.[10] He distinguishes two sub-groups. Nasu proper used in Wuding, Luquan and the suburbs of Kunming, and Wusa used in Guizhou and the bordering areas of Eastern Yunnan.

Bradley (1997)

David Bradley (1997) distinguishes three main dialects of Nasu:

Lama (2012)

Lama (2012) determined that Nasu (Western) is more closely related to Gepo than it is to the others:

Chen (2010)

Main article: Northern Loloish languages § Chen (2010)

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Alveolar (Alveolo-)
palatal
Retroflex Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ȵ ɳ ŋ
Stop voiceless p t ʈ k
aspirated ʈʰ
voiced b d ɖ ɡ
prenasal/asp. ᵐbʱ ⁿdʱ ᶯɖʱ ᵑɡʱ
Affricate voiceless t͡s t͡ɕ t͡ʂ
aspirated t͡sʰ t͡ɕʰ t͡ʂʰ
voiced d͡z d͡ʑ d͡ʐ
prenasal/asp. ⁿd͡zʱ ⁿd͡ʑʱ ᶯd͡ʐʱ
Fricative voiceless f s ɕ ʂ x h
voiced v z ʑ ʐ ɣ
lateral ɬ
Lateral l

Vowels

Front Central Back
unrd. rnd.
Close i, ɯ u
Mid e, ə˞, ə˞̠ ɤ, ɤ̠ o, , õ
Open-mid ɔ
Open a,

Tones

3 tones occur as follows:

Name Pitch Symbol
High 55 ˦
Mid 33 ˧
Low (falling) 21 ˨˩

References

  1. ^ Nasu (Wulu) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Gepo (Köpu) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Wusa Nasu at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Wumeng Nasu at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Guizhou Province Gazetteer: Ethnic Gazetteer [贵州省志. 民族志] (2002). Guiyang: Guizhou Ethnic Publishing House [貴州民族出版社].
  3. ^ http://asiaharvest.org/wp-content/themes/asia/docs/people-groups/China/chinaPeoples/N/NasuWusa.pdf
  4. ^ http://asiaharvest.org/wp-content/themes/asia/docs/people-groups/China/chinaPeoples/T/Tushu.pdf
  5. ^ http://asiaharvest.org/wp-content/themes/asia/docs/people-groups/China/chinaPeoples/L/Lagou.pdf
  6. ^ http://asiaharvest.org/wp-content/themes/asia/docs/people-groups/China/chinaPeoples/G/Guopu.pdf
  7. ^ Anthology of Yi Cultural Research [彝族文化研究文集]. Kunming: Yunnan Nationalities Publishing House (1988). p. 100. "西一带的彝族,仍有自称为'罗罗'。同时,男人自称'罗颇',女人自称'罗摩'。前述流行《四方八虎"图的滇东北武定、禄劝一带大多数彝族,虽己没有"罗罗》之自称,而从彝族尚黑祟虎的传统中,咯虎取黑以自称'纳苏'为'黑人'或'黑族' (彝语'纳"义为黑、大、深 ...”
  8. ^ Huang Xinxian [黃新宪] Christian Education and Chinese Social Change [基督敎敎育与中国社会变迁] Fujian Education Publishing [福建教育出版社] (1996). ISBN 9787533422738. p. 173 "... 这对民族区域的社会变迁具有十分积极的意义。首先,提高了少数民族地区的总体文化水平。据 1951 年对滇北武定区的调查表明,聚居于各县山谷中的苗族 9 / 10 能看能写外国传教士用拉丁字母拼写的苗文;分布在山谷中的黑彝和傈傈族,凡参加基甘教者都懂传教士用拉丁字母拼写的黑彝文和栗栗文。”
  9. ^ Chen Shilin [陈士林], et al. 1985. Yiyu jianzhi [彝语简志]. Beijing: Ethnic Publishing House [民族出版社].
  10. ^ Nathan Hill Medieval Tibeto-Burman Languages IV 2012- Page 450 "The Nasu variety is used by the groups speaking languages of the Nasu language cluster of Northern Yi in the south-eastern part of Sìchuān, the eastern part of Yúnnán, Gùizhōu, as well as in Guǎngxī. Huáng Jiànmíng (1993: 152)"
  11. ^ Chén, Kāng (2010). Yí yŭ fāng yán yán jiū [彝语方言研究]. Beijing: Central University for Nationalities Press [中央民族大学出版社].

Bibliography