Southeastern Loloish
Southeastern Ngwi
Axi-Puoid
EthnicityYi people
Geographic
distribution
Southern China, Vietnam
Linguistic classificationSino-Tibetan
Glottologsout3212

The Southeastern Loloish languages, also known as Southeastern Ngwi, are a branch of the Loloish languages. In Lama's (2012) classification, it is called Axi-Puoid, which forms the Nisoish branch together with the Nisoid (Nisu–Lope) (Northern Loloish) languages.

Languages

Southeastern Yi is one of the six Yi languages (fangyan 方言) officially recognized by the Chinese government. Sani 撒尼 is the officially recognized literary standard for Southeastern Yi. Pelkey (2011) considers Southern Yi (Nisu 尼苏) to be another officially recognized Yi fangyan 方言 that belongs to Southeastern Loloish.

Pelkey (2011)

Jamin Pelkey (2011) lists the following languages in Southeastern Ngwi (Southeastern Loloish). Four branches of Southeastern Loloish are recognized, namely Nisu, Sani–Azha, Highland Phula, and Riverine Phula.

Pelkey (2011b)[1] contains a comparative word list of Phola (Upriver Phula), Phuza (Downriver Phula), Muji (Highland Phula), Phowa (Highland Phula), and Azha.

Bradley (2007) had classified Sani, Axi, Azhe, and Azha as forming a Southeastern Central subgroup of Central Loloish, but Pelkey (2011) reclassified them as Southeastern Loloish rather than Central Loloish languages.

Also, Pelkey (2011) notes that Southeastern Ngwi may be most closely related to Northern Ngwi (including Nosu and Nasu), which is in line with Lama's (2012) proposal of a Nisoish clade.

Other languages

Pelkey (2011:353)[2] specifically excludes Pholo, noting that although it has been closely associated with speakers of Southeastern Ngwi languages historically, it does not share the defining features of the branch.

Pelkey (2011) classifies Nyisu of Shilin County as belonging to the Nisu language cluster, but notes that this classification is in need of further formal evidence. Bradley (2007), however, classifies Nyisu of Kunming as being most closely related to Suondi Yi. It is not known whether Nyisu of Kunming and Nyisu of Shilin County are related or not.

Ethnologue classifies Ache as a Southeastern Loloish language. However, Ache has not been analyzed in classifications of Southeastern Loloish by Pelkey (2011) and Lama (2012), and hence remains unclassified within the Southeastern Loloish branch.

Pelkey (2011:431) suggests that the Xiqi, Ati, and Long languages of Huaning County may be Southeastern Loloish languages.

It is uncertain if Zhayipo 扎依颇 (dza21 ʑi21 pʰo21) of Mile County is a Southeastern Loloish language or not.[3]

Glottolog and ISO 639 (2007) also add the "Nisi (China)" language (code: yso), previously named "Southeastern Lolo Yi", and still unclassified within branches of Southeastern Loloish.[4]

Innovations

Pelkey (2011:356-365) lists the following four mergers from Proto-Ngwi as Southeastern Ngwi innovations.

  1. Proto-Ngwi *ʔ-k and *ʔ-ɡl > Proto-Southeastern Ngwi * (modern reflexes: tɬ, kɬ, k, t, ɬ, etc. in words such as to load)
  2. Proto-Ngwi *pl/pj and *ʔ-kl > Proto-Southeastern Ngwi *tɬʰ (modern reflexes: tɬʰ, kɬʰ, kʰ, tʰ, ɬ, etc. in words such as bee, taro, destroy, change, excrement)
  3. Proto-Ngwi *bl/bj and *ɡl > Proto-Southeastern Ngwi * (modern reflexes: dɮ, ɡɮ, ɡ, d, etc. in words such as silver, face, pus, full, to fly, lightning, four)
  4. Proto-Ngwi *m-pl/m-plj and *m-bl/m-blj > Proto-Southeastern Ngwi *ndɮ (modern reflexes: ndɮ, ŋɡɮ, nd, etc.)

Another Southeastern Ngwi lexical innovation is that of ‘bat’, which is compounded from *b-yam¹ (‘to fly’) and *wa² (‘person’), literally meaning ‘flyer’ (Pelkey 2011:375).

Chen (1985)

Chen, et al. (1985)[5] also recognizes a similar group called Southeastern Yi (彝语东南部方言), which includes the following dialects.

Chen (2010)

In Chen (2010), Southeastern Loloish called Nesu (聂苏方言). Also listed are the counties where each respective dialect is spoken.

Demographics

The following demographics of Southeastern Loloish languages are from Pelkey (2011).

Demographics of Phula languages
Language Autonym(s) Speakers Ethnic population Villages Dialects ISO-639
Phala pʰa31la33/pʰa31la55 12,000 13,000 33 5+ ypa
Phola pʰo31la55 13,000 13,000 42 7+ ypg
Alo Phola pʰo31la55 500 500 1 1 ypo
Qila Muji m̩13dʑi33 1,500 1,500 3 3 ymq
Southern Muji m̩13dʑi33 26,000 28,000 104 6+ ymc
Northern Muji mɯ21dʑi33 9,000 15,000 61 3+ ymx
Muzi m̩13dzɨ33 10,000 16,000 42 5+ ymz
Bokha po21kʰo55 10,000 12,000 31 3+ ybk
Phuma pʰɯ55ma21 8,000 8,000 23 2 ypm
Alugu a55lɯ33gɯ33 χa21 3,500 3,500 11 2 aub
Phupa pʰɯ33 pa21 3,000 4,000 13 3 ypp
Phupha pʰɯ55 pʰa33 1,300 1,500 5 3 yph
Phuza pʰɯ55 za31 6,000 8,000 28 2+ ypz
Ani Phowa pʰo21 va33 10,000 10,000 30 3+ ypn
Labo Phowa pʰo21 va33 17,000 21,000 70 Dialect chain ypb
Hlepho Phowa pʰo21 va33 36,000 50,000 187 Dialect chain yhl
Azha a33tsa21, a55tʂa33 53,000 54,000 98 5+ aza
Zokhuo tso21kʰuo55 13,000 17,000 56 2 yzk
Khlula kɬʰu21la33 21,000 34,000 114 3+ ykl
Moji 2,000 7,000 45 2+ ymi
Phukha 10,000 14,000 41? Unknown phh
Laghuu la21ɣɯ44 500 1,500 7 Unknown lgh
Pholo pʰo55lo55 30,000 34,000 112 3+ yip
Thopho tʰo21pʰo33 200 500 2 1 ytp

The following datapoints (i.e., sample locations) for Phula languages are from Pelkey (2011:26-27).

Datapoints for Phula languages (Pelkey 2011)
Language County Township Village Datapoint Code
Alugu Gejiu Manhao 蔓耗镇 Chongtianling 冲天岭[6] CTL
Azha Yanshan County Ganhe 干河彝族乡 Faduke Dazhai 法都可大寨
("Dafa 大法")
DFC
Azha Wenshan County Dongshan 东山彝族乡 Huangzhai 荒寨[7] HZC
Azha Wenshan County Binglie 秉烈彝族乡 Luojiayi 倮家邑[8] LJY
Azha Wenshan County Binglie 秉烈彝族乡 Xiaopingba 小平坝[9] XPB
Bokha Pingbian County Dishuiceng 滴水层乡 Yibaizu 邑佰租[10] YBZ
Bokho Jinping County Ma'andi 马鞍底乡 Dixibei 地西北[11] DXB
Khlula Wenshan County Liujing 柳井彝族乡 Laozhai 老寨[12][13][14] LZC
Khlula Maguan County Muchang 木厂镇 Maxi 马西[15] MXC
Muji Pingbian County Xinxian 新现乡 Luoshuidong 落水洞[16] LSD
Muji Jinping County Adibo 阿德博乡 Pujiazhai 普家寨[17] PJZ
Muji Jinping County Jinshuihe 金水河镇 Qila 期腊[18] QLC
Muji Mengzi County Shuitian 水田乡 Xiepo 斜坡[19] XPC
Muzi Gejiu Laochang 老厂镇 Malutang 马鹿塘[20] MLT
Muzi Gejiu Kafang 卡房镇 Nuoguzhai 糯谷寨[21] NGZ
Muzi Jinping County Tongchang 铜厂乡 Shizitou 狮子头[22] SZT
Phala Honghe County Baohua 宝华乡 Beishe 碑赊[23] BSC
Phala Honghe County Yisa 迤萨镇 Feinishao 斐尼哨[24] FNS
Phola Honghe County Menglong 勐龙傣族乡 Adipo 阿底坡[25] ADP
Phola Yuanjiang County Wadie 洼垤乡 Luodie 罗垤[26] LDC
Phola Yuanjiang County Lijiang 澧江镇 Natang 那塘[27] NTC
Phole Wenshan County Dehou 德厚镇 Chekabai 扯卡白[28] CKB
Pholo Guangnan County Wuzhu 五珠乡 Fayi Xiazhai 法衣下寨[29] FYX
Pholo Yanshan County Ganhe 干河彝族乡 Shangxinzhai 上新寨[30] SXZ
Pholo Guangnan County Zhulin 珠琳镇 Xiji 西吉[31] XJC
Phowa Pingbian County Xinhua 新华乡 Feizuke 菲租克[32][33] FZK
Phowa Kaiyuan County Beige 碑格乡 Jiaji 架吉[34] JJC
Phowa Mengzi County Mingjiu 鸣鹫镇 Meizichong 梅子冲[35] MZC
Phowa Mengzi County Beige 碑格乡 Weibazhu Xiaozhai 尾巴猪小寨 WBZ
Phowa Kaiyuan County Mazheshao 马者哨乡 Wudupi 乌都皮[36] WDP
Phowa Mengzi County Xibeile 西北勒乡 Daheineng 大黑能[37] DHN
Phowa Kaiyuan County Beige 碑格乡 Lugumu 鲁姑母[38] LGM
Phowa Wenshan County Baxin 坝心彝族乡 Suozhiwan 所支弯 SZW
Phowa Mengzi County Xibeile 西北勒乡 Xibeile 西北勒[39] XBL
Phuma Pingbian County Baihe 白河乡 Yanzitou 岩子头[40] YZT
Phupa Mengzi County Shuitian 水田乡 Gamadi 嘎马底[41][42] GMD
Phupha Gejiu Jiasha 贾沙乡 Fengkou 风口[43] FKC
Phuza Mengzi County Lengquan 冷泉镇 Bujibai 补鸡白[44] BJB
Thopho Guangnan County Zhetu 者兔乡 Xinzhaicun 新寨村[45][46] XZC
Zokhuo Wenshan County Zhuiligai 追栗街镇 Daxingzhai 大兴寨[47] DXZ
Moji Xichou County Lianhuatang 莲花塘乡 Luchaichong 芦差冲[48][49] LCC

References

  1. ^ Pelkey, Jamin. 2011b. A Phula Comparative Lexicon: Phola, Phuza, Muji, Phowa, Azha Archived 2020-07-18 at the Wayback Machine. SIL International. SIL Language and Culture Documentation and Description, no. 18.
  2. ^ Pelkey, Jamin. 2011. Dialectology As Dialectic: Interpreting Phula Variation. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
  3. ^ Long Luogui 龙倮贵. 2007. Honghe yizu zuyuan zucheng ji qi renkou fenbu 红河彝族族源族称及其人口分布 Archived 2017-12-22 at the Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ ISO 639-3 Registration Agency. 2007. Change Request Documentation: 2007-083.
  5. ^ Chen Shilin [陈士林], et al. 1985. Yiyu jianzhi [彝语简志]. Beijing: Ethnic Publishing House [民族出版社].
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