Dhimalish
Geographic
distribution
India, Nepal
Linguistic classificationSino-Tibetan
Subdivisions
Glottologdhim1245

The Dhimalish languages, Dhimal and Toto, are a small group of Sino-Tibetan languages spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and the Jalpaiguri division of West Bengal, India.

Classification

Hammarström, et al.[1] note in Glottolog that Dhimalish is best considered to be a separate Sino-Tibetan branch rather than as a subgroup of Brahmaputran (Sal), and consider Dhimalish as failing to show sufficient Brahmaputran diagnostic vocabulary. Sotrug (2015)[2] considers Dhimalish to be particularly closely related to the Kiranti languages rather than to the Sal languages.

Grollmann & Gerber (2017)[3] consider Lhokpu to have a particularly close relationship with Dhimal and Toto.

Gerber & Grollmann (2018)[4] group Dhimal, Toto, and Lhokpu within Central-Eastern Kiranti.

Comparative vocabulary

Sanyal (1973:77–81) provides a comparative word list of Toto from Sunder (1895)[5] and George Abraham Grierson's Linguistic Survey of India,[6] and Dhimal from Brian Houghton Hodgson.[7][8]

English gloss Toto (Sunder) Toto (Grierson) Dhimal (Hodgson) Page no.
air bingah 77
ass pangbu 77
brother eh apu; e yolla 77
belly pa-ma hemang 77
back ju-ma gandi 77
brinjal bengini 77
bird bakhi jiha 77
behind no 77
blood viti 77
beat sapu 77
before dongangta 77
bullock pekah-dambe 77
cat minki minki dankha-menko 77
cock odangpa keka dhangai-kai 77
come quickly to-to-wa-wang le-le dhi-dhi 77
cow pika mahani-pia 77
daughter memi-cheng chai-me chamdi 77
devil jishang 77
duck hangsa hangsa hangs 77
die sipuna sili 77
dog kia kia khia 77
down lijuing 77
door lafoong duar 77
eat char chabi 77
eye michu mi 77
eyebrow mimu 77
elephant hati 77
elder sister anna 77
evening jilong 78
ear nanoong naha-thong 78
far hinda-mina 78
fire meh megue mau 78
forehead ting-ang 78
foot tang-ba kokoi 78
father appa apa aba 78
of father apak 78
two fathers apa-nisa 78
fish ngya 78
fever haina 78
good entana 78
give picha 78
girl chame 78
god iswal 78
go north enta-vatu 78
go east nuta-vatu 78
go south leta-vatu 78
go west dita-vatu 78
go vatu; hatu chhapur hadeli 78
hair puring puring poshom 78
he wa 78
he-goat edang 78
horse onyah aia 78
high hinda-nina 78
hand kooe kui khur 78
his uko oko, wang 78
head pudung pudang purin 78
house sa sa 78
I kug-ve kate ka 78
iron chaka chir 78
jackfruit dangse 79
jungle bamboo 79
lips megoe 79
leg kok-koi khokoi 79
lime churai 79
man deya waved 79
mother aeu aio amma 79
mouth noohgung 79
monkey nokka 79
milk yoti 79
moon tari tari tali 79
morning habkong 79
nose nabboh 79
nails kushing 79
near abeto 79
night lishong 79
no ma-koe 79
orange santra 79
our kongo king 79
pig pakka 79
pan leaf parai 79
plantain eungpi 79
plantain tree eungpi 79
paddy mabe 79
river tihana 79
rain vathi 79
rice unku 79
rice-beer eu 79
run tui 79
rupee tanka 79
sister ing rima 79
sun sani chhani bela 79
son chung chao, chaoa chau 79
stand lo-lo 79
star puima 79
salt ngi 80
sit iyung yongli 80
tiger koogah 80
thigh vybe 80
thou na-ga 80
tree singe 80
tooth shitang sitong 80
tongue lebek detong 80
up jujuntaye 80
water ti ti chi 80
we na-te kyel 80
woman mem-bi beval 80
wife me be 80
who ha jeti-siti 80
why ha-ranga haipali 80
younger sister ing 80
yes ke he 80
you naga nye 80
1 eoo che e-long 80
2 nih-hu ne gne-long 80
3 soongu sung sum-long 80
4 diu ji dia-long 80
5 ngyu nga na-long 80
6 tuu tu tu-long 80
7 niu dun nhu-long 80
8 yau ge, ne ye-long 80
9 kuu gu kuha-long 80
10 thau chu-tamba te-long 80
20 chuniso nisa e-long-bisha 81
100 nakai nga-kai na-long-bisha 81

See also

References

  1. ^ "Glottolog 4.4 – Kenaboi".
  2. ^ Sotrug, Yeshy T. (2015). Linguistic evidence for madeskā kirãntī. The phylogenetic position of Dhimalish. Bern: University of Bern Master’s Thesis, 22 June 2015.
  3. ^ Grollmann, Selin and Pascal Gerber. 2017. Linguistic evidence for a closer relationship between Lhokpu and Dhimal: Including some remarks on the Dhimalish subgroup. Bern: University of Bern.
  4. ^ Pascal Gerber; Selin Grollmann (2018). What is Kiranti? A Critical Account. Bulletin of Chinese Linguistics 11 (2018) 99–152.
  5. ^ Sunder, D. H. E. 1895. Survey and Settlement of Western Duars in the District of Jalpaiguri, 1889–1895.
  6. ^ Grierson, George A. 1909. Linguistic Survey of India (Vol. III, Part I, Tibeto-Burman Family: Tibetan Dialects, the Himalayan Dialects and the North Assam Group). Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing, India.
  7. ^ Hodgson, Brian. 1874. Essays on the Languages, Literatures, and Religion of Nepal and Tibet. London: Truebner and Co.
  8. ^ Hodgson, Brian Houghton. 1880. Miscellaneous Essays relating to Indian Subjects (2 vols.). London: Trübner & Co.