Southern Loloish
South China and Indochina
Linguistic classificationSino-Tibetan

The Southern Loloish or Southern Ngwi languages, also known as the Hanoish (Hanish) languages, constitute a branch of the Loloish languages that includes Akha and Hani.


See also: Phongsaly Province § Languages

The branches included in Lama (2012), with languages from Bradley (2007), are:






Bisu (Laomian), Phunoi (Singsali, Singsili), Pyen


Sila (Sida), Phana’

Akeu (Chepya)

Hani (AkhaHani, Honi)


Piyo, Enu, Mpi


Hanoid in Lama (2012) is alternatively called Akoid in Bradley (2007), who recognizes the Hani-Akha and Haoni-Baihong languages as part of the Akoid group.

Other Southern Loloish languages are:

Kato (2008) also documents:

Other Southern Loloish language varieties in south-central Yunnan include Bukong 布孔, Budu 布都,[3] Asuo 阿梭, Duota 堕塔,[4] Amu 阿木, Lami 腊米, Qiedi 切弟, Kabie 卡别,[5] Woni 窝尼, Duoni 多尼, and Habei 哈备. Habei is unclassified within Southern Loloish.

Hsiu (2016, 2018)

A 2016 computational phylogenetic lexical analysis by Hsiu (2016)[6] distinguished the following five branches of Southern Loloish, providing further support for the Hanoid (Akoid) and Bisoid branches in Lama (2012) and Bradley (2007). A new Siloid branch was added.

  1. Hanoid
  2. Bisoid
  3. Siloid
  4. Bi-Ka (?)
  5. Jinuo
Southern Loloish

The Southern Loloish tree above was subsequently revised by Hsiu (2018)[7] as follows, with 6 subgroups included.

Southern Loloish

Hsiu (2018) considers the Hani-Akha and Bi-Ka subgroups to be part of a northern linkage in south-central Yunnan, while the Siloid, Bisoid, Jino, and Mpi subgroups are part of a southern linkage in the China-Laos border region.[7]


Lama (2012) lists the following changes from Proto-Loloish as Hanoish innovations.


  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-12-29.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ Bradley, David (2007). "Language Endangerment in China and Mainland Southeast Asia". In Matthias Brenzinger, ed. Language diversity endangered. New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
  3. ^ 中国少数民族社会历史调查资料丛刊》修订编辑委员会. 2009. 哈尼族社会历史调查, p.94, 99. Beijing: Minzu Chubanshe.
  4. ^ Jiangcheng County Gazetteer (1989:351)
  5. ^ Jiang Ying [蒋颖], Cui Xia [崔霞], Qiao Xiang [乔翔]. 2009. A study of Ximoluo [西摩洛语研究]. Beijing: Ethnic Publishing House [民族出版社].
  6. ^ Hsiu, Andrew. 2016. The classification of Cosao: a Lolo-Burmese language of China and Laos. Presented at the 22nd Himalayan Languages Symposium, Guwahati, India. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1127809
  7. ^ a b Hsiu, Andrew. 2018. Classifications of some lesser-known Lolo-Burmese languages.