A voiced alveolar affricate is a type of affricate consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth. This refers to a class of sounds, not a single sound. There are several types with significant perceptual differences:
This article discusses the first two.
Voiced alveolar sibilant affricate
The voiced alveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨d͡z⟩ or ⟨d͜z⟩ (formerly ⟨ʣ⟩).
Features of the voiced alveolar sibilant affricate:
- Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
- The stop component of this affricate is laminal alveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge. For simplicity, this affricate is usually called after the sibilant fricative component.
- There are at least three specific variants of the fricative component:
- Dentalized laminal alveolar (commonly called "dental"), which means it is articulated with the tongue blade very close to the upper front teeth, with the tongue tip resting behind lower front teeth. The hissing effect in this variety of [z] is very strong.
- Non-retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
- Retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue slightly behind the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal. Acoustically, it is close to [ʒ] or laminal [ʐ].
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the intercostal muscles and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
The following sections are named after the fricative component.
Dentalized laminal alveolar
||Corresponds to /q/, /ɡ/, or /dʒ/ in other dialects.
||Possible word-initial, intervocalic and word-final allophone of /d/. See English phonology
||Possible syllable-initial and sometimes also utterance-final allophone of /d/. See English phonology
||Possible syllable-initial and word-final allophone of /d/. See English phonology
||Allophone of /d/ before /i, y, j/.
||Allophone of the cluster /tz/.
||'to go for a walk'
||Marginal phoneme that occurs only in a few words. See Luxembourgish phonology
||Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated versions. The unaspirated is represented by ज, which also represents [d͡ʒ]. The aspirated sound is represented by झ, which also represents [d͡ʒʱ]. There is no marked difference for either one.
||Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated versions. The unaspirated is represented by /ज/. The aspirated sound is represented by /झ/. See Nepali phonology
||Allophone of /d/ before /i, ĩ/, or assimilation due to the deletion of /i ~ ɨ ~ e/. Increasingly used in Brazil.
||Marginal sound. Some might instead use spelling pronunciations. See Portuguese phonology
||Corresponds to [z] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
||Varies between retracted and non-retracted, depending on the environment. Phonemically, it is a stop–fricative sequence. See Modern Greek phonology
||The fricative component varies between dentalized laminal and non-retracted apical. In the latter case, the stop component is laminal denti-alveolar. See Italian phonology
||Laminal; varies between retracted and non-retracted. Phonemically, it is a stop–fricative sequence. The example word also illustrates [s̠]. See West Frisian phonology