A voiced alveolar affricate is a type of affricate consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth. This refers to a class of sounds, not a single sound. There are several types with significant perceptual differences:

This article discusses the first two.

Voiced alveolar sibilant affricate

Voiced alveolar sibilant affricate
dz
IPA Number104 133
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʣ
Unicode (hex)U+02A3
X-SAMPAdz
Audio sample

The voiced alveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨d͡z⟩ or ⟨d͜z⟩ (formerly ⟨ʣ⟩).

Features

Features of the voiced alveolar sibilant affricate:

Occurrence

The following sections are named after the fricative component.

Dentalized laminal alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[2] ձուկ/dzuk About this sound[d̻͡z̪uk]  'fish'
Belarusian[3] дзеканне/dzekannje [ˈd̻͡z̪ekän̪ʲe] 'dzekanye' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Belarusian phonology
Czech[4] Afgánec byl [ˈävɡäːnɛd̻͡z̪ bɪɫ̪] 'an Afghan was' Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants. See Czech phonology
English birds [bɜːd͡z] 'birds' Allophone [dz]. See English phonology
Hungarian[5] bodza [ˈbod̻͡z̪ːɒ] 'elderberry' See Hungarian phonology
Kashubian[6] [example needed]
Latvian[7] drudzis [ˈd̪rud̻͡z̪is̪] 'fever' See Latvian phonology
Macedonian[8] ѕвезда/dzvezda [ˈd̻͡z̪ve̞z̪d̪ä] 'star' See Macedonian phonology
Pashto ځوان [d͡zwɑn] 'youth' 'young' See Pashto phonology
Polish[9] dzwon About this sound[d̻͡z̪vɔn̪]  'bell' See Polish phonology
Russian[10] плацдарм/placdarm [pɫ̪ɐd̻͡z̪ˈd̪är̠m] 'bridgehead' Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[11] otac bi [ǒ̞t̪äd̻͡z̪ bi] 'father would' Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants.[11] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovene[12] brivec brije [ˈbríːʋəd̻͡z̪ bríjɛ] 'barber shaves' Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants.
Tyap zat [d͡zad] 'buffalo'
Ukrainian[13] дзвін/dzvin [d̻͡z̪ʋin̪] 'bell' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[14] [example needed] Allophone of /t͡s/ before voiced consonants.[14] See Upper Sorbian phonology

Non-retracted alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Najdi[15] قـليب/dzelib [d͡zɛ̝lib] 'well' Corresponds to /q/, /ɡ/, or /dʒ/ in other dialects.
English Broad Cockney[16] day [ˈd͡zæˑɪ̯] 'day' Possible word-initial, intervocalic and word-final allophone of /d/.[17][18] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[18] [ˈd͡zeˑɪ̯]
New York[19] Possible syllable-initial and sometimes also utterance-final allophone of /d/.[19] See English phonology
Scouse[20] Possible syllable-initial and word-final allophone of /d/.[20] See English phonology
French Quebec du [d͡zy] 'of the' Allophone of /d/ before /i, y, j/.
Georgian[21] ვალი/dzvali [d͡zvɑli] 'bone'
Hebrew תזונה/dzuna [d͡zuna] 'nutrition' Allophone of the cluster /tz/.
Luxembourgish[22] spadséieren [ʃpɑˈd͡zɜ̝ɪ̯əʀən] 'to go for a walk' Marginal phoneme that occurs only in a few words.[22] See Luxembourgish phonology
Marathi जोर/dzor [d͡zor] 'force' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated versions. The unaspirated is represented by ज, which also represents [d͡ʒ]. The aspirated sound is represented by झ, which also represents [d͡ʒʱ]. There is no marked difference for either one.
Nepali /ādza [äd͡zʌ] 'today' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated versions. The unaspirated is represented by /ज/. The aspirated sound is represented by /झ/. See Nepali phonology
Portuguese European[23] desafio [d͡zɐˈfi.u] 'challenge' Allophone of /d/ before /i, ĩ/, or assimilation due to the deletion of /i ~ ɨ ~ e/. Increasingly used in Brazil.[24]
Brazilian[23][24] aprendizado [apɾẽ̞ˈd͡zadu] 'learning'
Many speakers mezzosoprano [me̞d͡zo̞so̞ˈpɾɐ̃nu] 'mezzo-soprano' Marginal sound. Some might instead use spelling pronunciations.[25] See Portuguese phonology
Romanian Moldavian dialects[26] zic [d͡zɨk] 'say' Corresponds to [z] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Teochew Swatow 日本/jitpun [d͡zit̚˨˩.pʊn˥˧] 'Japan'

Retracted alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Catalan[27] dotze [ˈd̪odd̠͡z̠ə] 'twelve' Apical. See Catalan phonology
Occitan Gascon messatge [IPA needed] 'message' Laminal in other dialects. Varies with [] in some words.
Languedocien
Piedmontese arvëdse [ɑrˈvəd̠͡z̠e] 'goodbye'
Sardinian Central dialects pranzu [ˈpränd̠͡z̠u] 'lunch'

Variable

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Greek[28] τζάκι [ˈd͡zɐc̠i] 'fireplace' Varies between retracted and non-retracted, depending on the environment. Phonemically, it is a stop–fricative sequence.[28] See Modern Greek phonology
Italian[29] zero [ˈd͡zɛːro] 'zero' The fricative component varies between dentalized laminal and non-retracted apical. In the latter case, the stop component is laminal denti-alveolar.[29] See Italian phonology
West Frisian[30] skodzje [ˈs̠kɔd͡zjə] 'shake' Laminal; varies between retracted and non-retracted.[30] Phonemically, it is a stop–fricative sequence. The example word also illustrates []. See West Frisian phonology

Voiced alveolar non-sibilant affricate

Voiced alveolar non-sibilant affricate
dɹ̝
dð̠
dð͇

Features

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[31] [example needed] A possible realization of word-final, non-pre-pausal /r/.[31]
English General American[32] dream [d͡ɹ̝ʷɪi̯m] 'dream' Phonetic realization of the stressed, syllable-initial sequence /dr/; more commonly postalveolar [d̠͡ɹ̠˔].[32] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[32]
Italian Sicily[33] Adriatico [äd͡ɹ̝iˈäːt̪iko] 'the Adriatic Sea' Apical. It is a regional realization of the sequence /dr/, and can be realized as the sequence [dɹ̝] instead.[34] See Italian phonology

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Puppel, Nawrocka-Fisiak & Krassowska (1977:149), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:154)
  2. ^ Kozintseva (1995:6)
  3. ^ Padluzhny (1989:48–49)
  4. ^ Palková (1994:234–235)
  5. ^ Szende (1999:104)
  6. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
  7. ^ Nau (1998:6)
  8. ^ Lunt (1952:1)
  9. ^ Rocławski (1976:162)
  10. ^ Chew (2003:67 and 103)
  11. ^ a b Landau et al. (1999:67)
  12. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980:21)
  13. ^ S. Buk; J. Mačutek; A. Rovenchak (2008). "Some properties of the Ukrainian writing system". Glottometrics. 16: 63–79. arXiv:0802.4198.
  14. ^ a b Šewc-Schuster (1984:22, 38))
  15. ^ Lewis jr. (2013), p. 5.
  16. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 322–323.
  17. ^ Wells (1982), p. 323.
  18. ^ a b Gimson (2014), p. 172.
  19. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 515.
  20. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 372.
  21. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  22. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 72.
  23. ^ a b (in Portuguese) Palatalization of dental occlusives /t/ and /d/ in the bilingual communities of Taquara and Panambi, RS – Alice Telles de Paula Page 14
  24. ^ a b Seqüências de (oclusiva alveolar + sibilante alveolar) como um padrão inovador no português de Belo Horizonte – Camila Tavares Leite
  25. ^ Adaptações fonológicas na pronúncia de estrangeirismos do Inglês por falantes de Português Brasileiro – Ana Beatriz Gonçalves de Assis
  26. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  27. ^ Hualde (1992:370)
  28. ^ a b Arvaniti (2007), pp. 12, 20, 23–24.
  29. ^ a b Canepari (1992), pp. 75–76.
  30. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 190.
  31. ^ a b Peters (2010), p. 240.
  32. ^ a b c Gimson (2014), pp. 177, 186–188, 192.
  33. ^ Canepari (1992), p. 64.
  34. ^ Canepari (1992), pp. 64–65.

References

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  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
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  • Kozintseva, Natalia (1995), Modern Eastern Armenian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 3895860352
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