Languedocian
lengadocian
Native toFrance
RegionSouth of France
Native speakers
[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottologlang1309
ELPLanguedocien
IETFoc-lengadoc[2][3]

Languedocien (French name, pronounced [lɑ̃ɡdɔsjɛ̃]), Languedocian or Lengadocian (Occitan pronunciation: [leŋɡoðuˈsja]), is an Occitan dialect spoken in rural parts of southern France such as Languedoc, Rouergue, Quercy, Agenais and Southern Périgord. It is sometimes also called Languedocien-Guyennais.[4] Due to its central position among the dialects of Occitan, it is often used as a basis for a Standard Occitan.[5]

About 10% of the population of Languedoc are fluent in the language (about 300,000), and another 20% (600,000) "have some understanding" of the language. All speak French as their first or second language.

Geographic distribution

The spread of Languedocien in the Occitan area.
The spread of Languedocien in the Occitan area.

Languedocien is spoken in certain parts of three French regions.

Other dialects spoken in these areas include: Gascon, Catalan, Limousin, Basque, and Auvergnat.

Characteristics

The following are the main characteristics of the Languedocien dialect:

None of these characteristics are unique to Languedocien; many are shared with one or more other Occitan dialects. Languedocien is both a central and conservative dialect. For these reasons, certain linguists are in favour of a standardisation of Occitan using Languedocien as a basis for this.[6]

Variations

Dialects and sub-dialects of Occitan according to D. Sumien[7]
Dialects and sub-dialects of Occitan according to D. Sumien[7]

Languedocien encompasses a number of variations, the classification of which is still ongoing.

Jules Ronjat gives three sub-groups:[4]

Louis Alibert uses four sub-groups:[8]

Domergue Sumien defines the categories thus:[7]

In their supra-dialectal classification of Occitan, Pierre Bec and Domergue Sumien divide Languedocien into one or two supra-dialectal groups:

Usage

With the absence of a linguistic census, it is difficult to obtain exact figures on the number of speakers. The most recent global studies on Occitan say the number of speakers ranges from 500,000 to 700,000 for the language as a whole.[11] UNESCO, which is the only organisation to treat Languedocien independently, estimates the number at around 500,000, and considers the language under serious threat.[12]

See also

References

  1. ^ Languedocien at Ethnologue (15th ed., 2005)
  2. ^ "Occitan (post 1500)". IANA language subtag registry. 18 August 2008. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  3. ^ "Languedocien"; IANA language subtag registry; subtitle: Occitan variant spoken in Languedoc; retrieved: 11 February 2019; publication date: 22 April 2018.
  4. ^ a b Ronjat, Jules (1930–1941). Grammaire istorique [sic] des parlers provençaux modernes. Montpellier: Société des langues romanes.
  5. ^ Claudi Balaguer, "Languedocian: A Central and Interface Dialect within Occitan", in John Partridge (ed.), Interfaces in Language, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2010
  6. ^ Teulat, Roger (1976). Memento grammatical de l'occitan référentiel. Sauvagnes: Cap e cap. p. 12.
  7. ^ a b Sumien, Domergue (2009). Classificacion dei dialèctes occitans.
  8. ^ Alibert, Louis (1976). Gramatica occitana segon los parlars lengadocians. Montpellier.
  9. ^ Bec, Pierre (1973). Manuel pratique d’occitan moderne. Paris: Picard.
  10. ^ Sumien, Domergue (2006). La standardisation pluricentrique de l'occitan: nouvel enjeu sociolinguistique, développement du lexique et de la morphologie. Turnhout: Brepols.
  11. ^ Philippe Martel, "Qui parle occitan ?" in Langues et cité Archived 16 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine n°10, December 2007.
  12. ^ "UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger". Archived from the original on 27 August 2021. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in French. (January 2020) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the French article. Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 5,037 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing French Wikipedia article at [[:fr:Languedocien]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|fr|Languedocien)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.