Saharan Spanish (Spanish: español saharaui) is the variety of the Spanish language spoken in Western Sahara and adjacent regions. This non-native variety is heavily influenced by both Spanish cultural links and a strong expatriate community who live in Spain and Hispanic America, particularly Cuba.

History

Western Sahara and former colonial power Spain (above) and frequent source of expatriate education Cuba (mid). A sign welcomes visitors to the People's Liberation Army Museum, a military museum in the Sahrawi refugee camps, in Arabic and Spanish.
Sahrawi woman teaching Spanish in one of the Tindouf refugee camps.
Sahrawi woman teaching Spanish in one of the Tindouf refugee camps.
School in Bir Lehlu.
School in Bir Lehlu.

Although the native and dominant languages in Western Sahara are Hassaniya Arabic and some Berber languages, Spanish was introduced by settlers in Spanish West Africa and Spanish Sahara in the 19th century.

Current usage and legal status

Spanish still influences Sahrawi society today and is the preferred second language for acquisition and government.[1] Although Arabic and Spanish are both official languages of Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Arabic is the sole official language in their constitution and the republic only uses Spanish for radio and TV broadcasts[2] and state journalism.[3]

Spanish vocabulary has entered Hassaniya, particularly in fields related to agriculture, automobiles, diet, and sanitation.[4] These loanwords are reinforced due to Sahrawis studying abroad in Hispanic lands and returning to either Western Sahara or the Sahrawi refugee camps.[4]

National Sahrawi Police.
National Sahrawi Police.
Emergency room.
Emergency room.
Sale of products in a Dajla pharmacy, note that the posters are in Spanish.
Sale of products in a Dajla pharmacy, note that the posters are in Spanish.
Coins of 2 Sahrawi pesetas with inscriptions in Spanish.
Coins of 2 Sahrawi pesetas with inscriptions in Spanish.

Lexicon

Regarding the lexicon, the preference for Hispanisms in the framework of technique and tools has been documented, just as other countries have opted for solutions of the colonizing language such as English or French.

Hispanisms used by the Saharawi community[5]
Lexical field Originating loanword
Tools enchufe
destornillador
tornillo
martillo
muelle
Automobiles/Transportation coche
caja de cambio
tubo de escape
chapa
furgoneta
motor
volante
Sport defensa
extremo
gol
Furniture mueble
cuna
mesa
cama
Health/Medicine dispensario
pomada
venda
jeringuilla
receta
Education biblioteca
recreo
lápiz
Food pera
manzana
helado
tortilla
zumo
queso
Clothing chaqueta
falda
blusa

See also

References

  1. ^ Knoerrich, Isabel A. "Language, Identities, and Cultures Between Spain and Morocco". In Jungbluth, Judith; Meierkord, Chrisitane (eds.). Identities in Migration Contexts. Gunter Narr Verlag Tübingen. p. 118. ISBN 978-3-8233-6317-0.
  2. ^ "Western Sahara profile". BBC. 14 May 2018.
  3. ^ "About Us". Sahara Press Service.
  4. ^ a b Budda, Abdurrahaman (2012). "El español en África". Association of Academies of the Spanish Language.
  5. ^ [ El español en los países árabes en Fiape: I Congreso internacional, Toledo (2005)]

Further reading