This article should specify the language of its non-English content, using ((lang)), ((transliteration)) for transliterated languages, and ((IPA)) for phonetic transcriptions, with an appropriate ISO 639 code. Wikipedia's multilingual support templates may also be used. See why. (October 2020)
Ligurian / Genoese
lìgure, zeneize/zeneise
Pronunciation[ˈliɡyre], [zeˈnejze]
Native toItaly, Monaco, France
 • Liguria
 • Southern Piedmont
 • Southwestern Lombardy
 • Western Emilia-Romagna
 • Southwestern Sardinia
 • Southeastern Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
 • Southern Corsica
Native speakers
600,000 (2002)[1]
Early forms
Official status
Official language in
 Monaco (as Monégasque)


Language codes
ISO 639-3lij
Linguasphere51-AAA-oh & 51-AAA-og
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Ligurian (/lɪˈɡjʊəriən/[2]) or Genoese (/ˌɛnˈz/[3]) (locally called zeneise or zeneize)[4] is a Gallo-Italic language spoken primarily in the territories of the former Republic of Genoa, now comprising the area of Liguria in Northern Italy, parts of the Mediterranean coastal zone of France, Monaco (where it is called Monégasque), the village of Bonifacio in Corsica, and in the villages of Carloforte on San Pietro Island and Calasetta on Sant'Antioco Island off the coast of southwestern Sardinia. It is part of the Gallo-Italic and Western Romance dialect continuum. Although part of Gallo-Italic, it exhibits several features of the Italo-Romance group of central and southern Italy. Zeneize (literally "for Genoese"), spoken in Genoa, the capital of Liguria, is the language's prestige dialect on which the standard is based.

There is a long literary tradition of Ligurian poets and writers that goes from the 13th century to the present, such as Luchetto (the Genoese Anonym), Martin Piaggio [it; lij], and Gian Giacomo Cavalli [it; lij].

A man speaking Ligurian, recorded in Italy

Geographic extent and status

Ligurian does not have an official status in Italy. Hence, it is not protected by law.[5] Historically, Genoese (the dialect spoken in the city of Genoa) is the written koiné, owing to its semi-official role as language of the Republic of Genoa, its traditional importance in trade and commerce, and its vast literature.

Like other regional languages in Italy, the use of Ligurian and its dialects is in rapid decline. ISTAT[6] (the Italian Central Service of Statistics) claims that in 2012, only 9% of the population used a language other than standard Italian with friends and family, which decreases to 1.8% with strangers. Furthermore, according to ISTAT, regional languages are more commonly spoken by uneducated people and the elderly, mostly in rural areas. Liguria is no exception. One can reasonably suppose the age pyramid to be strongly biased toward the elderly who were born before World War II, with proficiency rapidly approaching zero for newer generations. Compared to other regional languages of Italy, Ligurian has experienced a significantly smaller decline which could have been a consequence of its status or the early decline it underwent in the past. The language itself is actively preserved by various groups.

Because of the importance of Genoese trade, Ligurian was once spoken well beyond the borders of the modern province. It has since given way to standard varieties, such as Standard Italian and French. In particular, the language is traditionally spoken in coastal, northern Tuscany, southern Piedmont (part of the province of Alessandria, around the area of Novi Ligure, and the Province of Cuneo, in the municipalities of Ormea, Garessio,[7] Alto and Caprauna), western extremes of Emilia-Romagna (some areas in the province of Piacenza), and in Carloforte on San Pietro Island and Calasetta on Sant'Antioco Island off of southwestern Sardinia (known as Tabarchino), where its use is ubiquitous and increasing. It is also spoken in the department of the Alpes-Maritimes of France (mostly the Côte d'Azur from the Italian border to and including Monaco), in the town of Bonifacio at the southern tip of the French island of Corsica, and by a large community in Gibraltar (UK). It has been adopted formally in Monaco under the name Monégasque – locally, Munegascu – but without the status of official language (that is French). Monaco is the only place where a variety of Ligurian is taught in school.

The Mentonasc dialect, spoken in the East of the County of Nice, is considered to be a transitional Occitan dialect to Ligurian; conversely, Roiasc and Pignasc spoken further North in the Eastern margin of the County are Ligurian dialects with Occitan influences.


Chart of Romance languages based on structural and comparative criteria

As a Gallo-Italic language, Ligurian is most closely related to the Lombard, Piedmontese and Emilian-Romagnol languages, all of which are spoken in neighboring provinces. Unlike the aforementioned languages, however, it exhibits distinct Italian features. No link has been demonstrated by linguistic evidence between Romance Ligurian and the Ligurian language of the ancient Ligurian populations, in the form of a substrate or otherwise. Only the toponyms are known to have survived from ancient Ligurian, the name Liguria itself being the most obvious example.


Most important variants of the Ligurian language are:



Consonants in the Genovese dialect
Labial Dental/
Palatal Velar
Stop voiceless p t k
voiced b d ɡ
Affricate voiceless t͡ʃ
voiced d͡ʒ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ
voiced v z ʒ
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Trill r
Approximant l j w

Semivowels occur as allophones of /i/ and /u/, as well as in diphthongs. /u/ is realized as a semivowel [w] after a consonant, or before a vowel (i.e poeivan [pwejvaŋ]), as well as after /k/, when the sequence is spelled ⟨qu⟩.


Front Central Back
Close i iː y yː u uː
Mid e eː ø øː
ɛ ɛː ɔ ɔː
Open a aː

Diphthong sounds include ei [ej] and òu [ɔw].[8]


No universally accepted orthography exists for Ligurian. Genoese, the prestige dialect, has two main orthographic standards.

One, known as grafia unitäia (unitary orthography), has been adopted by the Ligurian-language press – including the Genoese column of the largest Ligurian press newspaper, Il Secolo XIX – as well as a number of other publishing houses and academic projects.[9][10][11][12] The other, proposed by the cultural association A Compagna [it; lij] and the Academia Ligustica do Brenno is the self-styled grafia ofiçiâ (official orthography).[13][14] The two orthographies mainly differ in their usage of diacritics and doubled consonants.

The Ligurian alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet, and consists of 25 letters: ⟨a⟩, ⟨æ⟩, ⟨b⟩, ⟨c⟩, ⟨ç⟩, ⟨d⟩, ⟨e⟩, ⟨f⟩, ⟨g⟩, ⟨h⟩, ⟨i⟩, ⟨l⟩, ⟨m⟩, ⟨n⟩, ⟨ñ⟩ or ⟨nn-⟩, ⟨o⟩, ⟨p⟩, ⟨q⟩, ⟨r⟩, ⟨s⟩, ⟨t⟩, ⟨u⟩, ⟨v⟩, ⟨x⟩, ⟨z⟩.

The ligature ⟨æ⟩ indicates the sound /ɛː/, as in çit(t)æ 'city' /siˈtɛː/. The c-cedilla ⟨ç⟩, used for the sound /s/, generally only occurs before ⟨e⟩ or ⟨i⟩, as in riçetta 'recipe' /riˈsɛtta/. The letter ⟨ñ⟩, also written as ⟨nn-⟩ (or more rarely ⟨n-n⟩, ⟨n-⟩, ⟨nh⟩, or simply ⟨nn⟩), represents the velar nasal /ŋ/ before or after vowels, such as in canpaña 'bell' /kɑŋˈpɑŋŋɑ/, or the feminine indefinite pronoun uña /ˈyŋŋɑ/.

There are five diacritics, whose precise usage varies between orthographies. They are:

The multigraphs are:


Some basic vocabulary, in the spelling of the Genoese Academia Ligustica do Brenno:

Ligurian vocabulary with multiple translations
Ligurian English Italian French Spanish Romanian Catalan
péi or péia, pl. péie pear, pears pera, pere poire, poires pera, peras pară, pere pera, peres
mei or méia, pl. méie apple, apples mela, mele pomme, pommes manzana, manzanas măr, mere poma, pomes
çetrón lemon limone citron limón lămâie llimona/llima
fîgo fig fico figue higo smochină figa
pèrsego peach pesca pêche melocotón piersică préssec/bresquilla
frambôasa raspberry lampone framboise frambuesa zmeură gerd
çêxa cherry ciliegia cerise cereza cireașă cirera
meréllo strawberry fragola fraise fresa căpșună maduixa, fraula
nôxe (wal)nut noce noix nuez nucă nou
nissêua hazelnut nocciola noisette avellana alune avellana
bricòccalo apricot albicocca abricot albaricoque caisă albercoc
ûga grape uva raisin uva strugure raïm
pigneu pine nut pinolo pignon de pin piñón sămânță de pin pinyó
tomâta tomato pomodoro tomate tomate roșie tomàquet, tomata
articiòcca artichoke carciofo artichaut alcachofa anghinare escarxofa, carxofa
êuvo egg uovo œuf huevo ouă ou
or casa home, house casa maison, domicile casa casă casa or ca
ciæo clear or light chiaro clair claro clar clar
éuggio eye occhio œil ojo ochi ull
bócca mouth bocca bouche boca gură boca
tésta head testa tête cabeza cap cap
schénn-a back schiena dos espalda spate esquena
bràsso arm braccio bras brazo braț braç
gànba leg gamba jambe pierna picior cama
cheu heart cuore cœur corazón inimă cor
arvî to open aprire ouvrir abrir deschidere obrir
serrâ to close chiudere fermer cerrar închidere tancar


  1. ^ Ligurian / Genoese at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ "Ligurian". Unabridged (Online). n.d.
  3. ^ "Genoese". Unabridged (Online). n.d.
  4. ^ "Genoese". Omniglot. Archived from the original on 2020-11-15.
  5. ^ Legge 482, voted on Dec 15, 1999 does not mention Ligurian as a regional language of Italy.
  6. ^ "L'uso della lingua italiana, dei dialetti e di altre lingue in Italia". Istituto Nazionale di Statistica (in Italian). 2018-03-09. Archived from the original on 2018-08-23. Retrieved 2018-08-22.
  7. ^ Duberti, Nicola. "L'Alta Val Tanaro: inquadramento linguistico" (in Italian). Archived from the original on 2020-02-22. Retrieved 2021-10-09 – via
  8. ^ Toso, Fiorenzo (1997). Grammatica del genovese: varietà urbana e di koiné. Recco: Le Mani.
  9. ^ Acquarone, Andrea (13 December 2015). "O sciòrte o libbro de Parlo Ciæo, pe chi gh'è cao a nòstra lengua" [The anthology of Parlo Ciæo is now out, for those who love our language]. Il Secolo XIX (in Ligurian). Genoa, Italy. Archived from the original on 12 August 2020. Retrieved 11 August 2020.
  10. ^ "GEPHRAS". GEPHRAS. University of Innsbruck. Archived from the original on 14 August 2020. Retrieved 11 August 2020.
  11. ^ "Catalogo poesia" [Catalogue of poetry] (in Italian). Editrice Zona. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 11 August 2020.
  12. ^ "Biblioteca zeneise" [Genoese library] (in Italian and Ligurian). De Ferrari editore. Archived from the original on 12 August 2020. Retrieved 11 August 2020.
  13. ^ "Grafîa ofiçiâ" [Official orthography] (in Ligurian). Academia Ligustica do Brenno. Archived from the original on 4 October 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  14. ^ Bampi, Franco (2009). Grafîa ofiçiâ. Grafia ufficiale della lingua genovese. Bolezùmme (in Ligurian and Italian). Genoa, Italy: S.E.S. – Società Editrice Sampierdarenese. ISBN 978-8889948163.

Further reading

  • Sivèro, Dàvide, The Ligurian Dialect of the Padanian Language: A Concise Grammar (PDF), Romania Minor
  • Dalbera, Jean-Philippe (1984). Les parlers des Alpes Maritimes : étude comparative, essai de reconstruction (Thesis). Université de Toulouse 2.
    • Dalbera, Jean-Philippe (1994). Les parlers des Alpes Maritimes : étude comparative, essai de reconstruction. Londres: Association Internationale d'Études Occitanes.
  • Werner Forner, "Le mentonnais entre toutes les chaises ? Regards comparatifs sur quelques mécanismes morphologiques" [Caserio & al. 2001: 11–23]
  • Intemelion (revue), No. 1, Sanremo, 1995.

  Wikisource has original text related to this article: Ligurian language wikisource