|Region||Austria, Bavaria and South Tyrol|
Extent of Bavarian
Bavarian (German: Bairisch [ˈbaɪʁɪʃ] (listen)), or alternately Austro-Bavarian, is a West Germanic language consisting of a group of dialects, part of the Upper German family, together with Alemannic and East Franconian.
Bavarian is spoken by approximately 12 million people in an area of around 125,000 square kilometres (48,000 sq mi), making it the largest of all German dialects. It can be found in the German state of Bavaria (especially Old Bavaria), most of the Republic of Austria (excluding Vorarlberg) and the Italian region of South Tyrol. In 2008, 45 percent of Bavarians claimed to use only dialect in everyday communication. Prior to 1945, Bavarian was also prevalent in parts of the southern Sudetenland and western Hungary.
Bavarian is commonly considered to be a dialect of German, but some sources classify it as a separate language: the International Organization for Standardization has assigned a unique ISO 639-3 language code (bar), and the UNESCO lists Bavarian in the Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger since 2009; however, the classification of Bavarian as an individual language has been criticized by some scholars of Bavarian.
Reasons why Bavarian can be viewed as a dialect of German include the perception of its speakers, the lack of standardization, the traditional use of Standard German as a roofing language, the relative closeness to German which does not justify Bavarian to be viewed as an abstand language, or the fact that no country applied for Bavarian to be entered into the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.
The difference between Bavarian and Standard German is larger than the difference between Danish and Norwegian or between Czech and Slovak.
Further information: History of Bavaria
The word Bavarian is derived from the name of the people who settled Bavaria along with their tribal dialect. The origin of the word is disputed. The most common theory traces the word to Bajowarjōz, meaning "inhabitants of Bojer land". In turn, Bojer (Latin: Boii, German: Boier) originated as the name for former Celtic inhabitants of the area, with the name passing to the mixed population of Celts, Romans, and successive waves of German arrivals during the early medieval period.
The local population eventually established the Duchy of Bavaria, forming the south-eastern part of the kingdom of Germany. The Old High German documents from the area of Bavaria are identified as Altbairisch ("Old Bavarian"), even though at this early date there were few distinctive features that would divide it from Alemannic German.
The dialectal separation of Upper German into East Upper German (Bavarian) and West Upper German (Alemannic) became more tangible in the Middle High German period, from about the 12th century.
Three main dialects of Bavarian are:
Differences are clearly noticeable within those three subgroups, which in Austria often coincide with the borders of the particular states. For example, each of the accents of Carinthia, Styria, and Tyrol can be easily recognised. Also, there is a marked difference between eastern and western central Bavarian, roughly coinciding with the border between Austria and Bavaria. In addition, the Viennese dialect has some characteristics distinguishing it from all other dialects. In Vienna, minor, but recognizable, variations are characteristic for distinct districts of the city.
Before the expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia, the linguistic border of Bavarian with Czech was on the farther side of the Bohemian Forest and its Bohemian foreland was Bavarian-speaking.
Alternatively, there are four main dialects:
For the use of Bavarian and standard German in Austria, see Austrian German.
citation needed] Given that Central German and Upper German together comprise the High German languages, out of which the then new, written standard was developed and as opposed to Low German, that is an alternative naming many High German dialect speakers regard justified.[
There is a Bavarian Wikipedia. Also, the official FC Bayern Munich website was available in Bavarian.
|Stop||p b||t d||k ɡ||(ʔ)|
Vowel phonemes in parentheses occur only in certain Bavarian dialects or only appear as allophones or in diphthongs. Nasalization may also be distinguished in some dialects.
Bavarian has an extensive vowel inventory, like most Germanic languages. Vowels can be grouped as back rounded, front unrounded and front rounded. They are also traditionally distinguished by length or tenseness.
|1. Sg||i måch||—||i måchad||måchadi|
|2. Sg (informal)||du måchst||måch!||du måchast||måchast|
|3. Sg||er måcht||er måch!||er måchad||måchada|
|1. Pl||mia måchan*||måchma!||mia måchadn||måchadma|
|2. Pl||eß måchts||måchts!||eß måchats||måchats|
|3. Pl||se måchan(t)||—||se måchadn||måchadns|
|2. Sg (formal)||Si måchan||måchan’S!||Si måchadn||måchadn’S|
|1st person||2nd person informal||2nd person formal||3rd person||1st person||2nd person||3rd person|
|Nominative||i||du||Si||ea, se/de, des||mia||eß/öß / ia*||se|
|Unstressed||i||--||-'S||-a, -'s, -'s||-ma||-'s||-'s|
|Dative||mia||dia||Eana||eam, eara/iara, dem||uns, ins||enk / eich*||ea, eana|
|Accusative||-mi||-di||Eana||eam, eara/iara, des||uns, ins||enk / eich*||ea, eana|
|Unstressed||Si||-'n, ..., -'s||-'s|
* These are typically used in the very northern dialects of Bavarian.
|Masculine singular||Feminine singular||Neuter singular||Plural (any gender)|
The possessive pronouns Deina and Seina inflect in the same manner. Oftentimes, -nige is added to the nominative to form the adjective form of the possessive pronoun, like mei(nige), dei(nige), and the like.
Just like the possessive pronouns listed above, the indefinite pronouns koana, "none", and oana, "one" are inflected the same way.
There is also the indefinite pronoun ebba(d), "someone" with its impersonal form ebb(a)s, "something". It is inflected in the following way:
The interrogative pronouns wea, "who", and wås, "what" are inflected the same way the indefinite pronoun ebba is inflected.
Bavarians produce a variety of nicknames for those who bear traditional Bavarian or German names like Josef, Theresa or Georg (becoming Sepp'l or more commonly Sepp, Resi and Schorsch, respectively). Bavarians often refer to names with the family name coming first (like da Stoiber Ede instead of Edmund Stoiber). The use of the article is considered mandatory when using this linguistic variation. In addition, nicknames different from the family name exist for almost all families, especially in small villages. They consist largely of their profession, names or professions of deceased inhabitants of their homes or the site where their homes are located. This nickname is called Hausname (en: name of the house) and is seldom used to name the person, but more to state where they come from or live or to whom they are related. Examples of this are:
|'s Bóarische is a Grubbm fő Dialektt im Siin fåm dætschn Shbroochråm.|
|'s Bóarische is a Grubbm fő Dialektt im Siin fóm daitschn Schproochraum.|
|Yiddish||בײַריש איז אַ גרופּע פֿון דיאַלעקטן אין דרום פֿון דײַטשיש שפּראַך־קאָנטינום
Bairish iz a grupe fun dialektn in dorem fun daitshish shprakh-kontinuum.
|German||Das Bairische ist eine Gruppe von Dialekten im Süden des deutschen Sprachraumes.|
|English||Bavarian is a group of dialects in the south of the German Sprachraum.|
|Sérawas*/Zéas/D'Ere/Griass Di/Griass Gód, i bĩ da Beeder und kumm/kimm fõ Minchn/Minicha.|
|Sérwus/Habedéare/Griass Di/Griass Gód, i bin/bĩ da Beeder und kimm/kumm fo Minga/Minka.|
|Yiddish||שלום־עליכם, איך בין פּיטר און קום אױס מינכן
Sholem aleikhm, ikh bin Piter un kum oys Minkhn.
|Standard German||Hallo/Servus/Grüß dich, ich bin Peter und komme aus München.|
|English||Hello, I am Peter and I come from Munich.|
|D'Lisa/'s-Liasl hod sé an Haxn bróchn/brócha.|
|Bavarian||D'Lisa/As /Lisl hod sé an Hax brócha.|
|Yiddish||ליסע/ליסל האָט זיך איר/דאָס/אַ בײן געבראָכן
Lise/Lisl hot zikh ir/dos/a beyn gebrokhn.
|Standard German||Lisa hat sich das Bein gebrochen.|
|English||Lisa broke/has broken her leg.|
|I ho(b)/hã/hoo a Göd/Goid gfundn/gfunna.|
|I ho(b) a Gejd/Goid/Göld gfuna.|
|Yiddish||איך האָב (עפּעס (אַ ביסל)) געלט געפֿונען
ikh hob (epes (a bisl)) gelt gefunen
|Standard German||Ich habe Geld gefunden.|
|English||I (have) found money.|
The dialects can be seen to share a number of features with Yiddish.[full citation needed]
Von der Verbreitung und von der Sprecherzahl her ist das Bairische die am weitesten verbreitete deutsche Mundart.[In terms of distribution and number of speakers, Bavarian is the most widespread German dialect.]
Mit Bairisch wird die südöstliche Gruppe der oberdeutschen Dialekte bezeichnet.[Bairisch refers to the southeastern group of the Upper German dialects.]