border variants spoken in near Lombardy and Venice provinces
|Ethnicity||3.3 million (2008)|
|Unknown, c. 1.3 million (2006 estimate) (2006)|
|Dialects||see Dialectal variety section|
Emilian speaking provinces of Emilia Romagna region and surrounding regions
Emilian (Reggian, Parmesan and Modenese: emigliân, Bolognese emiliàn; Italian: emiliano) is a Gallo-Italic unstandardised language spoken in the historical region of Emilia, which is now in the northwestern part of Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy.
Emilian has a default word order of subject–verb–object and both grammatical gender (masculine and feminine) and grammatical number (singular and plural). There is a strong T–V distinction, which distinguishes varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity or insult. The alphabet, largely adapted from the Italian (Tuscan) one, uses a considerable number of diacritics.
Main article: Gallo-Italic languages
Emilian is a Gallo-Italic unstandardized language, part of the Emilian-Romagnol dialect continuum with the bordering Romagnol varieties.
Besides Romagnol, the Gallo-Italic family includes Piedmontese, Ligurian and Lombard, all of which maintain a level of mutual intelligibility with Emilian.
The historical and geographical fragmentation of Emilian communities, divided in many local administrations (as signorie then duchies, with reciprocal exchanges of land), has caused a high dialectal fragmentation, to the point the existence of an Emilian koiné has been questioned.
Linguasphere Observatory recognises the following dialects:
Other definitions include the following:
There is no widespread standard orthography. The words below are written in a nonspecific Emilian script.
|longh, loangh||[loŋg]||long, tall|
|tōl, tegh||[to:l], [teg]||to take|
|fâṡ, fâż||[fa:z] / [fa:ð̠]||beech|
|dîṡ||[di:z]||to say, ten (only in Bolognese)|
|ê, é||[e]||(he/she) is|
Emilian is written using a Latin script that has never been standardised, and spelling varies widely among the dialects.
The dialects were largely oral and rarely written until some time in the late 20th century; a large amount of written media in Emilian has been created since World War II.
|Close||i iː||y||u uː|
|Mid||e eː||ø||ə||o oː|
|ɛ ɛː||œ||ʌ||ɔ ɔː|