This article includes a list of general references, but it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (December 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Emilian
emigliân
PronunciationIPA: [emiˈʎaːŋ]
Native toItaly
RegionPrimarily Emilia
Ethnicity3.3 million (2008)[1]
Native speakers
Unknown, c. 1.3 million (2006 estimate) (2006)[2]
DialectsBolognese, Ferrarese, Modenese, Reggiano, Parmigiano, Piacentino, Mantovano, Carrarino, Vogherese-Pavese
Latin
Language codes
ISO 639-3egl
Glottologemil1241
Linguasphere51-AAA-oka ... -okh
Emiliano-Romagnolo area.jpg
Geographic distribution of Emilian (shown in light pink)
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Emilian (Emilian: emigliàn, emiliân; Italian: emiliano) is a group of closely-related dialects part of Emilian-Romagnol continuum that are spoken in the historical region of Emilia, which is now in the northwestern part of Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy. There is no standardised version of Emilian.

Emilian-Romagnol has a default word order of subject–verb–object and both grammatical gender (masculine and feminine) and grammatical number (singular and plural). In Emilian dialects, there is a strong T–V distinction, which distinguishes varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity or insult. The alphabet, largely adapted from Standard Italian (Tuscan), uses a considerable number of diacritics.

Classification

Main article: Gallo-Italic languages

Emilian is a Gallo-Italic unstandardized language, part of the Emilian-Romagnol dialect continuum with the bordering Romagnol varieties.

Besides Emilian-Romagnol, the Gallo-Italic family includes Piedmontese, Ligurian and Lombard, all of which maintain a level of mutual intelligibility with Emilian, the latter further influenced by Italian.

Vocabulary

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

There is no widespread standard orthography. The words below are written in a nonspecific Emilian script.

Words in Emilian[3][4]
Emilian IPA English
êit, èlt [ɛ:jt] high
lêregh [ˈlɛ:rɐg] wide
longh, loangh [loŋg] long, tall
tōl, tegh [to:l], [teg] to take
fâṡ, fâż [fa:z] / [fa:ð̠] beech
bdoall [b.dœl] birch
znêr, żnèr [ð̠nɛ:r] January
fervêr [fɐrˈvɛr] February
ed, ad [ɐd] and
dîṡ [di:z] to say, ten (only in Bolognese)
ê, é [e] (he/she) is
aloura [ɐˈlɔu̯rɐ] so, then

Dialects

Linguasphere Observatory recognises the following dialects:[5]

Other definitions include the following:[citation needed]

Phonology

Consonants

Consonants in the Bolognese dialect
Labial Dental Alveolar Post-alv./
Palatal
Velar
Stop/
Affricate
voiceless p t t͡ʃ k
voiced b d d͡ʒ ɡ
Fricative voiceless f θ s
voiced v ð z
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Rhotic r
Approximant central j w
lateral l ʎ

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close i iː y u uː
Mid e eː ø ə o oː
ɛ ɛː œ ʌ ɔ ɔː
Open æ a aː

Writing system

Emilian is written using a Latin script that has never been standardised, spelling varies widely among the dialects.

The dialects were largely oral and rarely written until some in the late 20th century; a large amount of written media in Emilian has been made since World War II.

References

  1. ^ Miani, Ivan (12 April 2008). "Request for New Language Code Element in ISO 639-3, page 1ISO 639-3 Registration Authority Request for New Language Code Element in ISO 639-3" (pdf). iso639-3.sil.org. Retrieved 17 December 2012.
  2. ^ Istituto nazionale di statistica (20 April 2007). La lingua italiana, i dialetti e le lingue straniere, Anno 2006 (PDF) (in Italian). Retrieved 17 December 2012 – via portal-lem.com.
  3. ^ Lepri, Luigi; Vitali, Daniele (2007). Dizionario bolognese-italiano, italiano bolognese / Dizionèri bulgnais-itagliàn, itagliàn-bulugnais (in Italian). Bologna: Pendragon. ISBN 88-8342-594-4.
  4. ^ Vocabolario reggiano-italiano (in Italian). Reggio: Torreggiani. 1832 – via Biblioteca Panizzi.
  5. ^ "51-AAA-ok. emiliano + romagnolo". Linguasphere.
  6. ^ Foresti, Fabio (2009). Profilo linguistico dell'Emilia-Romagna (in Italian). Roma: Laterza.
  7. ^ Lepri, Luigi; Vitali, Daniele (2009). Dizionario bolognese-italiano italiano-bolognese / Dizionèri bulgnaiṡ-itagliàn itagliàn-bulgnaiṡ (2nd ed.). Bologna: Pendragon.
  8. ^ Hajek, John (1997). "Emilia-Romagna". In Maiden, Martin; Parry, Mair (eds.). The Dialects of Italy. London: Routledge. p. 275.

Bibliography

Further reading