Carara (Emilian)
Comune di Carrara
Flag of Carrara
Coat of arms of Carrara
Location of Carrara
Carrara is located in Italy
Location of Carrara in Italy
Carrara is located in Tuscany
Carrara (Tuscany)
Coordinates: 44°04.75′N 10°06.00′E / 44.07917°N 10.10000°E / 44.07917; 10.10000
ProvinceMassa and Carrara (MS)
FrazioniAvenza, Bedizzano, Bergiola, Bonascola, Castelpoggio, Codena, Colonnata, Fontia, Fossola, Gragnana, Marina di Carrara, Miseglia, Nazzano, Noceto, Sorgnano, Torano
 • MayorSerena Arrighi (Centre-left)
 • Total71 km2 (27 sq mi)
100 m (300 ft)
 (30 June 2016)[2]
 • Total62,923
 • Density890/km2 (2,300/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
Dialing code0585
Patron saintSan Ceccardo
Saint dayJune 16

Carrara (/kəˈrɑːrə/ kə-RAR, Italian: [kaˈraːɾa]; Emilian: Carara, Emilian: [kaˈɾaːɾa]) is a town and comune in Tuscany, in central Italy, of the province of Massa and Carrara, and notable for the white or blue-grey marble quarried there.[3] It is on the Carrione River, some 100 kilometres (62 mi) west-northwest of Florence. Its motto is Fortitudo mea in rota (Latin: "My strength is in the wheel").


The word Carrara likely comes from the pre-Roman (Celtic or Ligurian) element kar (stone), through Latin carrariae meaning 'quarries'.[4]


Main article: Duchy of Massa and Carrara

View of Carrara.

There were known settlements in the area as early as the ninth century BC, when the Apuan Ligures lived in the region. The current town originated from the borough built to house workers in the marble quarries created by the Romans after their conquest of Liguria in the early second century BC. Carrara has been linked with the process of quarrying and carving marble since the Roman Age. Marble was exported from the nearby harbour of Luni at the mouth of the river Magra.[5]

In the early Middle Ages it was a Byzantine and then Lombard possession, and then, it was under the Bishops of Luni who started to write the city's history when the Emperor Otto I gave it to them.[6] It turned itself into a city-state in the early 13th century; during the struggle between Guelphs and Ghibellines, Carrara usually belonged to the latter party. The Bishops acquired it again in 1230, their rule ending in 1313, when the city was given in succession to the Republics of Pisa, Lucca and Florence. Later it was acquired by Gian Galeazzo Visconti of Milan.

After the death of Filippo Maria Visconti of Milan in 1447, Carrara was fought over by Tommaso Campofregoso, lord of Sarzana, and again the Malaspina family, who moved here the seat of their signoria in the second half of the 15th century. Carrara and Massa formed the Duchy of Massa and Carrara from the 15th to the 19th century. Under the last Malaspina, Maria Teresa, who had married Ercole III d'Este, it became part of the Duchy of Modena.

After the short Napoleonic rule of Elisa Bonaparte, it was given back to Modena. During the unification of Italy age, Carrara was the seat of a popular revolt led by Domenico Cucchiari, and was a center of Giuseppe Mazzini's revolutionary activity.

The Alberto Meschi monument in Carrara.
Carrara in 1911.

At the end of the 19th century Carrara became the cradle of anarchism in Italy, in particular among the quarry workers. The quarry workers, including the stone carvers, had radical beliefs that set them apart from others. Ideas from outside the city began to influence the Carrarese. Anarchism and general radicalism became part of the heritage of the stone carvers. According to a New York Times article of 1894 many violent revolutionists who had been expelled from Belgium and Switzerland went to Carrara in 1885 and founded the first anarchist group in Italy.[7] Carrara has remained a continuous 'hotbed' of anarchism in Italy, with several organizations located openly in the city. The Anarchist marble workers were also the driving force behind organising labour in the quarries and in the carving sheds. They were also the main protagonists of the Lunigiana revolt in January 1894.

In 1929, the municipalities of Carrara, Massa and Montignoso were merged in a single municipality, called Apuania. In 1945 the previous situation was restored.

Carrara is the birthplace of the International Federation of Anarchists (IFA), formed in 1968.


As a titular Duke of Modena, the current holder of the title of "Prince of Carrara" would be Prince Lorenz of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este.


Carrara marble has been used since the time of Ancient Rome. The Pantheon and Trajan's Column in Rome are constructed of it, and many sculptures of the Renaissance were carved from it.


Fortitude Mea in Rota,my strength in the wheel latin. 5he wheel of the carriage made to transport marble blocks from quarry to load out during Roman Empire and after, is the symbol of Carrara.

Coat of arms and symbols

According to the Grand Orient of Italy, the coat of arms of Carrara contains the Comacina wheel, symbol of the ancient master stonemasons of Como.[8][9][10]

Main sights

A Carrara marble quarry
Façade of the cathedral
Palazzo Cybo Malaspina
Carrara marble exploitation
Monte Sagro and nearby quarries.

Sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy

Carrara is twinned with:[11][12]

Notable people

See also


  1. ^ "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011". Italian National Institute of Statistics. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  2. ^ "Popolazione Residente al 1° Gennaio 2018". Italian National Institute of Statistics. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  3. ^ "Carrara and its precious white gold". My Travel in Tuscany. 25 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  4. ^ Repetti
  5. ^ Carrara and its environs, InterScultura
  6. ^ Haegen, Anne Mueller von der; Strasser, Ruth F. (2013). "Carrara". Art & Architecture: Tuscany. Potsdam: H.F.Ullmann Publishing. p. 43. ISBN 978-3-8480-0321-1.
  7. ^ A Stronghold of Anarchists, The New York Times, January 19, 1894
  8. ^ "Stories of freemasons, republicans and carbonari / Il Tirreno Massa e Carrara". Archived from the original on 16 January 2021.
  9. ^ David Chiappuella (9 May 2014). "A new Masonic lodge will be born under the Apuane mountains". Archived from the original on 8 November 2023. The same symbol of Carrara is the Comacina wheel, symbol of the masters of Como
  10. ^ David Chiappuella (15 November 2020). "Carrara, the Marmifera and the quarrymen seen from the eyes of Mary Poppins". Archived from the original on 8 November 2023.
  11. ^ "All'inaugurazione del CARMI presenti anche le delegazioni delle città gemellate con Carrara". (in Italian). Carrara. 1 June 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  12. ^ "FESTIVAL - Yerevan Outdoor Advertising Festival". (in Italian). Carrara. 26 October 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2019.