Provinces of Italy
Province d'Italia  (Italian)
CategoryRegionalised unitary state
LocationItalian Republic
Number107
Populations81,415 (Province of Isernia) – 4,231,451 (Metropolitan City of Rome Capital)
Areas212.50 km2 (82.05 sq mi) (Province of Trieste) –
7,691.75 km2 (2,969.80 sq mi) (Province of Sassari)
Government
Subdivisions
Provinces of Italy (grey borders), within Regions (solid borders)
Provinces of Italy (grey borders), within Regions (solid borders)

The provinces of Italy (Italian: province d'Italia) are the second-level administrative divisions of the Italian Republic, on an intermediate level between a municipality (comune) and a region (regione). Since 2015, provinces have been classified as "institutional bodies of second level".[1]

There are currently 107 institutional bodies of second level in Italy, including 80 ordinary provinces, 2 autonomous provinces, 4 regional decentralization entities, 6 free municipal consortia, and 14 metropolitan cities, as well as the Aosta Valley region (which also exercises the powers of a province).

Italian provinces (with the exception of the current Sardinian provinces) correspond to the NUTS 3 regions.[2]

Overview

A province of the Italian Republic is composed of many municipalities (comune). Usually several provinces together form a region; the region of Aosta Valley is the sole exception—it is not subdivided into provinces, and provincial functions are exercised by the region.

The three main functions devolved to provinces are:

The number of provinces in Italy has been steadily growing in recent years, as many new ones are carved out of older ones. Usually, the province's name is the same as that of its capital city.

According to the 2014 reform, each province is headed by a President (or Commissioner) assisted by a legislative body, the Provincial Council, and an executive body, the Provincial Executive. President (Commissioner) and members of Council are elected together by mayors and city councilors of each municipality of the province. The Executive is chaired by the President (Commissioner) who appoint others members, called assessori. Since 2015, the President (Commissioner) and other members of the council will not receive a salary.[3]

In each province, there is also a Prefect (prefetto), a representative of the central government who heads an agency called prefettura-ufficio territoriale del governo. The Questor (questore) is the head of State Police (Polizia di Stato) in the province and his office is called questura. There is also a provincial police force depending from local government, called provincial police (polizia provinciale).

The South Tyrol and Trentino are autonomous provinces: unlike all other provinces they have the same legislative powers as regions and are not subordinated to Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, the region they are part of.

List of provinces

List

Note: the data is updated as of 1 January 2021

Type Province Capital Code Region Macroregion
Area
(km²)[4]
Comuni[4] Established
F Agrigento Agrigento AG Sicily Insular 416,181 3,052.82 km2
(1,178.70 sq mi)
136 43 1861
O Alessandria Alessandria AL Piedmont North-West 409,392 3,558.78 km2
(1,374.05 sq mi)
115 187 1861
O Ancona Ancona AN Marche Centre 464,419 1,963.21 km2
(758.00 sq mi)
237 47 1861
D Aosta Aosta AO Aosta Valley North-West 124,089 3,260.85 km2
(1,259.02 sq mi)
38 74 1927
O Arezzo Arezzo AR Tuscany Centre 336,501 3,232.99 km2
(1,248.26 sq mi)
104 36 1861
O Ascoli Piceno Ascoli Piceno AP Marche Centre 203,425 1,228.19 km2
(474.21 sq mi)
166 33 1861
O Asti Asti AT Piedmont North-West 209,390 1,510.17 km2
(583.08 sq mi)
139 118 1935
O Avellino Avellino AV Campania South 402,929 2,805.96 km2
(1,083.39 sq mi)
144 118 1861
M Bari Bari BA Apulia South 1,230,158 3,862.73 km2
(1,491.41 sq mi)
318 41 1861
O Barletta-Andria-Trani Barletta, Andria, Trani BT Apulia South 381,091 1,542.93 km2
(595.73 sq mi)
247 10 2004
O Belluno Belluno BL Veneto North-East 199,704 3,609.98 km2
(1,393.82 sq mi)
55 61 1866
O Benevento Benevento BN Campania South 266,716 2,080.37 km2
(803.24 sq mi)
128 78 1861
O Bergamo Bergamo BG Lombardy North-West 1,103,556 2,754.86 km2
(1,063.66 sq mi)
401 243 1861
O Biella Biella BI Piedmont North-West 170,724 913.27 km2
(352.62 sq mi)
187 74 1992
M Bologna Bologna BO Emilia-Romagna North-East 1,015,608 3,702.25 km2
(1,429.45 sq mi)
274 55 1861
O Brescia Brescia BS Lombardy North-West 1,255,709 4,785.48 km2
(1,847.68 sq mi)
262 205 1861
O Brindisi Brindisi BR Apulia South 381,946 1,861.33 km2
(718.66 sq mi)
205 20 1927
M Cagliari Cagliari CA Sardinia Insular 421,488 1,248.66 km2
(482.11 sq mi)
338 17 1861
F Caltanissetta Caltanissetta CL Sicily Insular 253,688 2,138.47 km2
(825.67 sq mi)
119 22 1861
O Campobasso Campobasso CB Molise South 212,879 2,925.28 km2
(1,129.46 sq mi)
73 84 1861
O Caserta Caserta CE Campania South 901,903 2,651.28 km2
(1,023.66 sq mi)
340 104 1861
M Catania Catania CT Sicily Insular 1,074,089 3,573.51 km2
(1,379.74 sq mi)
301 58 1861
O Catanzaro Catanzaro CZ Calabria South 344,439 2,415.41 km2
(932.60 sq mi)
143 80 1861
O Chieti Chieti CH Abruzzo South 375,215 2,599.53 km2
(1,003.68 sq mi)
144 104 1861
O Como Como CO Lombardy North-West 596,456 1,279.02 km2
(493.83 sq mi)
466 148 1861
O Cosenza Cosenza CS Calabria South 676,119 6,709.62 km2
(2,590.60 sq mi)
101 150 1861
O Cremona Cremona CR Lombardy North-West 352,242 1,770.41 km2
(683.56 sq mi)
199 113 1861
O Crotone Crotone KR Calabria South 164,059 1,735.65 km2
(670.14 sq mi)
95 27 1992
O Cuneo Cuneo CN Piedmont North-West 581,798 6,894.83 km2
(2,662.11 sq mi)
84 247 1861
F Enna Enna EN Sicily Insular 157,690 2,574.67 km2
(994.09 sq mi)
61 20 1927
O Fermo Fermo FM Marche Centre 169,710 862.75 km2
(333.11 sq mi)
197 40 2004
O Ferrara Ferrara FE Emilia-Romagna North-East 342,061 2,627.38 km2
(1,014.44 sq mi)
130 21 1861
M Florence Florence FI Tuscany Centre 998,431 3,513.65 km2
(1,356.63 sq mi)
284 41 1861
O Foggia Foggia FG Apulia South 602,394 7,007.33 km2
(2,705.55 sq mi)
86 61 1861
O Forlì-Cesena Forlì FC Emilia-Romagna North-East 392,642 2,378.32 km2
(918.27 sq mi)
165 30 1861
O Frosinone Frosinone FR Lazio Centre 472,559 3,246.96 km2
(1,253.66 sq mi)
146 91 1927
M Genoa Genoa GE Liguria North-West 823,612 1,833.75 km2
(708.01 sq mi)
449 67 1861
R Gorizia Gorizia GO Friuli-Venezia Giulia North-East 139,070 475.40 km2
(183.55 sq mi)
293 25 1923
O Grosseto Grosseto GR Tuscany Centre 217,846 4,503.17 km2
(1,738.68 sq mi)
48 28 1861
O Imperia Imperia IM Liguria North-West 209,244 1,154.76 km2
(445.86 sq mi)
181 66 1861
O Isernia Isernia IS Molise South 81,415 1,535.16 km2
(592.73 sq mi)
53 52 1970
O L'Aquila L'Aquila AQ Abruzzo South 290,811 5,047.34 km2
(1,948.79 sq mi)
58 108 1861
O La Spezia La Spezia SP Liguria North-West 215,887 881.38 km2
(340.30 sq mi)
245 32 1924
O Latina Latina LT Lazio Centre 566,224 2,256.14 km2
(871.10 sq mi)
251 33 1934
O Lecce Lecce LE Apulia South 776,230 2,798.88 km2
(1,080.65 sq mi)
277 96 1861
O Lecco Lecco LC Lombardy North-West 333,569 805.60 km2
(311.04 sq mi)
414 84 1992
O Livorno Livorno LI Tuscany Centre 328,996 1,213.52 km2
(468.54 sq mi)
271 19 1861
O Lodi Lodi LO Lombardy North-West 227,343 782.97 km2
(302.31 sq mi)
290 60 1992
O Lucca Lucca LU Tuscany Centre 383,957 1,774.04 km2
(684.96 sq mi)
216 33 1861
O Macerata Macerata MC Marche Centre 307,410 2,779.31 km2
(1,073.10 sq mi)
111 55 1861
O Mantua Mantua MN Lombardy North-West 406,061 2,341.35 km2
(904.00 sq mi)
173 64 1866
O Massa and Carrara Massa MS Tuscany Centre 189,836 1,154.60 km2
(445.79 sq mi)
164 17 1861
O Matera Matera MT Basilicata South 192,640 3,478.84 km2
(1,343.19 sq mi)
55 31 1927
M Messina Messina ME Sicily Insular 603,980 3,266.07 km2
(1,261.04 sq mi)
185 108 1861
M Milan Milan MI Lombardy North-West 3,241,813 1,575.49 km2
(608.30 sq mi)
2,058 133 1861
O Modena Modena MO Emilia-Romagna North-East 703,696 2,687.88 km2
(1,037.80 sq mi)
262 47 1861
O Monza and Brianza Monza MB Lombardy North-West 870,113 405.41 km2
(156.53 sq mi)
2,146 55 2004
M Naples Naples NA Campania South 2,986,745 1,178.94 km2
(455.19 sq mi)
2,533 92 1861
O Novara Novara NO Piedmont North-West 362,925 1,340.25 km2
(517.47 sq mi)
271 87 1861
O Nuoro Nuoro NU Sardinia Insular 201,517 5,637.97 km2
(2,176.83 sq mi)
36 74 1927
O Oristano Oristano OR Sardinia Insular 152,418 2,990.41 km2
(1,154.60 sq mi)
51 87 1974
O Padua Padua PD Veneto North-East 932,629 2,144.12 km2
(827.85 sq mi)
435 102 1866
M Palermo Palermo PA Sicily Insular 1,208,819 5,009.21 km2
(1,934.07 sq mi)
241 82 1861
O Parma Parma PR Emilia-Romagna North-East 449,628 3,447.40 km2
(1,331.05 sq mi)
130 44 1861
O Pavia Pavia PV Lombardy North-West 535,801 2,968.59 km2
(1,146.18 sq mi)
180 186 1861
O Perugia Perugia PG Umbria Centre 645,506 6,336.99 km2
(2,446.73 sq mi)
102 59 1861
O Pesaro and Urbino Pesaro PU Marche Centre 353,272 2,567.71 km2
(991.40 sq mi)
138 50 1861
O Pescara Pescara PE Abruzzo South 313,882 1,230.29 km2
(475.02 sq mi)
255 46 1927
O Piacenza Piacenza PC Emilia-Romagna North-East 283,742 2,585.76 km2
(998.37 sq mi)
110 46 1861
O Pisa Pisa PI Tuscany Centre 417,983 2,444.82 km2
(943.95 sq mi)
171 37 1861
O Pistoia Pistoia PT Tuscany Centre 290,245 964.16 km2
(372.26 sq mi)
301 20 1927
R Pordenone Pordenone PN Friuli-Venezia Giulia North-East 310,634 2,275.35 km2
(878.52 sq mi)
137 50 1968
O Potenza Potenza PZ Basilicata South 352,490 6,594.28 km2
(2,546.07 sq mi)
53 100 1861
O Prato Prato PO Tuscany Centre 265,269 365.66 km2
(141.18 sq mi)
725 7 1992
F Ragusa Ragusa RG Sicily Insular 314,910 1,623.91 km2
(627.00 sq mi)
194 12 1927
O Ravenna Ravenna RA Emilia-Romagna North-East 386,643 1,859.39 km2
(717.91 sq mi)
208 18 1861
M Reggio Calabria Reggio Calabria RC Calabria South 523,791 3,210.31 km2
(1,239.51 sq mi)
163 97 1861
O Reggio Emilia Reggio Emilia RE Emilia-Romagna North-East 527,140 2,291.15 km2
(884.62 sq mi)
230 42 1861
O Rieti Rieti RI Lazio Centre 151,335 2,750.24 km2
(1,061.87 sq mi)
55 73 1927
O Rimini Rimini RN Emilia-Romagna North-East 337,777 865.01 km2
(333.98 sq mi)
390 27 1992
M Rome Rome RM Lazio Centre 4,231,451 5,363.22 km2
(2,070.75 sq mi)
789 121 1870
O Rovigo Rovigo RO Veneto North-East 230,763 1,819.86 km2
(702.65 sq mi)
127 50 1866
O Salerno Salerno SA Campania South 1,065,967 4,954.05 km2
(1,912.77 sq mi)
215 158 1861
O Sassari Sassari SS Sardinia Insular 476,357 7,691.75 km2
(2,969.80 sq mi)
62 92 1861
O Savona Savona SV Liguria North-West 269,752 1,546.27 km2
(597.02 sq mi)
174 69 1927
O Siena Siena SI Tuscany Centre 263,801 3,820.81 km2
(1,475.22 sq mi)
69 35 1861
O Sondrio Sondrio SO Lombardy North-West 178,798 3,195.68 km2
(1,233.86 sq mi)
56 77 1861
O South Sardinia Carbonia SU Sardinia Insular 338,264 6,530.67 km2
(2,521.51 sq mi)
52 107 2016
A South Tyrol Bolzano BZ Trentino-South Tyrol North-East 534,912 7,397.86 km2
(2,856.33 sq mi)
72 116 1927
F Syracuse Syracuse SR Sicily Insular 386,071 2,124.19 km2
(820.15 sq mi)
182 21 1861
O Taranto Taranto TA Apulia South 561,958 2,467.33 km2
(952.64 sq mi)
228 29 1924
O Teramo Teramo TE Abruzzo South 301,104 1,954.34 km2
(754.57 sq mi)
154 47 1861
O Terni Terni TR Umbria Centre 219,946 2,127.23 km2
(821.33 sq mi)
103 33 1927
F Trapani Trapani TP Sicily Insular 418,277 2,469.70 km2
(953.56 sq mi)
169 25 1861
A Trento Trento TN Trentino-South Tyrol North-East 542,166 6,206.87 km2
(2,396.49 sq mi)
87 166 1923
O Treviso Treviso TV Veneto North-East 880,417 2,479.80 km2
(957.46 sq mi)
355 94 1866
R Trieste Trieste TS Friuli-Venezia Giulia North-East 230,689 212.50 km2
(82.05 sq mi)
1,086 6 1923
M Turin Turin TO Piedmont North-West 2,219,206 6,826.91 km2
(2,635.88 sq mi)
325 312 1861
R Udine Udine UD Friuli-Venezia Giulia North-East 521,117 4,969.23 km2
(1,918.63 sq mi)
105 134 1866
O Varese Varese VA Lombardy North-West 880,093 1,198.24 km2
(462.64 sq mi)
734 138 1927
M Venice Venice VE Veneto North-East 843,545 2,472.88 km2
(954.78 sq mi)
341 44 1866
O Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Verbania VB Piedmont North-West 154,926 2,260.89 km2
(872.93 sq mi)
69 74 1992
O Vercelli Vercelli VC Piedmont North-West 166,584 2,081.60 km2
(803.71 sq mi)
80 82 1927
O Verona Verona VR Veneto North-East 927,810 3,096.28 km2
(1,195.48 sq mi)
300 98 1866
O Vibo Valentia Vibo Valentia VV Calabria South 152,193 1,150.62 km2
(444.26 sq mi)
146 50 1992
O Vicenza Vicenza VI Veneto North-East 854,962 2,722.45 km2
(1,051.14 sq mi)
314 114 1866
O Viterbo Viterbo VT Lazio Centre 308,830 3,615.16 km2
(1,395.82 sq mi)
85 60 1927
Total Italy 59,236,213[5] 302,068.26 km2
(116,629.21 sq mi)[5]
196[5] 7,904[5]

Data

Italian provinces by population
Italian provinces by population density

Maps

History

National unification

In 1861, at the birth of the Kingdom of Italy, there were 59 provinces. However, at that time the national territory was smaller than the current one: regions of Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Lazio were not included in the kingdom.

In 1866, following the Third Independence War, territories of Veneto, Friuli and Mantua were annexed. There were therefore nine more provinces: Belluno, Mantua, Padua, Rovigo, Treviso, Venice, Verona, Vicenza and Udine, all previously part of the Austrian Empire. Eventually, in 1870, following the union of Rome and its province from the Papal States, the provinces rose in number to 69.

After the World War I, new territories were annexed to Italy. The province of Trento was created in 1923. Provinces of La Spezia and Trieste in 1923, while Ionio in 1924. In 1924 the new provinces of Fiume, Pola, and Zara were created, increasing the total number of provinces in Italy to 76.

Between the two World Wars

Provinces of Italy in 1942 during the World War II
Provinces of Italy in 1942 during the World War II

In 1927, following a Royal charter,[Note 1] a general province rearrangement took place. 17 new provinces were created (Aosta, Vercelli, Varese, Savona, Bolzano, Gorizia, Pistoia, Pescara, Rieti, Terni, Viterbo, Frosinone, Brindisi, Matera, Ragusa, Castrogiovanni, Nuoro) and the province of Caserta was suppressed. In the same year the institution of circondari, sub-provincial wards created before the unification, was abolished.

Province of Littoria (Latina) was created in 1934, and the Province of Asti in 1935.

Following the annexation of a part of Yugoslavia in 1941, during the World War II, the province of Zara was enlarged and joined the Governatorate of Dalmatia (comprising the province of Zara, and the new provinces of Spalato, and Cattaro), while in the occupied central part of the present-day Slovenia the new province of Ljubljana was created. This lasted only until 1945, when Yugoslavia regained the lost territories after the end of the World War II.

After World War II

In 1945, after the end of the World War II, the province of Aosta changed its name to Aosta Valley and Littoria to Latina; the new province of Caserta was recreated.

With the Paris Peace Treaties, signed on 10 February 1947, Italy lost the provinces of Fiume, Pola and Zara, and part of the provinces of Trieste and Gorizia.

Moreover, the province of Trieste was occupied by United States and British forces. The Italian Republic therefore had 91 provinces at its birth. The province of Ionio was renamed as Taranto in 1951, and in 1954 the province of Trieste was returned to Italy.

Recent history

The Province of Pordenone was created in 1968, the province of Isernia in 1970, and the Province of Oristano in 1974. In a reorganization in 1992 eight provinces were created: Verbano-Cusio-Ossola, Biella, Lecco, Lodi, Rimini, Prato, Crotone, and Vibo Valentia, while Forlì was renamed as Forlì-Cesena.

Four new provinces were created in Sardinia in 2001, with effect from 2005: Olbia-Tempio, Ogliastra, Medio Campidano and Carbonia-Iglesias. In 2004 three further provinces were created: Monza and Brianza, Fermo, and Barletta-Andria-Trani, making a total of 110 provinces.

Number of provinces
Year Provinces
1861 59
1866 68
1870 69
1923 75
1924 76
1927 92
1934 93
1935 94
1941 95
1944 94
1945 93
1947 91
1954 92
1968 93
1970 94
1974 95
1992 103
2001 107
2004 110
2016 107

In May 2012, a referendum abolished the eight provinces of Sardinia, and this suppression was to take effect on 1 March 2013. On 6 July 2012, new plans were published to reduce the number of provinces by around half.[13] In January 2014 the Sardinian Regional Administrative Court declared "unconstitutional" the abolition of the Sardinian provinces, which occurred in 2013.

In 2014 the Delrio Law[14] transformed the Provinces of Italy in a reduced number of broader administrative entities.[15]

In 2014 the Friuli Venezia Giulia of Debora Serracchiani was the first Italian region to pass a law for abolishing its provinces, while implementing the national reform in the local administrative level.[15] The Friuli region has multiplied four provinces in 18 unions of the Italian administrative unit called Comune.[16] After rejection of the 2016 Italian constitutional referendum, the Provinces of Italy were still kept alive under provisions of the Delrio Constitutional Law to be merged in a smaller number of union of provinces.[17]

Former provinces

Historical abolished provinces

Provinces of Istria, Kvarner and Dalmatia

Provinces established during World War II

Further information: Invasion of Yugoslavia

Colonial provinces

Further information: Italian Empire

Trend in number of provinces from 1861 to 2010
Trend in number of provinces from 1861 to 2010

Theoretical provinces

Further information: Italian occupation of France during World War II, Invasion of Yugoslavia, Greco-Italian War, and German invasion of Greece

Controversies

Provinces as proposed by the Monti Cabinet in 2012
Provinces as proposed by the Monti Cabinet in 2012

Provinces are often deemed useless, and many proposals have been made in recent years to eliminate them.[19][20][21] However, the difficulty of changing the constitution and the opposition of groups of politicians and citizens halted any proposal of reform.[22][23]

In 2013, during his speech to the Chamber of Deputies, newly appointed Prime Minister Enrico Letta announced that a revision of the second part of the constitution was needed, in order to change the bicameral parliamentary system and to abolish the provinces. The proposal, presented during the Renzi premiership, was rejected in the constitutional referendum held in December 2016.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Regio Decreto Legislativo n. 1/1927, 3 January 1927, "Riordinamento delle circoscrizioni provinciali"

References

  1. ^ "Addio alle vecchie province, è legge il Ddl Delrio". Il Sole 24 Ore. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  2. ^ "Glossario PAC" (in Italian). Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  3. ^ "Le elezioni". Dipartimento per gli affari interni e territoriali.
  4. ^ a b c d "Province/Città Metropolitane per superficie" (in Italian). Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  5. ^ a b c d "Italia" (in Italian). Retrieved 1 May 2022.
  6. ^ "Province, inizia il conto alla rovescia Gli enti scompariranno a febbraio 2013 - Cronache dalla Sardegna - L'Unione Sarda". Unionesarda.it. 17 August 2001. Archived from the original on 5 December 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  7. ^ "Riordino province, incostituzionale secondo il TAR Sardegna". Giurdanella.it. 10 January 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  8. ^ "Enti locali: approvato nuovo assetto territoriale e nominati amministratori straordinari". Autonomous Region of Sardinia. 20 April 2016.
  9. ^ "Carbonia diventa capoluogo della provincia del Sud Sardegna". La Nuova Sardegna. 1 June 2016.
  10. ^ Legge 24 marzo 2014, n. 8. Gazzetta Ufficiale della Regione Siciliana (in Italian). Published 28 March 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  11. ^ "Soppressione delle province del Friuli-Venezia Giulia". Autonomous Region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia. 14 December 2016.
  12. ^ Legge regionale 29 novembre 2019, n. 21. Friuli-Venezia Giulia: Leggi e regolamenti (in Italian). Published 29 November 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  13. ^ Redazione Online. "Spending review, province ridotte del 50% Patroni Griffi:«L'accorpamento è una svolta". Corriere.it. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  14. ^ "Legge 7 aprile 2014, n. 56". Gazzetta Ufficiale (in Italian). 7 April 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  15. ^ a b Called "enti territoriali di area vasta." See "L'attuazione della legge 56 in ambito regionale" [The implementation of Law n. 56 in the Italian regions] (in Italian). 5 February 2016. Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  16. ^ "Dal Friuli alla Sicilia: il caos nelle regioni". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). 5 May 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  17. ^ "Città metropolitane e province" (PDF). Italian Chamber of Deputies (in Italian). 19 April 2021. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 April 2019.
  18. ^ a b Davide Rodogno (2006). Fascism's European empire: Italian occupation during the Second World War. Cambridge University Press. pp. 89–92. ISBN 0-521-84515-7.
  19. ^ "Lombardo contro le Province "È giunto il momento di abolirle"". la Repubblica. 26 July 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  20. ^ "Pareggio di bilancio in Costituzione dal 2014 Addio Province (escluse Trento e Bolzano)". la Repubblica. 8 September 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  21. ^ "Più di un milione di persone a libro paga della Politica Spa". la Repubblica. 18 July 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  22. ^ "Il presidente della Provincia di Varese "Via le Regioni come Molise e Umbria"". la Repubblica. 16 July 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  23. ^ Fabrizzi, Federica. "LA PROVINCIA: STORIA ISTITUZIONALE DELL'ENTE LOCALE PIÙ DISCUSSO". federalismi.it. Retrieved 21 November 2011.