Approximate distribution of languages in Iron Age Italy during the sixth century BC, before the Roman expansion and conquest of Italy

The Picentes or Piceni[1] or Picentini were an ancient Italic people who lived from the 9th to the 3rd century BC in the area between the Foglia and Aterno rivers, bordered to the west by the Apennines and to the east by the Adriatic coast. Their territory, known as Picenum, therefore included all of today's Marche and the northern part of Abruzzo.

The limits of Picenum depend on the era; during the early classical antiquity the region between the Apennines and the Adriatic Sea south of Ancona was Picenum (South Picenians), while between Ancona and Rimini to the north the population was multi-ethnic (North Picenians) because after 390 BC the Senoni Gauls had combined with or supplanted earlier populations. In the Roman Republic the coastal part of northern Picenum was called the ager Gallicus.


Peoples of northern Italy in the 4th to 3rd centuries BC
Roman expansion in Italy from 500 BC to 218 BC through the Latin War (light red), Samnite Wars (pink/orange), Pyrrhic War (beige), and First and Second Punic War (yellow and green). Cisalpine Gaul (238-146 BC) and Alpine valleys (16-7 BC) were later added. The Roman Republic in 500 BC is marked with dark red.
Bronze fibula and "pettorale" at Museo Archeologico Nazionale delle Marche, Ancona.

The origins of the Picentini date from the 9th c. BC as shown by archaeology. They may have been Sabine colonists,[2][3] although this is doubted by more recent scholars, who see the South Picenes at least as more closely related to the Sabellians.

The Piceni did not have a state-type organisation, had no predominant inhabited centre and therefore had no need for a capital. In 390 BC the Senoni Gauls invaded Italy from the north and occupied Picenum north of the Esino river and the centuries-old balance in Picenum underwent drastic changes. The archaeological evidence shows groups of Senones settled much further south of this river, in the Macerata area and even in the Ascoli area, in sites such as Filottrano, San Genesio, Matelica, and Offida.

Roman Era

When in 299 BC the Romans captured Nequinum, they also concluded a treaty with the Picentes.[4] In 297 BC the Picentes warned the Roman Senate that they had been approached by the Samnites asking for alliance in renewed hostilities with Rome for which the Senate thanked them.[5]

Picentine war

The Romans in about 290 BC had absorbed the territory of the Pretuzi, south of Picenum and after a series of victories with the help of the Piceni themselves, the Senones were expelled from the coastal region in 283 BC and the Romans annexed it down to Ancona when it became part of the Ager publicus (Roman state land). The Romans had made Senigallia a colony and were planning another colony a little further north. Following this progressive and unstoppable expansion of Rome around their territory the Piceni realised that they had supported a great power by which they were surrounded, and hence they broke the alliance and in 269 BC revolted and started the "Picentine war".

The consuls Appius Claudius Russus and Titus Sempronius Sophus were sent by the Roman Senate to Picenum. Sempronius arrived through the Tronto valley, while Appius passed through Umbria, descended into the Potenza valley through the Pioraco straits and took the fortified city of Camerino. To reunite the armies, the consuls conducted the military campaign by first invading the territories of the Agro Palmense (Fermo), so as to wedge themselves between the northern and southern Piceno territories. Sempronius led his troops into the Aso valley, avoiding a frontal attack on the city of Ascoli Piceno, which would have greatly delayed the campaign. After defeating the Picene troops at Interamnia, he arrived in what is now Ortezzano; following a new clash with the Picene resistance, the same city was devastated. Meanwhile, the Piceni forces had gathered at Truento, with a strong army; thus, Sempronius had to go back, in the valley of the Tronto, slowing down the advance. Before the battle started, a massive earthquake shook the earth, throwing men on both sides into panic; the first to awake from fear were the Romans, since the consul stated that the seismic event was a favourable omen for Rome and that, after the battle, he would erected a temple in Tellure. Once the initial fear was overcome, calm returned even among the ranks of the Piceni. The ensuing clash was so violent that few survived the battle, on either side. The negative outcome of the battle reduced the Piceni to sue for peace. For Rome, the victory against the Piceni was so important that, in addition to being given a triumph to the consuls, the Senate decided to mint memorial silver coins for the first time.

Ancona retained the statute of civitas foederata or ally of Rome and Asculum received the same status but the rest of Picenum was annexed and partially Romanised, their cities being made first civitas sine suffragio (268 BC) and then civitas optimo iure (241 BC). The Romans made two more colonies to hold it: Ariminum in 268 and Firmum in 264.[6] Between these years part of the Piceno population was deported: the inhabitants of Ortona to Lake Fucino, some colonies founded in Marsica, Campania, giving them land at Paestum and on the river Silarus and assisted them to build a city, Picentia.[7] They also placed a garrison at Salernum to monitor them. Strabo reports that in his time (64 BC – c. 24 AD) they had depopulated the city in favour of villages scattered about the Salerno region.[8] In Ptolemy's time (2nd century AD) a population named by him the Picentini were still at Salernum and Surentum.[9]

Social War

Following the expansion of the Roman Republic in the 2nd century BC to which the Italians had contributed, they asked that Roman citizenship be extended to them but continued to be legally discriminated against.[10] It came to a head when the Social War (91–87 BC) broke out following an insurrection in the city of Asculum: after having killed the Roman proconsul Quintus Servilius and the legate Fonteius, the people of Asculum massacred the entire Roman population of the city.[11][12] Subsequently, the Piceni and the other Italic peoples (except the Etruscans and the Umbrians) joined together and made their own capital, Corfinium. The Piceni were therefore the main inspirers, with Peligni and Marsi, of the whole coalition; the Italian army, divided into two branches, one Sabellic led by Quintus Poppaedius Silo, the other Samnite led by Gaius Papius Mutilus,[13] had contingents of numerous peoples while the Piceni were led by Gaius Vidacilius[14] and Publius Ventidius Bassus.[15]

The initial phases of the conflict took place in Picenum, between Asculum and Firmum; the Picene commanders defeated Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo near Falerone (90 BC), forcing him to retreat and find refuge in Firmum, which was besieged. Meanwhile in the summer of the same year the commander Vidacilius rushed to support the Peligni in battle and Ventidius Bassus was sent on a diplomatic mission to the Etruscans and Umbrians to induce them to support the Italian cause; parallel to this, Pompeius Strabo received the support of a Roman contingent, sent to break the siege of the Piceni. The latter thus found themselves having to contend with the Romans on two fronts: the threat was in fact brought both by the besieged inside the city, who could make sorties, and by the troops that had just arrived in Fermo; they were thus defeated, also suffering the loss of the general left to lead the siege, the Marsian Titus Lafrenius.[16]

Picentes were however divided during the War, with some fighting against Rome for the Roman citizenship and others remaining loyal.

With the troops left after the battle of Firmum, Pompeius Strabo moved towards Asculum, besieging it. Shortly after, the commander Vidacilius went north with the intention of freeing the besieged; however, while managing to break through the enemy lines and enter the city, upon his arrival he did not find his fellow citizens willing to oppose the siege as he had requested; disappointed and indignant by this attitude, Vidacilius took his own life.

In 89 BC an army of Marsi tried to undermine the Roman encirclement of the Piceni capital, but failed; the city finally fell on that year, was razed to the ground and its citizens deprived of all property. The fall of Asculum marked the definitive defeat of the Italians. At the end of the conflict, the Piceni were ascribed to the Fabia tribe, obtaining Roman citizenship[17] and completing the Romanisation process of the Piceno population, which began in the 3rd century BC.


Regions of Augustan Italy

In 27 BC Augustus established a colony at Asculum. The territory inhabited by the Piceni during the Augustan age was divided between Regio V (Picenum) and Regio VI (Umbria et ager gallicus picenus). It was reunified during the empire of Diocletian in the Flaminia et Picenum region.


The long period of development of the Picenum civilisation has led to several periods (Picenum I to VI) being used to subdivide the period from the 9th to the 3rd c. BC.

The objects left by the Piceni are rich and strongly characteristic: in sculpture, in figurative art (which shows a remarkable imagination in figures and a tendency towards abstractionism), in the originality of the forms of ceramics, in the abundant use of amber, in the great variety of weapons and in eye-catching female adornments.

Phase "Picenum I" (9th century BC)

Picene bronze sword 9th c. BC

The birth and spread of the Picene civilisation mark the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age in the Marche region. In the first phase, the Piceni necropolises and settlements show a gradual passage between these two ages, given the close archaeological links with the previous Bronze Age civilisations widespread in the Marche: the Apennine culture and the Proto-Villanovan culture. From the point of view of funeral customs, the Picenes are distinguished from previous civilisations by the use of the burial ritual (curled up and on a bed of gravel), but among the elements of continuity with the cultures of the Bronze Age there is the permanence, strongly minority, of incineration tombs.

The archaeological evidence of this first phase shows a concentration of the population in the coastal area and in particular in the area of the Conero promontory (Ancona, Numana, Camerano, Osimo) and the short stretch of high coast of Porto Sant'Elpidio; inside, the settlements of Monte Roberto and Moie di Pollenza are known. The guiding exhibit is the kothon, a small typically Picene terracotta vase, with a flattened globular shape, with a narrow mouth and a single handle.[18]

Phase "Picenum II" (8th century BC)

Piceni breastplate with the mythical solar boat (National Archaeological Museum of the Marche in Ancona) 8th c. BC

The archaeological evidence bears witness to a diffusion of the Picene civilisation towards the north, up to the northern part of the Marche, where the very rich necropolis of Novilara was found, up to now the only one fully excavated and which has been able to enjoy a complete publication of the results of the excavation. The phase is characterised by a great development of metallurgy, also testified by typical Picene objects, such as the spiral armlets in laminate and the solar boat pectorals with wild duck protomes on the bow and stern, rich in symbolic meanings. In this phase, among other things, the first iron objects appear: short swords and cutlass. Despite this, bronze swords of the "antenna" type are still produced and used. Some metal objects bear witness to relations with the opposite Adriatic shore; among these the fibulae with spectacles, subsequently accompanied by a vast range of typologies of fibulae of all sizes, which appear as a characterising element of Picene female ornaments.[19]

Phase "Picenum III" (7th century BC and part of the 6th, up to 580 BC)

Main article: Orientalising period

The diffusion area of the phase coincides with that of the previous phase: all the Marche; however, a concentration of testimonies can be observed in the area close to the Apennines, characterised by an orientalising culture, that is influenced by the Mediterranean East: Egypt, Syria, Asia Minor. In fact, objects from these countries were imported into Picenum through the Greek emporiums of Ankón (Ancona) and Numana.[20] Also characteristic of this phase are the imports of Etruscan objects made in a style similar to the oriental one. Even the Etruscan civilisation, in fact, goes through a similar phase, also called "orientalising". Tumulus tombs and circle burials are typical of this phase, typologies that are influenced by oriental customs; in these tombs the buried are often accompanied by their war chariot. The best known centres of the orientalising Picenum area are located near the Apennine passes and are therefore linked to trade with the Etruscans: Fabriano, Pitino di San Severino, Taverne di Serravalle. The best known finds are the oinochoe made using an ostrich egg, the lid with the dance around the totem, the war chariots. In the Picenum the orientalising period begins around the middle of the 7th century.

Despite the external influences, local art is still flourishing and is characterised by the tendency to synthesise human and animal figures to the point of making them almost abstract; typical examples are the armour-discs decorated with human figures juxtaposed with fantastic animals. Furthermore, in this phase the production of extraordinary ceramics for variety and formal imagination begins. Metallurgy also produces objects of great originality, such as breastplates decorated with human figures linked together by rings or by holding hands; the best known example is the one from Numana. The fibulae are also produced in the most varied typologies, such as those with a winding bow, a dragon with antennas, a ship; another very typical item of women's clothing is the "disc-stole", made with solar symbols.

The Novilara inscriptions and the absorption of the Villanovan culture of Fermo within the Picene culture date back to this period.[21]

Phase "Picenum IV" (from 580 to 470 BC)

Statue of the Capestrano Warrior at Chieti Museum.

The phase is divided by archaeologists into "Picenum IV A" and "Picenum IV B", which are considered here together.

The territory saw a rarefaction of the testimonies to the north of the Esino and a flowering of testimonies in the south of the Marche and in the north of Abruzzo.

Some of the most typical and well-known elements of the Picene civilisation date to this period. In particular they are: the South Picene inscriptions, the monumental statuary of Numana and Capestrano, the extraordinary richness and variety of the female ornamentation of the fibulae, even more than in the previous phase and the enigmatic six-knot rings, which appeared in the early twentieth century as a symbol of the entire Picene civilisation.

The typical material of this period can be considered amber, already attested previously, but with which the best-known objects, coming from Belmonte Picenum, were made in this phase. An amber route has been identified which from the Baltic reached the coasts of Picenum, where the fossil resin was much appreciated, also due to the characteristics that put it in relation with the solar symbology. In the last century, the Piceni were also called "people of amber" because of their love for this material, and their very name was related to the Latin term pix, picis, i.e. amber.

Weapons are now all made of iron, and present a great variety and continuous updating, a rare thing in Italic peoples of the same period; among the offensive weapons of the period we remember the scimitar broadsword of the machaira type and, among those of defense, the typical helmets with reliefs in the shape of animal horns, which however coexist with other helmets of the Greek-Corinthian type. The production of armor-discs continues, but they too are strongly influenced by Greek art in their ornamentation. The inhumation is now fully extended.[22]

Phase "Picenum V" (from 470 BC until the beginning of the 4th century)

From a territorial point of view we note a revitalisation of the Picenum centres north of the Esino; south of this river all the centres already vital in the previous phase continue their activities.

The dominant archaeological feature of this phase is the massive importation of Greek red-figure pottery, which then spread throughout the Picenum territory through the ports of Numana and Ancona. In particular, the complex of vases from Numana is exceptionally rich, with specimens also monumental[23] and with rich mythological representations.

This abundance can be explained by thinking of the fact that, after the naval battle of Alalia (540 BC), the Etruscans and the Carthaginians managed to prevent the Greeks from trading freely in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Thus the Adriatic cities of Numana, Spina and Adria flourished, which in any case allowed a commercial outlet for the rich Greek vase production. Interestingly, a form of Attic pottery was produced by the Greeks specifically for the Piceni; it is the "plate with a high foot", which some archaeologists think was used to serve a typical Picenum product during banquets: olives.

Phase "Picenum VI" (4th and a small part of the 3rd century BC, up to the Battle of Sentinum)

The Battle of Sentinum conventionally marks, according to archaeology, the dissolution of the Picene culture, which from then was gradually absorbed within the Roman one.[24] Naturally, even after this date, the history of the Piceni continues, even if its vitality is no longer expressed so much on a cultural (and therefore archaeological) level, as in the important role they played during the Romanisation of the Adriatic coast. This explains the fact that, despite the Picenum phase VI is the last described by the archaeologists, the history of the Picenes continues even after this phase, and is the subject of the following paragraphs.

A fundamental event of the period is the arrival of the Senoni Gauls, who occupied the northern part of the Picenum territory, reaching as far as the Esino river, with temporary or limited expansions even further south. The Senones partially merged with the Piceni of the occupied areas, but profoundly influencing their culture.[25] After the Gallic invasion, the control by the Piceni of the Adriatic coastal area is approximately included between the Castellano torrent, Numana and the Conero.[26] The Picenum territory occupied by the Gauls was later called by the Romans Ager Gallicus or specifically the Ager Gallicus Picenus.

Another event that contributed to modifying the ethnic balance of the Picenum territory was the arrival of Greeks, coming from Syracuse, who founded the colony of Ankón (Ancona) which absorbed the previous Picenum village.[27]

Despite these factors, the Picene culture precisely in this period produced a highly original type of vase, defined by archaeologists as "upper Adriatic ceramics", characterised by female figures seen in profile, so stylised as to recall some forms of modern art.


There is a legend that a woodpecker (Latin: picus) led the way to Picenum for the people who became the Picentini and a folk etymology of their ethnonym was "those of the woodpecker."[28] For this reason the green woodpecker is the modern emblem of the Marche region.


Excavations in Picenum have given much insight into the region during the Iron Age. Excavated tombs in Novilara of the Molaroni and Servici cemeteries show that the Piceni laid bodies in the ground wrapped in garments they had worn in life.[29]

Warriors were buried with a helmet, weapons and vessels for food and drinks. Buried beads, bone, fibulae and amber seem to demonstrate that there was an active trade in the ninth and perhaps tenth centuries on the Adriatic coast, especially in the fields of amber and beads of glass paste. In women’s graves there is a large abundance of ornaments made of bronze and iron.[30]

Origins of these items may also show that the Piceni may have looked to the south and east for development.[31]

The warrior tombs seem to show that the Piceni were a war-like people. Every man’s grave contained more or less a complete outfit of a warrior, with the most frequent weapon being a spear. Piceni swords appear to be imported from the Balkans.[32]


A 2017 analysis of maternal haplogroups from ancient and modern samples indicated a substantial genetic similarity among the modern inhabitants of Central Italy and the area's ancient pre-Roman inhabitants of settlement of Novilara in the province of Pesaro, and evidence of substantial genetic continuity in the region from pre-Roman times to the present with regard to mitochondrial DNA.[33]


Main articles: South Picene language and North Picene language

From Ancona southward a language of the Umbrian group was originally spoken, today called South Picene, attested mainly in inscriptions.[34] North of Ancona around Pesaro a non-Italic language termed North Picene, written in a version of the Old Italic script, is attested by four inscriptions (three of which are very brief). Both the meaning of the inscriptions and the relationship of North Picene to other languages remain unknown. There is phonological evidence that it was linked more closely to the Indo-European language family (than to, for example, Etruscan).[35]


One endonym of the Picentes, or at least the South Picenes, may be Pupeneis or, according to Edward Togo Salmon "something similar", as this apparently ethnic name is used in four South Picenian language inscriptions found near Ascoli Piceno.[36] Later refinements of the argument connected it to the Latin name Poponius, as in inscription TE 1 found near Teramo:

apaes ...púpúnis nir
"Appaes ... a Poponian man"

The connection between Poponian and Picentes, if any, remains obscure.[37]

There is no mention in ancient sources of the endonym used by the North Picenes.

The first document to mention the Latin exonym Picentes is the Fasti triumphales, which record for 268/267 BC a triumph given to Publius Sempronius Sophus for a victory de Peicentibus, "over the Picentes," where the -ei- is an Old Latin form. The entire group of Latin Picene words delivered subsequently appear to follow the standard rules for Latin word formation. The root is Pīc-, provenience and meaning yet unknown. The extended Pīc-ēn- is used to form a second-declension adjective, appearing in such phrases as Pīcēnus ager, "Picene country," Pīcēnae olivae, "Picene olives", and the neuter used as a noun, Pīcēnum. These are not references to any people, *Pīcēni, but to the country. Pīcēnus used alone implies Pīcēnus ager, the "Picene (country)" and does not mean one resident of Picenum. This adjective is never used of the people.

For the people, a third-declension adjective stem is formed: Pīc-ent-, used in Pīcens and Pīcentes, "a Picentine" and "the Picentines," which are nouns formed from the adjective. This adjective can be used of people or of other words, as well as in a second formation of the name of the country, Pīcentum. From it comes a final name of the people, Pīcentini.[38] The historical order in which these words appeared or whether they came from each other remains unknown.

Prominent Picentes

Gentes of Picentine origin

See also


  1. ^ Piceni
  2. ^ Strabo, Geography (V, 3, 1)[*.html
  3. ^ A system of ancient and mediaeval geography for the use of schools and colleges. by Charles Anthon. by Michigan Historical Reprint Series,ISBN 1-4255-7080-1,2005, page 302
  4. ^ Livy. "Book 10, Chapter 10". History of Rome.
  5. ^ Livy. "Book 10, Chapter 11". History of Rome.
  6. ^ Staveley, ES (1989). "Rome and Italy in the Early Third Century". In Walbank, Frank William (ed.). The Cambridge Ancient History. Vol. VII: the Hellenistic World: Part 2: The Rise of Rome to 220 BC. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 425.
  7. ^ Strabo Geography V.251
  8. ^ Strabo. "Book 5, Chapter 4, Section 13". Geography.
  9. ^ Ptolemaeus, Claudius. "Book III, Chapter I, Section 7". Geography.
  10. ^ Appian, Civil Wars
  11. ^ Livy, Ab Urbe condita libri, LXXII
  12. ^ Velleio Patercolo, Historiae Romanae ad M. Vinicium consulem libri duo, II, 15
  13. ^ Giacomo Devoto, Gli antichi Italici, 2ª ed., Firenze, Vallecchi, 1951 p 336
  14. ^ Appiano Alessandrino, Storia romana, I, 39-40.
  15. ^ Lapis lapidis, p. 151
  16. ^ Giacomo Devoto, Gli antichi Italici, 2ª ed., Firenze, Vallecchi, 1951 p 338
  17. ^ Scullard, HH (1970), From the Gracchi to Nero, London: Methuen & Co. Ltd
  18. ^ Mario Zuffa, Delia Lollini, Valerio Cianfarani, La civiltà picena, in Popoli e civiltà dell'Italia antica, Roma, Biblioteca di Storia Patria, 1976, vol. V. pp. 122-160
  19. ^ Mario Zuffa, Delia Lollini, Valerio Cianfarani, La civiltà picena, in Popoli e civiltà dell'Italia antica, Roma, Biblioteca di Storia Patria, 1976, vol. V. pp. 122-160
  20. ^ Stefania Sebastiani, Ancona: forma e urbanistica, L'ERMA di BRETSCHNEIDER, 1996 (pagina 21). ISBN 9788870629507
  21. ^ Mario Zuffa, Delia Lollini, Valerio Cianfarani, La civiltà picena, in Popoli e civiltà dell'Italia antica, Roma, Biblioteca di Storia Patria, 1976, vol. V. pp. 122-160
  22. ^ Mario Zuffa, Delia Lollini, Valerio Cianfarani, La civiltà picena, in Popoli e civiltà dell'Italia antica, Roma, Biblioteca di Storia Patria, 1976, vol. V. pp. 122-160
  23. ^ Mario Zuffa, Delia Lollini, Valerio Cianfarani, La civiltà picena, in Popoli e civiltà dell'Italia antica, Roma, Biblioteca di Storia Patria, 1976, vol. V. pp. 122-160
  24. ^ Mario Zuffa, Delia Lollini, Valerio Cianfarani, La civiltà picena, in Popoli e civiltà dell'Italia antica, Roma, Biblioteca di Storia Patria, 1976, vol. V. pp. 122-160
  25. ^ La civiltà picena nelle Marche, Otto-Herman Frey, I Galli nel Piceno, p. 366.
  26. ^ Piceni popolo d'Europa, G. Colonna, I popoli del medio Adriatico, p. 11
  27. ^ Pliny, Naturalis historia, 3, 110-111.
  28. ^ Strabo. Geography. Book V, Chapter 4, Sections 2 and 12. The Picentini are originally from the Sabine country, a woodpecker having led the way ... and hence their name, for they call this bird 'picus', and consider it sacred to Mars((cite book)): CS1 maint: location (link)
  29. ^ Randall-MacIver 1927, p. 105.
  30. ^ Randall-MacIver 1927, p. 130.
  31. ^ Randall-MacIver 1927, p. 120.
  32. ^ Randall-MacIver 1927, p. 122.
  33. ^ Serventi, Patrizia; Panicucci, Chiara; Bodega, Roberta; De Fanti, Sara; Sarno, Stefania; Fondevila Alvarez, Manuel; Brisighelli, Francesca; Trombetta, Beniamino; Anagnostou, Paolo; Ferri, Gianmarco; Vazzana, Antonino (2018-01-02). "Iron Age Italic population genetics: the Piceni from Novilara (8th–7th century BC)". Annals of Human Biology. 45 (1): 34–43. doi:10.1080/03014460.2017.1414876. hdl:11573/1085197. ISSN 0301-4460. PMID 29216758.
  34. ^ Wikipedia language articles use the SIL International classification
  35. ^ Philip Baldi, 1999, The Foundations of Latin, The Hague, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 134–6, 152–3.
  36. ^ Salmon, Edward Togo (1988). "The Iron Age: the peoples of Italy". In Boardman, John; Hammond, NGL; Lewis, DM; et al. (eds.). The Cambridge Ancient History. Vol. 4: Persia, Greece and the Western Mediterranean, c.525 to 479 BC (2nd ed.). pp. 697–698. ISBN 0-521-22804-2. Four of those found north of the Tronto or near Ascoli Piceno allude to a people called Pupeneis or something similar: could these be the Italic Picentes known to the Romans?
  37. ^ Weiss, Michael (2001). "Observations on the South Picene Inscription TE 1 (S. Omero)" (PDF). Cornell University. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
  38. ^ Lewis, Charlton T.; Short, Charles (2007) [1879]. "Pīcēnum". A Latin Dictionary. Perseus Digital Library, Tufts University. Retrieved 4 September 2010.