National-level elections in Italy are called periodically to form a parliament consisting of two houses: the Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei Deputati) with 630 members; and the Senate of the Republic (Senato della Repubblica) with 315 elected members, plus a few appointed senators for life. Italy is a parliamentary republic: the President of the Republic is elected for a seven-year term by the two houses of Parliament in joint session, together with special electors appointed by the Regional Councils.
During its history, Italy has had many political parties, both national and regional, with different party systems.
The most recent Italian general election was held on 4 March 2018.
Main article: 2018 Italian general election
The last general election was held on 4 March 2018.
The centre-right alliance, in which Matteo Salvini's League emerged as the main political force, won a plurality of seats in the Chamber of Deputies and in the Senate of the Republic. The anti-establishment Five Star Movement led by Luigi Di Maio became the party with the largest number of votes, and the centre-left coalition, led by former Prime Minister Matteo Renzi, came third. However, no political group or party won an outright majority, resulting in a hung parliament.
After three months of negotiation, a coalition was finally formed on 1 June between the M5S and the League, whose leaders both became Deputy Prime Ministers in a government led by the M5S-linked independent Giuseppe Conte as Prime Minister.
|Centre-right coalition||League (Lega)||5,698,687||17.35||73||12,152,345||37.00||49||240,072||21.43||2||125||+109|
|Forza Italia (FI)||4,596,956||14.00||59||46||1||104||+1|
|Brothers of Italy (FdI)||1,429,550||4.35||19||12||0||32||+25|
|Us with Italy–UdC (NcI–UdC)||427,152||1.30||0||4||11,845||1.09||0||4||New|
|Five Star Movement (M5S)||10,732,066||32.68||133||10,732,066||32.68||93||197,346||17.57||1||227||+119|
|Centre-left coalition||Democratic Party (PD)||6,161,896||18.76||86||7,506,723||22.85||21||297,153||26.45||5||112||−180|
|More Europe (+Eu)||841,468||2.56||0||2||64,350||5.73||1||3||New|
|Popular Civic List (CP)||178,107||0.54||0||2||32.071||2.85||0||2||New|
|Free and Equal (LeU)||1,114,799||3.38||14||1,114,799||3.39||0||64,523||5.74||0||14||New|
|Associative Movement Italians Abroad (MAIE)||N/A||N/A||0||N/A||N/A||0||107,236||9.55||1||1||−1|
|South American Union Italian Emigrants (USEI)||N/A||N/A||0||N/A||N/A||0||68,291||6.08||1||1||±0|
|Centre-right coalition||League (Lega)||5,321,537||17.61||37||11,327,549||37.50||21||226,885||21.98||0||58||+39|
|Forza Italia (FI)||4,358,004||14.43||33||23||2||57||–41|
|Brothers of Italy (FdI)||1,286,606||4.26||7||9||0||18||+18|
|Us with Italy–UdC (NcI–UdC)||361,402||1.20||0||4||10,404||1.04||0||4||New|
|Five Star Movement (M5S)||9,733,928||32.22||68||9,733,928||32.22||44||174,948||17.64||0||112||+58|
|Centre-left coalition||Democratic Party (PD)||5,783,360||19.14||43||6,947,199||23.00||8||279,489||27.08||2||53||–57|
|More Europe (+Eu)||714,821||2.37||0||1||55,625||5.39||0||1||New|
|Popular Civic List (CP)||157,282||0.52||0||1||31,293||3.15||0||1||New|
|Aosta Valley (VdA)||N/A||N/A||N/A||1||N/A||N/A||N/A||1||±0|
|Free and Equal (LeU)||991,159||3.28||4||991,159||3.28||0||55,279||5.57||0||4||New|
|Associative Movement Italians Abroad (MAIE)||N/A||N/A||0||N/A||N/A||0||110,879||10.74||1||1||±0|
|South American Union Italian Emigrants (USEI)||N/A||N/A||0||N/A||N/A||0||68,233||6.61||1||1||±0|
|Year||Voter turnout||Voters||Registered voters||Population||Invalid votes|
This graph shows the results of elections held in Italy from 1946 to today, with the percentages of consensus gathered by the various parties and movements displayed by color. Passing your mouse over the different colored sections will display the name of the grouping and the percentage in the corresponding election. Clicking on a region will direct you to the article on the party or election selected.
Main article: Referendums in Italy
The constitution of Italy provides for two kinds of binding referendums.
A legislative referendum can be called in order to abrogate a law totally or partially, if requested by 500,000 electors or five regional councils. This kind of referendum is valid only if at least a majority of electors goes to the polling station. It is forbidden to call a referendum regarding financial laws or laws relating to pardons or the ratification of international treaties.
A constitutional referendum can be called in order to approve a constitutional law or amendment only when it has been approved by the Houses (Chamber of Deputies and Senate of the Republic) with a majority of less than two thirds in both or either House, and only at the request of one fifth of the members of either House, or 500,000 electors or five Regional Councils. A constitutional referendum is valid no matter how many electors go to the polling station. Any citizen entitled to vote in an election to the Chamber of Deputies may participate in a referendum.