Estonia elects a legislature on the national level. The Riigikogu has 101 members, elected for a four-year term by proportional representation. A head of state – the president – is elected for a five-year term by parliament (1st–3rd round) or an electoral college (4th and subsequent rounds). Locally, Estonia elects local government councils, which vary in size. Election law states the minimum size of a council depending on the size of municipality. Local government councils are elected by proportional representation too.

Estonia has a multi-party system with numerous parties. Often no one party has the chance to gain power alone and parties must work with each other to form coalition governments.

Public elections have taken place in the following years: Past elections:

Latest national election

Main article: 2019 Estonian parliamentary election

Riigikogu 2019 election.svg
Party Votes % Seats ±
Estonian Reform Party 162,332 28.8 34 +4
Estonian Centre Party 129,823 23.0 26 −1
Conservative People's Party 100,439 17.8 19 +12
Pro Patria 64,239 11.4 12 −2
Social Democratic Party 55,349 9.8 10 −5
Estonia 200 25,317 4.5 0 New
Estonian Greens 10,232 1.8 0 0
Richness of Life 6,880 1.2 0 New
Estonian Free Party 6,533 1.2 0 −8
Estonian United Left 508 0.1 0 0
Independent candidates 1,590 0.3 0 0
Invalid/blank votes
Total 563,242 100 101 0
Registered voters/turnout 63.1
Source: Valimised (451 out of 451 polling stations) [internet votes]

European elections


The Constitution of Estonia gives the Parliament of Estonia the power to submit a bill or other national issue to a referendum (article 105 of the Constitution[1]). The result of the vote is binding. If a bill which is submitted to a referendum does not receive a majority of votes in favour, the President of the Republic shall declare extraordinary elections to the Parliament.

There are some issues which cannot be submitted to the referendum: issues regarding the budget, taxation, financial obligations of the state, ratification and denunciation of international treaties, the declaration or termination of a state of emergency, or national defence (article 105 of the Constitution[1]).

Some parts of the Constitution (chapters "General Provisions" and "Amendment of the Constitution") can be amended only by a referendum (article 162 of the Constitution[1]). The rest of Constitution can be amended either by

A three-fifths majority of the membership of the Parliament is required to submit a bill to amend the Constitution to a referendum (article 164 of the Constitution[1]).

A referendum was called by the Parliament of Estonia on 2 occasions since Estonia regained independence from the USSR.

Also, there was a referendum on the restoration of Estonian independence in 1991 while Estonia was still under Soviet occupation.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e "Constitution of Estonia". Retrieved 2013-11-01.