This is a timeline of Estonian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Estonia and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Estonia. See also the list of rulers of Estonia.

BC (Before Common-era)

Year Date Event
3,000 BC Finno-Ugric peoples (ancestors of Estonians) started to move from eastern Europe to northeastern coast of Baltic Sea.[1]

1st century

Year Date Event
98 Roman historian Tacitus writes in the book Germania about aesti tribes.

2nd century

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (March 2020)

3rd century

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (January 2012)

4th century

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (January 2012)

5th century

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (January 2012)

6th century

Year Date Event
600 Vikings from Gotland sail to Hiiumaa (Dagö) island and build a fortification there.
King Ingvar of Sweden invades Estonia, but is killed. His son Anund avenges his father and raids the country.

7th century

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (January 2012)

8th century

Year Date Event
800 Estonians participate in the Battle of Brávellir on the side of the Swedes and against the Danes.

9th century

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (January 2012)

10th century

Year Date Event
967 Olav Tryggvason, the future King of Norway, is captured by Estonian vikings, and sold as a slave.
972 A battle between Estonian and Icelandic Vikings in Saaremaa.

11th century

Year Date Event
1008 Olaf Haraldsson, the future King of Norway, wins a battle in Saaremaa.
1030 Prince Yaroslav I the Wise of Kiev defeats Chuds and founds a fort named Yuryev (modern Tartu).[2]
1050 Estonians started trading and raiding Viking expeditions over Baltic Sea to Sweden.[3]
1061 Sosols (Estonian tribe) destroy the Yuryev castle and attack Pskov.[4]

12th century

Year Date Event
1113 Prince Mstislav of Kiev wins a battle against the Chuds (Estonians or people related to Estonians).
1116 Prince Mstislav of Kiev, aided by Pskov and Novgorod, makes a raid against the Chuds and conquers the Otepää stronghold.
1132 Prince Vsevolod of Novgorod is defeated by Estonians of Vaiga county.
1134 Prince Vsevold of Novgorod fights against the Chuds and briefly captures the fortification of Tartu (Yuryev).
1154 Arab geographer Al Idrisi mentions Estonian places, also marking the foundation of Tallinn.
1165 The Benedictine bishop Fulco is named Bishop of the Estonians by the Archbishop of Lund.[3]
1170 Valdemar I of Denmark fights with Curonian and Estonian pirates near Öland island.
1171 (or 1169–1170) Bishop Fulco makes a missionary journey to Estonia.[3]
1177 Fulco second missionary journey to Estonia.[3]
1177 Estonians attack and burn Pskov during winter.
1187 Estonians, Karelians or/and Karelians ravage the Mälaren area in Sweden, pillage town of Sigtuna, and kill the archbishop Johannes.[5]
1191 Cistercian monk Theoderich, future Bishop of Estonia, makes an unsuccessful missionary journey to Estonia.
1192 Prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich of Novgorod makes two raids against Estonians, burning down the Tartu and Otepää strongholds.
1193 Pope Celestine III calls for a crusade against pagans in Northern Europe.
1200 Bishop Albert and his crusaders capture Riga in Latvia.

13th century

Year Date Event
1202 Pope Innocent III declares Crusade to Christianize Old Livonia. The crusader Livonian Brothers of the Sword are founded.[3]
1203 Saaremaa islanders ravage areas of Southern Sweden, then belonging to Denmark. The returning pirates skirmish with the German settlers of Riga near the town of Visby in Gotland.
1206 Valdemar II of Denmark builds a fortress in Saaremaa, but burns it down after finding no volunteers to man it.
1207 The Terra Mariana ("Land of St Mary) is established as the political unit of crusaders in Livonia.
1208 Sword Brothers, Letts and Livs invade Sakala and Ugandi in Southern Estonia, starting the Estonian Ancient Fight for Freedom (1208-1227).
1209 Sword Brothers and Letts attack Ugandi.[3]
1210 Estonians besiege the Cēsis stronghold in Latvia.
Estonians defeat the Sword Brothers and Livs in the Battle of Ümera in Latvia.
Pskov and Novgorod troops besiege the Otepää stronghold.
1210-1211 First recorded plague in Estonia.[3]
1211 Pskov troops raid Western Estonia.
Summer Estonians are defeated by Sword Brothers in the Battle of Turaida in Latvia.
Sword Brothers are defeated by Estonians in the Battle of Viljandi.
Estonians raid crusader areas in Latvia.
Three-year truce between Estonians and Germans is signed at Turaida.[3]
1212 Russian troops besiege the Varbola Stronghold.
Troops from Sakala, led by Lembitu of Lehola, burn Pskov.
1213 Lithuanians raid the Sakala area.
1215 Sword Brothers defeat Estonians in the Battle of Lehola.
Troops from Saaremaa besiege Riga.
Troops from Sakala raid crusader areas in Latvia.
1216 Pskov troops capture the Otepää stronghold.
1217 February Sword Brothers are defeated by Estonians and Russians in the Battle of Otepää.
21 September Sword Brothers, Latgalians and Livs defeat Estonians in the Battle of St. Matthew's Day, where the Estonian leader Lembitu of Lehola is killed.
1219 15 June Valdemar II of Denmark conquers Tallinn in the Battle of Lindanise and builds the Toompea Castle.
1220 8 August John I of Sweden invades Läänemaa, but is defeated by troops from Saaremaa in the Battle of Lihula.
1221 Estonians besiege Tallinn.
1222 The invading Danish troops are defeated by Estonians in Saaremaa.
1223 29 January Estonians defeat the Sword Brothers in the Battle of Viljandi and the entire Southern Estonia is liberated.
Estonians are defeated by Sword Brothers in Ümera, Latvia.
Pskov and Novgorod troops raid most of mainland Estonia.
1224 15 August Sword Brothers capture the Tartu stronghold from joint Estonian and Russian troops - mainland Estonia falls to the crusaders.
The Bishopric of Dorpat is established in Southeastern Estonia.
1227 January Sword Brothers conquer stronghold of Muhu, and last pagan stronghold of Valjala surrenders.
1227 Sword Brothers conquer Northern Estonia from Denmark.
1228 1 October The Bishopric of Ösel–Wiek is established in Western Estonia.
1234 Pskov and Novgorod troops invade the Bishopric of Dorpat, that is forced to pay tribute for four years.
De Lode brothers in Kullamaa Parish refuse to recognize the new Bishop of Ösel-Wiek.
1236 22 September Sword Brothers are defeated by Samogitians in the Battle of Saule. Saaremaa islanders rebel against German rule.
1237 Livonian Brothers of the Sword merge into the Teutonic Order and become known as the Livonian Order, autonomous of the Teutonic Order State.
1238 The Livonian Order helps restore the power of the Bishop of Ösel Wiek in Kullamaa Parish.
1239 The Liber Census Daniae is compiled. The book also gives first recorded data on northern Estonia.[3]
1242 5 April The Livonian Order and Estonians are defeated by Novgorod in the Battle of the Ice.
1249 St. Michael's Convent is founded in Tallinn.[3]
1251 first mentioning of a school in Estonia (the cathedral school in Pärnu).[3]
1268 18 February Pskov and Novgorod defeat the Livonian Order in the Battle of Rakvere, ending the Order's attempts to invade Russia.
1270 16 February Lithuanians defeat the Livonian Order in the Battle of Karuse.
1285 Tallinn becomes a member of the Hanseatic League.
1298 A border war between the Livonian Order and the Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek.

14th century

Year Date Event
1305 Padise Abbey is founded.[3]
1343 St.George's Night Uprising (1343–1345) in Northwestern Estonia and Saaremaa.
1346 King Valdemar IV of Denmark sells Northern Estonia to the Teutonic Order.[6]
1347 The Teutonic Order gives Northern Estonia to Livonian Order.

15th century

Year Date Event
1407 Pirita convent is built.[3]
1419 The Livonian Diet is formed to solve internal disputes in Livonia.
1433 First recorded great fire in Tallinn.[3]
1435 The Livonian Confederation is established to solve internal disputes in Livonia.
1440 The Livonian Order becomes self-governing from the Teutonic Order.
1464 Plague kills 2/3 of population of Tallinn.[3]
1480-1481 First war between Old Livonia and Muscovite Russia.[3]
1500 Estonian population exceeds 250,000.[3]

16th century

Year Date Event
1500-1502 Second Livonian-Russian war.[3]
1504-1505 Plague ravages Estonia.[3]
1507 Old Livonian peasants are not allowed to own weapons.[3]
1523 The Reformation comes to Estonia.[3]
1524 14 September Catholic churches are pillaged in Tallinn.[3]
1525 The Teutonic Order is secularized and the Livonian Order becomes de facto independent.
1552 First library is founded in Tallinn.[3]
1558 Russian forces invade Eastern Estonia, starting the Livonian War.
The Bishopric of Dorpat and several bailiwicks of the Livonian Order in Eastern Estonia surrender to Russian forces.
Tartu surrendered to Russian troops in the Livonian War
1559 The Bishop of Ösel-Wiek sells his bishopric to King Frederick II of Denmark, who gives the land to his brother Duke Magnus of Holstein. Lutheranism prevails in Western Estonia.
1560 Duke Magnus of Holstein takes power in the Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek.
Russian troops defeat the Livonian Order in the Battle of Härgmäe.
Russian troops capture Central Estonia from the Livonian Order.
Ivan the Terrible decimated the Livonian Order in the Battle of Ergeme.
Uprising of Wiek's peasants. (:et)
1561 The Commandery of Tallinn and the nobility of other North Estonian bailiwicks of the Livonian Order swear allegiance to Sweden.
The Treaty of Vilnius gives lands of the Livonian Order in Southern Estonia and Northern Latvia to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as the Duchy of Livonia.
6 June The city council of Reval surrendered to Sweden.
1562 The Livonian Order is dissolved.
The Bailiwick of Maasilinna of the former Livonian Order in Saaremaa and Hiiumaa refuses to recognize Lithuanian power.
1564 The Bailiwick of Maasilinna gives itself under Danish rule.
1573 1 January The Russians occupied Pärnu (Pernau) in Western Estonia and the fortress of Weissenstein (Paide).
1578 Balthasar Russow publishes his cronicles about the Livonian War.
1581 6 September A mercenary army of Sweden under Pontus de la Gardie captured Narva from Russia.
1582 By the armistice of Jam Zapolski, Dorpat together with Southern Estonia was incorporated into the state of Poland-Lithuania.
1595 Treaty of Teusina: Sweden's right to Narva and Estonia was signed.[1]

17th century

Year Date Event
1625 Swedish commander Jacob De la Gardie took Dorpat (Tartu) and Southern Estonia from Poland
1628 First glass manufacturer is established in Estonia on Hiiumaa (operates until 1664).[3]
1629 Truce of Altmark: Sweden acquired the territory of Livonia.[1]
1630 First gymnasium is established in Estonia in Tartu.[3]
1630 Gustav Adolf Gymnasium is established in Tallinn (being the oldest continuously operating secondary school in Estonia).[3]
1630 First printer is established in Estonia in Tallinn.[3]
1632 Foundation of the University of Tartu under Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus.
1645 13 August Saaremaa (Ösel) island was ceded from Denmark to Sweden by the Treaty of Brömsebro.
1684 Forselius Seminar for schoolmasters is opened near Tartu (operated until 1688).[3]
1687 Over the Estonia, widespread opening of village schools for peasants, starts.[3]
1690 Tartu University is re-opened, but 1699–1710 operates in Pärnu.[3]
1695-1697 Great Famine of Estonia.[3]
1700 20 November Battle at Narva, where the Swedish army under King Charles XII defeats the Russian army.

18th century

Year Date Event
1704 Russian troops under czar Peter the Great captured Dorpat (Tartu) in the Great Northern War.
1708 Fearful of Swedish attack, Russians burned down the city of Tartu.
1710 Whole Estonia was included in Russian empire.[6]
1710-1713 Last great plague in Estonia. About 200,000 people dies (about half of population).[3]
1718 Construction of Kadriorg Palace begins.[3]
1721 30 August Estonia was formally ceded by Sweden to Russia by the Treaty of Nystad.[7]
1730 Herrnhut sects arrives in Estonia. Amongst the other things, they propagate reading among peasants.[3]
1782 The customs border between Russia and Baltic governorates is abolished.[3]
1792 First mirrors producing factory is opened in Estonia.[3]

19th century

Year Date Event
1802 Tartu University is re-opened (was closed until 1710).[3]
1816 Serfdom was abolished in Estonia (Estonian Governorate).[3]
1819 Serfdom was abolished in Livonia (Livonian Governorate).
1823 Johann August Hagen forms the first choir of native Estonians in Tallinn.[3]
1834 agricultural institute is opened in Vana-Kuuste (operated until 1838).[3]
1838 Estonian Learned Society is founded.[3]
1839 Cimze seminary for schoolmasters is opened in Valmiera.[3]
1843 Eduard Ahrens publishes his Estonian grammar book. The book is a base of for written Estonian language.[3]
1849 New peasant farm law is proclaimed in Livonian Governorate. This allows peasants to purchase their tenant farms as freeholds.[3]
1850 Narva Linen Mill (predecessor of Kreenholm Manufacturing Company) is founded.[3]
1853 Estonian Naturalists' Society is established.[3]
1854 Peasant farm law (1849) is also extended to Estonian Governorate.[3]
1855 The first Estonian permanent newspaper Perno Postimees is founded.[3]
1855 Kreenholm Manufacturing Company is founded.[3]
1858 peasant revolt: Mahtra War.[3]
1861 "Kalevipoeg", Estonia's national epic, was published in both Estonian and German.
1861 Prophet Maltsvet followers migrate to Crimea, in hope to find the promised land.[3]
1863 Preparatory works to establish the first Estonian-language secondary school (Estonian Aleksander School) begin. (school opened in 1888).[3]
1864 21 November On Johann Köler's initiative, the a major Estonian peasants' petition (Estonian: 1864. aasta palvekirjaaktsioon) is presented to the imperator.[3]
1865 Vanemuine Cultural Society is founded in Tartu.[3]
1865 Estonia is founded in Tallinn.[3]
1866 The Law of Local Self-Government (Estonian: vallaseadus) comes into force. Noble estate owners' rights over peasants are severely reduced.[3]
1867-1870 Three influential patriotic speeches by Carl Robert Jakobson.[3]
1869 Estonian Song Festivals established.
1870 First Estonian-language play Saaremaa onupoeg by Lydia Koidula is published.[3]
1870 5 November First railroad is opened in Estonia. The railroad connects Paldiski, Tallinn, Narva and St. Petersburg.[3]
1870-1871 First agricultural societies are founded in Tartu, Pärnu and Viljandi.[3]
1872 Society of Estonian Literati is founded.[3]
1875 Cultural society Endla is founded in Pärnu.[3]
1876 Rail traffic between Tartu and Tapa is opened.[3]
1880 Eduard Bornhöhe short story Tasuja ('The Avenger') is published. Due to the book, patriotic fervor remarkably intensifies.[3]
1880 11–13 June Third Estonian Song Festival, first time in Tallinn.[3]
1884 4 June Blue-black-white tricolor (later the flag of Estonia) of the Estonian Students' Society is blessed at Otepää Church.[3]
1886 Russian language is decreed to be official language of communication in urban and rural administrations in Estonia.[3]
1887 Russian language is decreed to be official language of instruction in all public schools since grade three.[3]
1888 Jakob Hurt initiates the collection of national folkloric poetry.[3]
1888 Estonian Aleksander School is opened.[3]
1888 10 August The first horse-drawn tram route is opened in Tallinn .[3]
1889 Policy of Russification introduced where Baltic German legal and educational institutions are abolished or transformed into Russian.
1889 First temperance society is founded in Tori.[3]
1893 First hydroelectric power plant is opened in Kunda.[3]
1896 First cinematic presentations in Tallinna and Tartu.[3]
1896 First automobile is arrived in Estonia.[3]
1896 First narrow-gauge railroad is opened. It connects Pärnu and Valga.[3]
1900 First Estonian symphony orchestra is formed in Tartu.[3]
1900 Volta electric motor factory is established.[3]
1900–1903 Economic crisis.[3]

20th century

Year Date Event
1901 Konstantin Päts founds the newspaper Teataja in Tallinn.[3]
1902 First commercial bank in Estonia is established in Tartu.[3]
1903 Ants Laikmaa founds the first arts academy in Estonia.[3]
1904 Noor-Eesti is established.[3]
1904 Keila-Haapsalu rail line is opened.[3]
1904 Local elections in Tallinn. Estonian-Russian joint group (led by Konstantin Päts) takes power from Baltic Germans group in city council.[3]
1905 November Russian Revolution of 1905 swept through Estonia. Estonian nationalist feeling is widespread, and autonomy from Russia is demanded.[1]
1906 The first fully Estonian-language school (Estonian: Eesti Noorsoo Kasvatuse Seltsi tütarlastegümnaasium, nowadays Miina Härma Gymnasium) is opened in Tartu.[3]
1907 First small-scale electric plant starts operating in Pärnu. Plant provides electric power to nearby households.[3]
1908 First radio transmission station in Estonia is opened. It is located at the Russian Imperial Baltic Fleet's Tallinn port.[3]
1908 Mihhail Rostovtsev opens Tartu Private University. University operates until 1918.[3]
1909 Estonian National Museum is opened in Tartu.[3]
1912 27 April First airplane lands in Estonia.[3]
1913 24 August Estonia Theatre and Concert Halls building is opened.[3]
1914 1 August Russian Empire enters WW I.[1]
1915 20 August Retreating Russian forces burn the Waldhof pulp mill. Then the largest pulp mill in Europe.[3]
1915 15 November Steam trams begin operating in Tallinn.[3]
1917 30 March Russian Provisional Government granted Estonia its autonomy.[1]
1917 8 April 40,000 Estonians are demonstrating in Petrograd. Their main slogan is that divided Estonia (two governorates) should be merged to Province of Estonia.[3]
1918 24 February Estonian Declaration of Independence
3 March Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Bolshevist Russia cedes sovereignty over Estonia to Germany.
11 November Germans begin withdrawal and turn over power to the provisional government of Estonia (headed by Konstantin Päts).
22 November Estonia is invaded by Bolshevist Russian forces. Beginning of Estonian War of Independence.
1919 Bolsheviks are driven out of Estonia.
10 October Agrarian Law passed redistributing many of the estates owned by Baltic Germans and Estonian landowners.
1920 2 February Treaty of Tartu which gives Estonia recognition by Soviet Russia.
15 June Adoption of Constitution.
1921 January Estonia is recognized as an independent state, and starts its pursuit to join League of Nations.[1]
1922 22 September Estonia joins the League of Nations.
1933 14–16 October Plebiscite in favour of constitutional reform giving wide powers to a new office of the president.
1934 24 January New constitution in effect.
12 March Konstantin Päts with the help of General Johan Laidoner set up a virtual dictatorship. Parliament is prorogued and political parties banned. Many members of the Vaps Movement are arrested.
1937 29 July A new constitution in force with civil liberties and democracy restored but with a very strong presidency.
1938 Kaarel Eenpalu becomes prime minister of Estonia.
24 February Election sees National Front winning 63 seats and all the opposition winning 17 seats.
24 April Konstantin Päts elected president.
1939 Jüri Uluots becomes prime minister of Estonia.
23 August The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact is signed, promising mutual non-aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union and agreeing to a division of much of Europe between these two countries.
1940 17 June The Red Army occupies Estonia and Latvia.
6 August Estonia is unlawfully declared the Estonian SSR and incorporated into the Soviet Union.
1941 German troops (with help of Forest Brothers) take over Estonia from the Soviets.
7 June German troops begin to carry out The Holocaust in Estonia.
14 June Mass deportations by Soviet Union authorities take place in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
22 June Germany attacks Soviet Union; Estonian partisans (Forest Brothers) start revolt in Southern Estonia.
28 August Sinking of a Soviet steamer with 3500 Soviet-mobilized Estonian men on board; 598 of them die.
1 December Estonian Self-Administration, headed by Hjalmar Mäe, is inaugurated by German military administration.
1944 Otto Tief is captured by Soviet forces; Jüri Uluots and members of the Tief government escape to Sweden.
30 January Battle of Narva: The first Soviet units cross Estonian border.
24 February Battle of Narva: Estonian volunteers launch a counterattack at Narva river.
6 March World War II: Soviet Army planes attack Narva in Estonia, destroying almost the entire old town.
9 March World War II: Soviet Army planes attack Tallinn, Estonia.
26 July Battle of Narva: The Soviets capture Narva.
29 July Battle of Tannenberg Line: The Estonian and German counterattack stops Soviet advance towards Tallinn.
26 August The Soviets capture most of Tartu, which becomes the frontline city for almost a month.
18 September Jüri Uluots, prime minister in capacity of president of Estonia, asks Otto Tief to form a government on the eve of the withdrawal of German forces; official gazette published proclaiming the Tief government.
20 September Otto Tief attempts to organise the defence of Tallinn against the arrival of the Red Army two days later.
22 September The Soviets capture Tallinn.
19 December The entire territory of Estonia is captured by the Red Army.
1949 25 March Operation Priboi: An extensive deportation campaign is conducted in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The Soviet authorities deport more than 92,000 people from the Baltics to remote areas of the Soviet Union.
1955 19 July Estonian Television (ETV) began broadcasting.
1978 28 September One of the last Forest Brother guerilla movement fighter, August Sabbe, is discovered and killed in Estonia.
1980 Youth riots in the capital of the Soviet Republic of Estonia are quickly suppressed.
1988 In Estonia, 300,000 demonstrate for independence.
Estonian becomes the official language of Estonia.
16 November The Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR declares that Estonia is "sovereign" but stops short of declaring independence.
1989 After 44 years, the Estonian flag is raised on the Pikk Hermann castle tower.
Two million indigenous people of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, at this time still occupied by the Soviet Union, join hands to demand freedom and independence, forming an uninterrupted 600 km human chain called the Baltic Way.
1991 Latvia and Estonia vote for independence from the Soviet Union.
The United States recognizes the independence of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
20 August The Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR recognizes Estonian independence from the Soviet Union.
6 September The Soviet Union recognizes the independence of the Baltic States.
1992 Estonia holds a referendum on its constitution.
Heinrich Mark and the government in exile appointed by him cede their credentials to the newly elected Riigikogu.
Lennart Meri is elected President of Estonia.
20 June The Soviet rouble is replaced by the kroon.
1994 The Russian army leaves Estonia.
28 September Car ferry MS Estonia sinks in the Baltic Sea, killing 852.

21st century

Year Date Event
2001 68 people died in Estonia after drinking bootleg alcohol that contained methanol.
2002 Estonia hosted the first Eurovision Song Contest in a former Soviet republic.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization Summit in Prague: Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia were invited to join NATO.
2003 Estonia approved joining the European Union in a referendum with 66% agreed with joining and 34% were against it.
2004 29 March The largest expansion of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to date takes place, allowing Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia into the organization.
1 May The largest expansion to date of the European Union took place, extending the Union by 10 member-states: Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary, Malta and Cyprus.
2005 The same storm which pounded the U.S. earlier in the month hit England, Scandinavia and the Baltic States, leaving 13 dead with widespread flooding and power cuts.
A passenger helicopter en route to Helsinki, Finland crashed into the sea near Tallinn, Estonia, killing 14.
2006 Toomas Hendrik Ilves was elected President of Estonia.
2007 27 April Russians riot in Tallinn, Estonia, about moving the Bronze Soldier. Two nights of rioting left one dead.[8] Cyber attacks launched against Estonia.
2011 August Toomas Hendrik Ilves is re-elected president for a second five-year term.
2016 10 October Kersti Kaljulaid was elected President of Estonia.

See also


This article includes a list of general references, but it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (June 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Estonia". Political Chronology of Europe. Europa Publications. 2003. ISBN 978-1-135-35687-3. Retrieved 8 April 2022.
  2. ^ Tvauri, Andres (2012). The Migration Period, Pre-Viking Age, and Viking Age in Estonia. pp. 33, 59, 60. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq Toivo Miljan (2004). "Chronology". Historical Dictionary of Estonia. USA: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-6571-6.
  4. ^ Mäesalu, Ain (2012). "Could Kedipiv in East-Slavonic Chronicles be Keava hill fort?" (PDF). Estonian Journal of Archaeology. 1 (16supplser): 199. doi:10.3176/arch.2012.supv1.11. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  5. ^ Enn Tarvel (2007). Sigtuna hukkumine. Haridus, 2007 (7-8), p 38–41
  6. ^ a b William Henry Overall, ed. (1870). "Esthonia". Dictionary of Chronology. London: William Tegg. hdl:2027/uc2.ark:/13960/t9m32q949.
  7. ^ Benjamin Vincent (1910), "Esthonia", Haydn's Dictionary of Dates (25th ed.), London: Ward, Lock & Co., hdl:2027/loc.ark:/13960/t89g6g776
  8. ^ "Estonia Profile: Timeline". BBC News. Retrieved 17 September 2015.

Further reading