Praha (Czech)
City of a Hundred Spires
"Praga Caput Rei publicae" (Latin)[1]
"Prague, Head of the Republic"
other historical mottos  
  • "Praga mater urbium" (Latin)
    "Praha matka měst" (Czech)[1]
    "Prague, Mother of Cities"
  • "Praga Caput Regni" (Latin)[2]
    "Prague, Head of the Kingdom"
Prague is located in Czech Republic
Location within the Czech Republic
Prague is located in Europe
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 50°05′15″N 14°25′17″E / 50.08750°N 14.42139°E / 50.08750; 14.42139
Country Czech Republic
Founded8th century
 • MayorBohuslav Svoboda (ODS)
 • Capital city496.21 km2 (191.59 sq mi)
 • Urban
298 km2 (115 sq mi)
 • Metro
11,425 km2 (4,411 sq mi)
Highest elevation
399 m (1,309 ft)
Lowest elevation
172 m (564 ft)
 • Capital city1,384,732
 • Density2,800/km2 (7,200/sq mi)
 • Metro
 • Metro density237/km2 (610/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Praguer, Pragueite
 • Capital city€78.414 billion (2022)
 • Metro€109.990 billion (2022)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal codes
100 00 – 199 00
ISO 3166 codeCZ-10
Vehicle registrationA, AA – AZ
HDI (2021)0.960[8]very high · 1st

Prague (/ˈprɑːɡ/ PRAHG; Czech: Praha [ˈpraɦa] )[a] is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic[9] and the historical capital of Bohemia. Situated on the Vltava river, Prague is home to about 1.4 million people. The city has a temperate oceanic climate, with relatively warm summers and chilly winters.

Prague is a political, cultural, and economic hub of Central Europe, with a rich history and Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque architectures. It was the capital of the Kingdom of Bohemia and residence of several Holy Roman Emperors, most notably Charles IV (r. 1346–1378) and Rudolf II (r. 1575–1611).[9]

It was an important city to the Habsburg monarchy and Austria-Hungary. The city played major roles in the Bohemian and the Protestant Reformations, the Thirty Years' War and in 20th-century history as the capital of Czechoslovakia between the World Wars and the post-war Communist era.[10]

Prague is home to a number of well-known cultural attractions, many of which survived the violence and destruction of 20th-century Europe. Main attractions include Prague Castle, Charles Bridge, Old Town Square with the Prague astronomical clock, the Jewish Quarter, Petřín hill and Vyšehrad. Since 1992, the historic center of Prague has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.

The city has more than ten major museums, along with numerous theatres, galleries, cinemas, and other historical exhibits. An extensive modern public transportation system connects the city. It is home to a wide range of public and private schools, including Charles University in Prague, the oldest university in Central Europe.

Prague is classified as an "Alpha-" global city according to GaWC studies.[11] In 2019, the city was ranked as 69th most livable city in the world by Mercer.[12] In the same year, the PICSA Index ranked the city as 13th most livable city in the world.[13] Its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination and as of 2017, the city receives more than 8.5 million international visitors annually. In 2017, Prague was listed as the fifth most visited European city after London, Paris, Rome, and Istanbul.[14]

Etymology and names

See also: Names of European cities in different languages (M–P) § P

The Czech name Praha is derived from an old Slavic word, práh, which means "ford" or "rapid", referring to the city's origin at a crossing point of the Vltava river.[15]

Another view to the origin of the name is also related to the Czech word práh (with the meaning of a threshold) and a legendary etymology connects the name of the city with princess Libuše, prophetess and a wife of mythical founder of the Přemyslid dynasty. She is said to have ordered the city "to be built where a man hews a threshold of his house". The Czech práh might thus be understood to refer to rapids or fords in the river, the edge of which could have acted as a means of fording the river – thus providing a "threshold" to the castle.

Another derivation of the name Praha is suggested from na prazě, the original term for the shale hillside rock upon which the original castle was built. At that time, the castle was surrounded by forests, covering the nine hills of the future city – the Old Town on the opposite side of the river, as well as the Lesser Town beneath the existing castle, appeared only later.[16]

The English spelling of the city's name is borrowed from French. In the 19th and early 20th centuries it was pronounced in English to rhyme with "vague": it was so pronounced by Lady Diana Cooper (born 1892) on Desert Island Discs in 1969,[17] and it is written to rhyme with "vague" in a verse of The Beleaguered City by Longfellow (1839) and also in the limerick There was an Old Lady of Prague by Edward Lear (1846).

Prague is also called the "City of a Hundred Spires", based on a count by 19th century mathematician Bernard Bolzano; today's count is estimated by the Prague Information Service at 500.[18] Nicknames for Prague have also included: the Golden City, the Mother of Cities and the Heart of Europe.[19]

The local Jewish community, which belongs to one of the oldest continuously existing in the world, have described the city as עיר ואם בישראל Ir va-em be-yisrael, "The city and mother in Israel".[citation needed]


Main article: History of Prague

For a chronological guide, see Timeline of Prague.

Prague has grown from a settlement stretching from Prague Castle in the north to the fort of Vyšehrad in the south, to become the capital of a modern European country.

Early history

The mythological princess Libuše prophesies the glory of Prague.

The region was settled as early as the Paleolithic age.[20] Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the city was founded as Boihaem in c. 1306 BC by an ancient king, Boyya.[21]

Around the fifth and fourth century BC, a Celtic tribe appeared in the area, later establishing settlements, including the largest Celtic oppidum in Bohemia, Závist, in a present-day south suburb Zbraslav in Prague, and naming the region of Bohemia, which means "home of the Boii people".[20][22] In the last century BC, the Celts were slowly driven away by Germanic tribes (Marcomanni, Quadi, Lombards and possibly the Suebi), leading some to place the seat of the Marcomanni king, Maroboduus, in Závist.[23][21] Around the area where present-day Prague stands, the 2nd century map drawn by Roman geographer Ptolemaios mentioned a Germanic city called Casurgis.[24]

In the late 5th century AD, during the great Migration Period following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Germanic tribes living in Bohemia moved westwards and, probably in the 6th century, the Slavic tribes settled the Central Bohemian Region. In the following three centuries, the Czech tribes built several fortified settlements in the area, most notably in the Šárka valley, Butovice and Levý Hradec.[20]

A model representing Prague Castle and its surroundings in the 10th century

The construction of what came to be known as Prague Castle began near the end of the 9th century, expanding a fortified settlement that had existed on the site since the year 800.[25] The first masonry under Prague Castle dates from the year 885 at the latest.[26] The other prominent Prague fort, the Přemyslid fort Vyšehrad, was founded in the 10th century, some 70 years later than Prague Castle.[27] Prague Castle is dominated by the cathedral, which began construction in 1344, but was not completed until the 20th century.[28]

The legendary origins of Prague attribute its foundation to the 8th-century Czech duchess and prophetess Libuše and her husband, Přemysl, founder of the Přemyslid dynasty. Legend says that Libuše came out on a rocky cliff high above the Vltava and prophesied: "I see a great city whose glory will touch the stars". She ordered a castle and a town called Praha to be built on the site.[20]

The region became the seat of the dukes, and later kings of Bohemia. Under Duke of Bohemia Boleslaus II the Pious the area became a bishopric in 973.[29] Until Prague was elevated to archbishopric in 1344, it was under the jurisdiction of the Archbishopric of Mainz.[30]

Prague was an important seat for trading where merchants from across Europe settled, including many Jews, as recalled in 965 by the Hispano-Jewish merchant and traveler Abraham ben Jacob.[31] The Old New Synagogue of 1270 still stands in the city. Prague was also once home to an important slave market.[32]

At the site of the ford in the Vltava river, King Vladislaus I had the first bridge built in 1170, the Judith Bridge (Juditin most), named in honor of his wife Judith of Thuringia.[33] This bridge was destroyed by a flood in 1342, but some of the original foundation stones of that bridge remain in the river. It was rebuilt and named the Charles Bridge.[33]

In 1257, under King Ottokar II, Malá Strana ("Lesser Quarter") was founded in Prague on the site of an older village in what would become the Hradčany (Prague Castle) area.[34] This was the district of the German people, who had the right to administer the law autonomously, pursuant to Magdeburg rights.[35] The new district was on the bank opposite of the Staré Město ("Old Town"), which had borough status and was bordered by a line of walls and fortifications.

Late Middle Ages

The current St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague was founded in 1344.

Prague flourished during the 14th-century reign (1346–1378) of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and the king of Bohemia of the new Luxembourg dynasty. As King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor, he transformed Prague into an imperial capital. In the 1470s, Prague had around 70,000 inhabitants and with an area of 360 ha (~1.4 square miles) it was the third-largest city in the Holy Roman Empire.[36]

Charles IV ordered the building of the New Town (Nové Město) adjacent to the Old Town and laid out the design himself. The Charles Bridge, replacing the Judith Bridge destroyed in the flood just prior to his reign, was erected to connect the east bank districts to the Malá Strana and castle area. In 1347, he founded Charles University, which remains the oldest university in Central Europe.[37]

His father John of Bohemia began construction of the Gothic Saint Vitus Cathedral, within the largest of the Prague Castle courtyards, on the site of the Romanesque rotunda there. Prague was elevated to an archbishopric in 1344,[38] the year the cathedral was begun.

The city had a mint and was a center of trade for German and Italian bankers and merchants. The social order, however, became more turbulent due to the rising power of the craftsmen's guilds (themselves often torn by internal conflicts), and the increasing number of poor.[citation needed]

The Hunger Wall, a substantial fortification wall south of Malá Strana and the castle area, was built during a famine in the 1360s. The work is reputed to have been ordered by Charles IV as a means of providing employment and food to the workers and their families.[citation needed]

Charles IV died in 1378. During the reign of his son, King Wenceslaus IV (1378–1419), a period of intense turmoil ensued. During Easter 1389, members of the Prague clergy announced that Jews had desecrated the host (Eucharistic wafer) and the clergy encouraged mobs to pillage, ransack and burn the Jewish quarter. Nearly the entire Jewish population of Prague (3,000 people) was murdered.[39][40]

The Prague astronomical clock was first installed in 1410, making it the third-oldest astronomical clock in the world and the oldest one still working.

Jan Hus, a theologian and rector at the Charles University, preached in Prague. In 1402, he began giving sermons in the Bethlehem Chapel. Inspired by John Wycliffe, these sermons focused on what were seen as radical reforms of a corrupt Church. Having become too dangerous for the political and religious establishment, Hus was summoned to the Council of Constance, put on trial for heresy, and burned at the stake in Konstanz in 1415.

Four years later Prague experienced its first defenestration, when the people rebelled under the command of the Prague priest Jan Želivský. Hus' death, coupled with Czech proto-nationalism and proto-Protestantism, had spurred the Hussite Wars. Peasant rebels, led by the general Jan Žižka, along with Hussite troops from Prague, defeated Emperor Sigismund, in the Battle of Vítkov Hill in 1420.

During the Hussite Wars when Prague was attacked by "Crusader" and mercenary forces, the city militia fought bravely under the Prague Banner. This swallow-tailed banner is approximately 4 by 6 ft (1.2 by 1.8 m), with a red field sprinkled with small white fleurs-de-lis, and a silver old Town Coat-of-Arms in the center. The words "PÁN BŮH POMOC NAŠE" (The Lord is our Relief/Help) appeared above the coat-of-arms, with a Hussite chalice centered on the top. Near the swallow-tails is a crescent-shaped golden sun with rays protruding.

One of these banners was captured by Swedish troops during the Battle of Prague (1648), when they captured the western bank of the Vltava river and were repulsed from the eastern bank, they placed it in the Royal Military Museum in Stockholm; although this flag still exists, it is in very poor condition. They also took the Codex Gigas and the Codex Argenteus. The earliest evidence indicates that a gonfalon with a municipal charge painted on it was used for the Old Town as early as 1419. Since this city militia flag was in use before 1477 and during the Hussite Wars, it is the oldest still preserved municipal flag of Bohemia.

In the following two centuries, Prague strengthened its role as a merchant city. Many noteworthy Gothic buildings[41][42] were erected and Vladislav Hall of the Prague Castle was added.

Habsburg era

Depiction of the "Prague Banner" (municipal flag dated to the 16th century)[43]
The coat of arms of Prague (1649)[1]

In 1526, the Bohemian estates elected Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg. The fervent Catholicism of its members brought them into conflict in Bohemia, and then in Prague, where Protestant ideas were gaining popularity.[44] These problems were not preeminent under Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II, elected King of Bohemia in 1576, who chose Prague as his home. He lived in the Prague Castle, where his court welcomed not only astrologers and magicians but also scientists, musicians, and artists. Rudolf was an art lover as well, and Prague became the capital of European culture. This was a prosperous period for the city: famous people living there in that age include the astronomers Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler, the painter Arcimboldo, the alchemists Edward Kelley and John Dee, the poet Elizabeth Jane Weston, and others.

In 1618, the famous second defenestration of Prague provoked the Thirty Years' War, a particularly harsh period for Prague and Bohemia. Ferdinand II of Habsburg was deposed, and his place as King of Bohemia taken by Frederick V, Elector Palatine; however his army was crushed in the Battle of White Mountain (1620) not far from the city. Following this in 1621 was an execution of 27 Czech Protestant leaders (involved in the uprising) in Old Town Square and the exiling of many others. Prague was forcibly converted back to Roman Catholicism followed by the rest of Czech lands. The city suffered subsequently during the war under an attack by Electorate of Saxony (1631) and during the Battle of Prague (1648).[45] Prague began a steady decline which reduced the population from the 60,000 it had had in the years before the war to 20,000. In the second half of the 17th century, Prague's population began to grow again. Jews had been in Prague since the end of the 10th century and, by 1708, they accounted for about a quarter of Prague's population.[46]

In 1689, a great fire devastated Prague, but this spurred a renovation and a rebuilding of the city. In 1713–14, a major outbreak of plague hit Prague one last time, killing 12,000 to 13,000 people.[47]

Monument to František Palacký, a significant member of the Czech National Revival

In 1744, Frederick the Great of Prussia invaded Bohemia. He took Prague after a severe and prolonged siege in the course of which a large part of the town was destroyed.[48] Empress Maria Theresa expelled the Jews from Prague in 1745; though she rescinded the expulsion in 1748, the proportion of Jewish residents in the city never recovered.[49] In 1757 the Prussian bombardment[48] destroyed more than one quarter of the city and heavily damaged St. Vitus Cathedral. However a month later, Frederick the Great was defeated and forced to retreat from Bohemia.

The economy of Prague continued to improve during the 18th century. The population increased to 80,000 inhabitants by 1771. Many rich merchants and nobles enhanced the city with a host of palaces, churches and gardens full of art and music, creating a Baroque city renowned throughout the world to this day.

In 1784, under Joseph II, the four municipalities of Malá Strana, Nové Město, Staré Město, and Hradčany were merged into a single entity. The Jewish district, called Josefov, was included only in 1850. The Industrial Revolution produced great changes and developments in Prague, as new factories could take advantage of the coal mines and ironworks of the nearby regions. A first suburb, Karlín, was created in 1817, and twenty years later the population exceeded 100,000.

The revolutions in Europe in 1848 also touched Prague, but they were fiercely suppressed. In the following years, the Czech National Revival began its rise, until it gained the majority in the town council in 1861. Prague had a large number of German speakers in 1848, but by 1880 the number of German speakers had decreased to 14% (42,000), and by 1910 to 6.7% (37,000), due to a massive increase of the city's overall population caused by the influx of Czechs from the rest of Bohemia and Moravia and the increasing prestige and importance of the Czech language as part of the Czech National Revival.

Panorama of Prague from the Schönborn Garden, circa 1835. The drawing by Czech vedutist Vincenc Morstadt was engraved by Friedrich Geissler.

20th century

Statue of Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk near Prague Castle

First Czechoslovak Republic

Main article: First Czechoslovak Republic

World War I ended with the defeat of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the creation of Czechoslovakia. Prague was chosen as its capital and Prague Castle as the seat of president Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk. At this time Prague was a true European capital with highly developed industry. By 1930, the population had risen to 850,000.

Second World War

Prague liberated by the Red Army in May 1945

Further information: German occupation of Czechoslovakia

Hitler ordered the German Army to enter Prague on 15 March 1939, and from Prague Castle proclaimed Bohemia and Moravia a German protectorate. For most of its history, Prague had been a multi-ethnic city[50] with important Czech, German and (mostly native German-speaking) Jewish populations.[51] From 1939, when the country was occupied by Nazi Germany, Hitler took over Prague Castle. During the Second World War, most Jews were deported and killed by the Germans. In 1942, Prague was witness to the assassination of one of the most powerful men in Nazi GermanyReinhard Heydrich—during Operation Anthropoid, accomplished by Czechoslovak national heroes Jozef Gabčík and Jan Kubiš. Hitler ordered bloody reprisals.[52]

In February 1945, Prague suffered several bombing raids by the US Army Air Forces. 701 people were killed, more than 1,000 people were injured and some buildings, factories and historic landmarks (Emmaus Monastery, Faust House [cs; eo; es; fr; ru], Vinohrady Synagogue) were destroyed.[53] Many historic structures in Prague, however, escaped the destruction of the war and the damage was small compared to the total destruction of many other cities in that time. According to American pilots, it was the result of a navigational mistake. In March, a deliberate raid targeted military factories in Prague, killing about 370 people.[54]

On 5 May 1945, two days before Germany capitulated, an uprising against Germany occurred. Several thousand Czechs were killed in four days of bloody street fighting, with many atrocities committed by both sides. At daybreak on 9 May, the 3rd Shock Army of the Red Army took the city almost unopposed. The majority (about 50,000 people) of the German population of Prague either fled or were expelled by the Beneš decrees in the aftermath of the war.

Cold War

Main articles: History of Czechoslovakia (1948–89) and Czechoslovak Socialist Republic

Velvet Revolution in November 1989

Prague was a city in a country under the military, economic, and political control of the Soviet Union (see Iron Curtain and COMECON). The world's largest Stalin Monument was unveiled on Letná hill in 1955 and destroyed in 1962. The 4th Czechoslovak Writers' Congress, held in the city in June 1967, took a strong position against the regime.[55] On 31 October 1967 students demonstrated at Strahov. This spurred the new secretary of the Czechoslovak Communist Party, Alexander Dubček, to proclaim a new deal in his city's and country's life, starting the short-lived season of the "socialism with a human face". It was the Prague Spring, which aimed at the renovation of political institutions in a democratic way. The other Warsaw Pact member countries, except Romania and Albania, were led by the Soviet Union to repress these reforms through the invasion of Czechoslovakia and the capital, Prague, on 21 August 1968. The invasion, chiefly by infantry and tanks, effectively suppressed any further attempts at reform. The military occupation of Czechoslovakia by the Red Army would end only in 1991. Jan Palach and Jan Zajíc committed suicide by self-immolation in January and February 1969 to protest against the "normalization" of the country.

After the Velvet Revolution

Prague high-rise buildings at Pankrác

In 1989, after riot police beat back a peaceful student demonstration, the Velvet Revolution crowded the streets of Prague, and the capital of Czechoslovakia benefited greatly from the new mood. In 1992, the Historic Centre of Prague and its monuments were inscribed as a cultural UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 1993, after the Velvet Divorce, Prague became the capital city of the new Czech Republic. From 1995, high-rise buildings began to be built in Prague in large quantities. In the late 1990s, Prague again became an important cultural center of Europe and was notably influenced by globalisation.[56] In 2000, the IMF and World Bank summits took place in Prague and anti-globalization riots took place here. In 2002, Prague suffered from widespread floods that damaged buildings and its underground transport system.

Prague launched a bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics,[57] but failed to make the candidate city shortlist. In June 2009, as the result of financial pressures from the global recession, Prague's officials chose to cancel the city's planned bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics.[58]

On 21 December 2023, a mass shooting took place at Charles University in central Prague. In total, 15 people were killed and 25 injured. It was the deadliest mass murder in the history of the Czech Republic.[59]


Prague is situated on the Vltava river. The Berounka flows into the Vltava in the suburbs of Lahovice. There are 99 watercourses in Prague with a total length of 340 km (210 mi). The longest streams are Rokytka and Botič.[60]

There are 3 reservoirs, 37 ponds, and 34 retention reservoirs and dry polders in the city. The largest pond is Velký Počernický with 41.76 ha (103.2 acres).[60] The largest body of water is Hostivař Reservoir with 42 hectares (103.8 acres).[61]

In terms of geomorphological division, most of Prague is located in the Prague Plateau. In the south the city's territory extends into the Hořovice Uplands, in the north it extends into the Central Elbe Table lowland. The highest point is the top of the hill Teleček on the western border of Prague, at 399 m (1,309 ft) above sea level. Notable hills in the centre of Prague are Petřín with 327 m (1,073 ft) and Vítkov with 270 m (890 ft). The lowest point is the Vltava in Suchdol at the place where it leaves the city, at 172 m (564 ft).[62]

Prague is located approximately at 50°5′N 14°25′E / 50.083°N 14.417°E / 50.083; 14.417. Prague is approximately at the same latitude as Frankfurt, Germany;[63] Paris, France;[64] and Vancouver, Canada.[65] The northernmost point is at 50°10′39″N 14°31′37″E / 50.17750°N 14.52694°E / 50.17750; 14.52694, the southernmost point is at 49°56′31″N 14°23′44″E / 49.94194°N 14.39556°E / 49.94194; 14.39556, the westernmost point is at 50°6′14″N 14°13′31″E / 50.10389°N 14.22528°E / 50.10389; 14.22528, and the easternmost point is at 50°5′14″N 14°42′23″E / 50.08722°N 14.70639°E / 50.08722; 14.70639.[66] Farthest geographical points of the city territory are marked physically by so called „Prague Poles".


Prague seen from satellite

Prague has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb)[67][68] bordering on a humid continental climate (Dfb), defined as such by the 0 °C (32 °F) isotherm.[69] The winters are relatively cold with average temperatures at about freezing point (0 °C), and with very little sunshine. Snow cover can be common between mid-November and late March although snow accumulations of more than 200 mm (8 in) are infrequent. There are also a few periods of mild temperatures in winter. Summers usually bring plenty of sunshine and the average high temperature of 24 °C (75 °F). Nights can be quite cool even in summer, though. Precipitation in Prague is moderate (600–500 mm or 24–20 in per year) since it is located in the rain shadow of the Sudetes and other mountain ranges. The driest season is usually winter while late spring and summer can bring quite heavy rain, especially in form of thundershowers. The number of hours of average sunshine has increased over time. Temperature inversions are relatively common between mid-October and mid-March bringing foggy, cold days and sometimes moderate air pollution. Prague is also a windy city with common sustained western winds and an average wind speed of 16 km/h (10 mph) that often help break temperature inversions and clear the air in cold months.

Climate data for Prague (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1775-present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.4
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 2.6
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.1
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −2.4
Record low °C (°F) −27.5
Average precipitation mm (inches) 34
Average snowfall mm (inches) 179
Average precipitation days 5.7 5.2 6.6 5.8 8.5 9.4 8.9 8.4 7.3 5.5 7.1 5.9 84.3
Average relative humidity (%) 86 83 77 69 70 71 70 71 76 81 87 88 77
Average dew point °C (°F) −4.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 50.0 72.4 124.7 167.6 214.0 218.3 226.2 212.3 161.0 120.8 53.9 46.7 1,667.9
Average ultraviolet index 1 1 3 4 6 7 6 6 4 2 1 1 4
Source: World Meteorological Organization (temperature and rainfall 1981–2010)[70] NOAA[71] and Weather Atlas[72]
Climate data for Prague (extremes 1961-2020)[i]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.2
Record low °C (°F) −25.5
Source: NCEI[73][74][75]
  1. ^ extremes were recorded at Kbely(Prague 19) and Libuš (Prague 4) since 1991 and at Ruzyně (Prague 6) since 1961


Administrative division

Map of Prague cadastral areas and administrative districts

Main article: Districts of Prague

Prague is the capital of the Czech Republic and as such is the regular seat of its central authorities. Since 24 November 1990, it is de facto again a statutory city, but has a specific status of the municipality and the region at the same time. Prague also houses the administrative institutions of the Central Bohemian Region.

Mayor Bohuslav Svoboda

Until 1949, all administrative districts of Prague were formed by the whole one or more cadastral unit, municipality or town. Since 1949, there has been a fundamental change in the administrative division. Since then, the boundaries of many urban districts, administrative districts and city districts are independent of the boundaries of cadastral territories and some cadastral territories are thus divided into administrative and self-governing parts of the city. Cadastral area (for example, Vinohrady and Smíchov) are still relevant especially for the registration of land and real estate and house numbering.

Prague is divided into 10 municipal districts (1–10), 22 administrative districts (1–22), 57 municipal parts, and 112 cadastral areas.

City government

Prague is administered by the autonomous Prague City Assembly, which consists of 65 members and is elected through municipal elections. The executive body of Prague, elected by the Assembly, is Prague City Council. The municipal office of Prague is at Prague City Hall and has 11 members, including the mayor. It prepares proposals for the Assembly meetings and ensures that adopted resolutions are fulfilled. The Mayor of Prague is Civic Democratic Party member Bohuslav Svoboda.


Prague population pyramid in 2021

2011 census

Even though the official population of Prague hovers around 1.3 million as of the 2011 census, the city's real population is much higher due to only 65% of its residents being marked as permanently living in the city.[76] Data taken from mobile phone movements around the city suggest that the real population of Prague is closer to 1.9 or 2.0 million, with an additional 300,000 to 400,000 commuters coming to the city on weekdays for work, education, or commerce.[77]

About 14% of the city's inhabitants were born outside the Czech Republic, the highest proportion in the country. However, 64.8% of the city's population self-identified as ethnically Czech, which is slightly higher than the national average of 63.7%. Almost 29% of respondents declined to answer the question on ethnicity at all, so it may be assumed that the real percentage of ethnic Czechs in Prague is considerably higher. The largest ethnic minority are Slovaks, followed by Ukrainians and Russians.[78]

Prague's population is the oldest and best-educated in the country. It has the lowest proportion of children. Only 10.8% of census respondents claimed adherence to a religion; the majority of these were Roman Catholics.[78]

Historical population

Development of the Prague population since 1378[79] (since 1869 according to the censuses within the limits of present-day Prague):[80][81]

Historical population

Foreign residents

As of 31 March 2023, there were 325,336 foreign residents in Prague, of which 118,996 with permanent residence in Prague. The following nationalities are the most numerous:[82]

Foreign residents in Prague (March 2023)
Nationality Population
 Ukraine 147,701
 Slovakia 31,074
 Russia 27,130
 Vietnam 15,245
Other countries/territories
 USA 6,589
 Kazakhstan 6,097
 Romania 5,695
 Mainland China 5,559
 Bulgaria 5,045
 India 4,775
 UK 4,238
 Hungary 3,554
 Italy 3,517
 Poland 3,352
 Belarus 3,368
 Germany 3,322
 France 2,826
 Turkey 2,523
 Uzbekistan 2,207
 Serbia 2,018
 Croatia 1,762
 Moldova 1,759
 South Korea 1,436
 Spain 1,292
 Azerbaijan 1,277
 Philippines 1,230
 Armenia 1,167
 Japan 1,098
 North Macedonia 1,078
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,058
 Kyrgyzstan 1,009


Historic Centre of Prague
UNESCO World Heritage Site
IncludesHistoric Centre of Prague and Průhonice Park
CriteriaCultural: ii, iv, vi
Inscription1992 (16th Session)
Area1,106.36 ha
Buffer zone9,887.09 ha

See also: Prague underground (culture)

National Museum is a dominant landmark of the Wenceslas Square
Veletržní palác houses the largest collection of National Gallery art
Prague Congress Centre has hosted the IMF-WBG meeting and NATO summit
Rudolfinum, a concert and exhibition hall

The city is traditionally one of the cultural centres of Europe, hosting many cultural events. Some of the significant cultural institutions include the National Theatre (Národní Divadlo) and the Estates Theatre (Stavovské or Tylovo or Nosticovo divadlo), where the premières of Mozart's Don Giovanni and La clemenza di Tito were held. Other major cultural institutions are the Rudolfinum which is home to the Czech Philharmonic Orchestra and the Municipal House which is home to the Prague Symphony Orchestra. The Prague State Opera (Státní opera) performs at the Smetana Theatre.

The city has many world-class museums, including the National Museum (Národní muzeum), the Museum of the Capital City of Prague, the Jewish Museum in Prague, the Alfons Mucha Museum, the African-Prague Museum, the Museum of Decorative Arts in Prague, the Náprstek Museum (Náprstkovo Muzeum), the Josef Sudek Gallery and The Josef Sudek Studio, the National Library, the National Gallery, which manages the largest collection of art in the Czech Republic and the Kunsthalle Praha, the newest museum in the city.[83]

There are hundreds of concert halls, galleries, cinemas and music clubs in the city. It hosts music festivals including the Prague Spring International Music Festival, the Prague Autumn International Music Festival, the Prague International Organ Festival, the Dvořák Prague International Music Festival,[84] and the Prague International Jazz Festival. Film festivals include Bohemia Film Awards, the Febiofest, the One World Film Festival and Echoes of the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival. The city also hosts the Prague Writers' Festival, the Prague Folklore Days, Prague Advent Choral Meeting the Summer Shakespeare Festival,[85] the Prague Fringe Festival, the World Roma Festival, as well as the hundreds of Vernissages and fashion shows.

With the growth of low-cost airlines in Europe, Prague has become a weekend city destination allowing tourists to visit its museums and cultural sites as well as try its Czech beers and cuisine.

The city has many buildings by renowned architects, including Adolf Loos (Villa Müller), Frank O. Gehry (Dancing House) and Jean Nouvel (Golden Angel).

Recent major events held in Prague:

In popular culture

The early 1912 silent drama film Pro peníze was filmed mostly in Prague. Many films have been afterwards made at Barrandov Studios and at Prague Studios. Hollywood films produced in Prague include Mission Impossible, Dungeons and Dragons, xXx, Blade II, Children of Dune, Alien vs. Predator, Doom, Chronicles of Narnia, Hellboy, EuroTrip, Van Helsing, Red Tails, and Spider-Man: Far From Home.[86] Many Indian films have also been filmed in the city including Yuvvraaj, Drona and Rockstar.

Among the most famous foreign music videos filmed in Prague are: Never Tear Us Apart by INXS, Some Things by Lasgo, Silver and Cold by AFI, Diamonds from Sierra Leone by Kanye West and Don't Stop the Music by Rihanna.

Video games set in Prague include Osman, Vampire: The Masquerade – Redemption, Soldier of Fortune II: Double Helix, Tomb Raider: The Angel of Darkness, Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb, Broken Sword: The Sleeping Dragon, Still Life, Metal Gear Solid 4, Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3, Forza Motorsport 5, 6 and Deus Ex: Mankind Divided.


U Medvídků (A.D. 1466), one of the oldest pubs in Europe

In 2008, the Allegro restaurant received the first Michelin star in the whole of the post-Communist part of Central Europe. It retained its star until 2011. As of 2018, there were just two Michelin-starred restaurants in Prague: La Degustation Bohême Bourgeoise and Field. Another six have been awarded Michelin's Bib Gourmand: Bistrøt 104, Divinis, Eska, Maso a Kobliha, Na Kopci and Sansho. However, as of 2022, there are 27 Michelin-starred restaurants in Prague which still include La Degustation Bohême Bourgeoise and Field.

Czech beer has a long history, with brewing taking place in Břevnov Monastery in 993. In Old Town, Žižkov and Vinohrady there are hundreds of restaurants, bars and pubs, especially with Czech beer. Prague also hosts several microbrewery festivals throughout the year. The city is home to historical breweries Staropramen (Praha 5), U Fleků, U Medvídků, U Tří růží, Strahov Monastery Brewery (Praha 1) and Břevnov Monastery Brewery (Praha 6). Among many microbreweries are: Novoměstský, Pražský most u Valšů, Národní, Boršov, Loď pivovar, U Dobřenských, U Dvou koček, U Supa (Praha 1), Pivovarský dům (Praha 2), Sousedský pivovar Bašta (Praha 4), Suchdolský Jeník, Libocký pivovar (Praha 6), Marina (Praha 7), U Bulovky (Praha 8), Beznoska, Kolčavka (Praha 9), Vinohradský pivovar, Zubatý pes, Malešický mikropivovar (Praha 10), Jihoměstský pivovar (Praha 11), Lužiny (Praha 13), Počernický pivovar (Praha 14) and Hostivar (Praha 15).


Žižkov Television Tower with crawling "babies"

Prague's economy accounts for 25% of the Czech GDP[87] making it the highest performing regional economy of the country. As of 2021, its GDP per capita in purchasing power standard is €58,216, making it the third best performing region in the EU at 203 per cent of the EU-27 average in 2021.[88]

Prague employs almost a fifth of the entire Czech workforce, and its wages are significantly above average (≈+20%). In 4Q/2020, during the pandemic, average salaries available in Prague reached CZK 45.944 (≈1,800) per month, an annual increase of 4%, which was nevertheless lower than national increase of 6.5% both in nominal and real terms. (Inflation in the Czech Republic was 3.2% in 4Q/2020.)[89][90] Since 1990, the city's economic structure has shifted from industrial to service-oriented. Industry is present in sectors such as pharmaceuticals, printing, food processing, manufacture of transport equipment, computer technology, and electrical engineering. In the service sector, financial and commercial services, trade, restaurants, hospitality and public administration are the most significant. Services account for around 80 per cent of employment. There are 800,000 employees in Prague, including 120,000 commuters.[87] The number of (legally registered) foreign residents in Prague has been increasing in spite of the country's economic downturn. As of March 2010, 148,035 foreign workers were reported to be living in the city making up about 18 per cent of the workforce, up from 131,132 in 2008.[91] Approximately one-fifth of all investment in the Czech Republic takes place in the city.

Na příkopě, the most expensive street among the states of V4
Tourism is a significant part of the city's economy.

Almost one-half of the national income from tourism is spent in Prague. The city offers approximately 73,000 beds in accommodation facilities, most of which were built after 1990, including almost 51,000 beds in hotels and boarding houses.

From the late 1990s to late 2000s, the city was a common filming location for international productions such as Hollywood and Bollywood motion pictures. A combination of architecture, low costs and the existing motion picture infrastructure have proven attractive to international film production companies.

The modern economy of Prague is largely service and export-based and, in a 2010 survey, the city was named the best city in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) for business.[92]

In 2005, Prague was deemed among the three best cities in Central and Eastern Europe according to The Economist's livability rankings.[93] The city was named as a top-tier nexus city for innovation across multiple sectors of the global innovation economy, placing 29th globally out of 289 cities, ahead of Brussels and Helsinki for innovation in 2010.[94]

Na příkopě is the most expensive street among all the states of the V4.[95] In 2017, with the amount of rent €2,640 (CZK 67,480) per square meter per year, ranked on 22nd place among the most expensive streets in the world.[96] The second most expensive is Pařížská street.

In the Eurostat research, Prague ranked fifth among Europe's 271 regions in terms of gross domestic product per inhabitant, achieving 172 per cent of the EU average. It ranked just above Paris and well above the country as a whole, which achieved 80 per cent of the EU average.[97][98]

Companies with highest turnover in the region in 2014:[99]

Name Turnover, mld. CZK
ČEZ 200.8
Agrofert 166.8
RWE Supply & Trading CZ 146.1

Prague is also the site of some of the most important offices and institutions of the Czech Republic


Wenceslas Square features the National Museum and has the busiest pedestrian traffic in the whole country
Old Town Square featuring Church of Our Lady before Týn and Old Town City Hall with Prague Orloj
The Gothic Powder Tower
Milunić's and Gehry's Dancing House
St. Nicholas Church in Malá Strana is the best example of the Baroque style in Prague
Library of the Strahov Monastery
Franz Kafka monument, next to the Spanish synagogue

Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, Prague has become one of the world's most popular tourist destinations. Prague suffered considerably less damage during World War II than some other major cities in the region, allowing most of its historic architecture to stay true to form. It contains one of the world's most pristine and varied collections of architecture, from Romanesque, to Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Neo-Renaissance, Neo-Gothic, Art Nouveau, Cubist, Neo-Classical and ultra-modern.

Prague is classified as an "Alpha-" global city according to GaWC studies, comparable to Vienna, Manila and Washington, D.C.[100] Prague ranked sixth in the Tripadvisor world list of best destinations in 2016.[101] Its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination, and the city receives more than 8.4 million international visitors annually, as of 2017. Furthermore, the city was ranked 7th in the world ICCA Destination Performance Index measuring performance of conference tourism in 2021.[102]

Main attractions

Hradčany and Lesser Town (Malá Strana)

Old Town (Staré Město) and Josefov

New Town (Nové Město)

Vinohrady and Žižkov

Other places

Tourism statistics

Prague is by far the most visited Czech city. In 2023, Prague was visited by 7,442,614 guests who stayed overnight, of which 78.8% were from abroad. Average number of overnight stays of non-residents was 2.3. Most non-residents arriving to Prague and staying overnight were from the following countries:[109]

Rank Country 2023 2019
Total 7,442,614 6,803,741
1  Germany 1,029,856 900,526
2  United States 424,346 511,950
3  United Kingdom 399,185 495,728
4  Slovakia 369,868 310,966
5  Poland 331,834 252,633
6  Italy 324,696 335,101
7  France 200,370 248,911
8  Ukraine 198,134 170,305
9  Spain 194,571 227,345
10  Netherlands 162,753 148,520
11  South Korea 155,583 272,451
12  Austria 151,259 132,500
13  Hungary 104,924 108,175
 Russia 23,517 392,968
Mainland China 63,253 309,299

In 2021, the most visited tourist destinations of Prague were:[110]

Rank Destination Number of visitors
(in thousands)
1 Petřín funicular 1,015.5
2 Prague Zoo 963,2
3 Prague Castle 444,0
4 Prague Botanical Garden 315,0
5 Petřín Lookout Tower 242,8
6 Chairlift in Prague Zoo 211,4
7 Mirror Maze on Petřín Hill 176,7
8 DinoPark Prague 151,3
9 Old Town City Hall 124,2
10 Království železnic Smíchov 104,5


See also: Category:Education in Prague

Nine public universities and thirty six private universities are located in the city, including:[111]

Public universities

Charles University, founded in 1348, was the first university in Central Europe.
University of Economics, Prague

Public arts academies

Private universities

Largest private colleges

International institutions

Science, research and hi-tech centres

See also: Category:Science and technology in the Czech Republic

Headquarters of the Galileo system in Prague's Holešovice

The region city of Prague is an important centre of research. It is the seat of 39 out of 54 institutes of the Czech Academy of Sciences, including the largest ones, the Institute of Physics, the Institute of Microbiology and the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry. It is also a seat of 10 public research institutes, four business incubators and large hospitals performing research and development activities such as the Motol University Hospital or Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, which was the largest transplant center in Europe as of 2019.[112] Universities seated in Prague (see section Colleges and Universities) also represent important centres of science and research activities.

As of 2008, there were 13,000 researchers (out of 30,000 in the country, counted in full-time equivalents), representing a 3% share of Prague's economically active population. Gross expenditure on research and development accounted for €901.3 million (41.5% of country's total).[113]

Some well-known multinational companies have established research and development facilities in Prague, among them Siemens, Honeywell, Oracle, Microsoft and Broadcom.

Prague was selected to host administration of the EU satellite navigation system Galileo. It started to provide its first services in December 2016 and full completion is expected by 2020.


As of 2017, Prague's transport modal share by journey was 52% public transport, 24.5% by car, 22.4% on foot, 0.4% by bicycle and 0.5% by aeroplane.[114]

Public transportation

Škoda 15 T, tram of the Prague tram system

The public transport infrastructure consists of the heavily used Prague Integrated Transport (PID, Pražská integrovaná doprava) system, consisting of the Prague Metro (lines A, B, and C – its length is 65 km (40 mi) with 61 stations in total), Prague tram system, Prague buses service, commuter trains, funiculars, and seven ferries. Prague has one of the highest rates of public transport usage in the world,[115] with 1.2 billion passenger journeys per year.

Prague has about 300 bus lines (numbers 100–960) and 34 regular tram lines (numbers 1–26 and 91–99). As of 2022 the bus lines are being extended with trolley bus lines.

There are also three funiculars, one on Petřín Hill, one on Mrázovka Hill and a third at the Zoo in Troja.

SOR NB 18 of the Prague buses service next to the Prague Zoo

The Prague tram system now operates various types of trams, including the Tatra T3, newer Tatra KT8D5, Škoda 14 T (designed by Porsche), newer modern Škoda 15 T and nostalgic tram lines 23 and 41. Around 400 vehicles are the modernized T3 class, which are typically operated coupled together in pairs.

The Prague tram system is the twelfth longest in the world (144 km) and its rolling stock consists of 786 individual cars,[116] which is the largest in the world. The system carries more than 360 million passengers annually, the highest tram patronage in the world after Budapest, on a per capita basis, Prague has the second highest tram patronage after Zürich.

All services (metro, tramways, city buses, funiculars and ferries) have a common ticketing system that operates on a proof-of-payment system. Basic transfer tickets can be bought for 30 and 90-minute rides, short-term tourist passes are available for periods of 24 hours or 3 days, and longer-term tickets can be bought on the smart ticketing system Lítačka, for periods of one month, three months or one year.[117] Since August 2021, people up to the age of 14 and over 65 can use Prague's public transport free of charge (proof of age is required). Persons between 15 and 18 years and between 60 and 64 years pay half price for single tickets and day tickets.

Services are run by the Prague Public Transport Company and several other companies. Since 2005 the Regional Organiser of Prague Integrated Transport (ROPID) has franchised operation of ferries on the Vltava river, which are also a part of the public transport system with common fares. Taxi services make pick-ups on the streets or operate from regulated taxi stands.

Prague Metro

Main article: Prague Metro

Staroměstská metro station of Prague Metro

The Metro has three major lines extending throughout the city: A (green), B (yellow) and C (red). A fourth Metro line D is under construction, which will connect the city centre to southern parts of the city (as of 2022, the completion is expected in 2028).[118][119] The Prague Metro system served 589.2 million passengers in 2012,[120] making it the fifth busiest metro system in Europe and the most-patronised in the world on a per capita basis. The first section of the Prague metro was put into operation in 1974. It was the stretch between stations Kačerov and Florenc on the current line C. The first part of Line A was opened in 1978 (DejvickáNáměstí Míru), the first part of line B in 1985 (AndělFlorenc).

In April 2015, construction finished to extend the green line A further into the northwest corner of Prague closer to the airport.[121] A new interchange station for the bus in the direction of the airport is the station Nádraží Veleslavín. The final station of the green line is Nemocnice Motol (Motol Hospital), giving people direct public transportation access to the largest medical facility in the Czech Republic and one of the largest in Europe. A railway connection to the airport is planned.

In operation there are two kinds of units: "81-71M" which is modernized variant of the Soviet Metrovagonmash 81-71 (completely modernized between 1995 and 2003) and new "Metro M1" trains (since 2000), manufactured by consortium consisting of Siemens, ČKD Praha and ADtranz. The minimum interval between two trains is 90 seconds.

The original Soviet vehicles "Ečs" were excluded in 1997, but one vehicle is placed in public transport museum in depot Střešovice.[122] The Náměstí Míru metro station is the deepest station and is equipped with the longest escalator in European Union. The Prague metro is generally considered very safe.


Barrandov Bridge, part of the Prague Inner Ring Road

The main flow of traffic leads through the centre of the city and through inner and outer ring roads (partially in operation).


Prague main train station is the largest and busiest train station in the country.

The city forms the hub of the Czech railway system, with services to all parts of the country and abroad. The railway system links Prague with major European cities (which can be reached without transfers), including Dresden, Berlin, Hamburg, Leipzig, Regensburg and Munich (Germany); Vienna, Graz and Linz (Austria); Warsaw, Kraków and Przemyśl (Poland); Bratislava, Poprad and Košice (Slovakia); Budapest (Hungary); Basel and Zürich (Switzerland). Travel times range between 2 hours to Dresden and 13 hours to Zürich.[125]

Prague's main international railway station is Hlavní nádraží,[126] rail services are also available from other main stations: Masarykovo nádraží, Holešovice and Smíchov, in addition to suburban stations. Commuter rail services operate under the name Esko Praha, which is part of PID (Prague Integrated Transport).

Václav Havel Airport Prague is one of the busiest airports in central Europe, carrying 16.8 million passengers in 2018.


Prague is served by Václav Havel Airport Prague, the largest airport in the Czech Republic and one of the largest and busiest airports in central and eastern Europe. The airport is the hub of carriers Smartwings and Czech Airlines operating throughout Europe. Other airports in Prague include the city's original airport in the north-eastern district of Kbely, which is serviced by the Czech Air Force, also internationally. It also houses the Prague Aviation Museum. The nearby Letňany Airport is mainly used for private aviation and aeroclub aviation. Another airport in the proximity is Aero Vodochody aircraft factory to the north, used for testing purposes, as well as for aeroclub aviation. There are a few aeroclubs around Prague, such as the Točná airfield.


Main article: Cycling in Prague

In 2018, 1–2.5 % of people commute by bike in Prague, depending on season. Cycling is very common as a sport or recreation.[127] As of 2019, there were 194 km (121 mi) of protected cycle paths and routes. Also, there were 50 km (31 mi) of bike lanes and 26 km (16 mi) of specially marked bus lanes that are free to be used by cyclists.[128] As of 2024, there are four companies providing bicycle sharing in Prague: Rekola (1,000 bikes), Nextbike (1,000 bikes), Bolt and Lime. Bikesharing is partly connected to the public transportation and subsidised by the city.


See also: Football in Prague

Prague is the site of many sports events, national stadiums and teams.


Stadia and arenas

The O2 Arena was built to host the 2004 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships.


International relations

Petřín Lookout Tower, an observation tower inspired by the Eiffel Tower in Paris, France, and built at Petřín hill

The city of Prague maintains its own EU delegation in Brussels called Prague House.[132]

Prague was the location of U.S. President Barack Obama's speech on 5 April 2009, which led to the New START treaty with Russia, signed in Prague on 8 April 2010.[133]

The annual conference Forum 2000, which was founded by former Czech President Václav Havel, Japanese philanthropist Yōhei Sasakawa, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Elie Wiesel in 1996, is held in Prague. Its main objective is "to identify the key issues facing civilization and to explore ways to prevent the escalation of conflicts that have religion, culture or ethnicity as their primary components", and also intends to promote democracy in non-democratic countries and to support civil society. Conferences have attracted a number of prominent thinkers, Nobel laureates, former and acting politicians, business leaders and other individuals like: Frederik Willem de Klerk, Bill Clinton, Nicholas Winton, Oscar Arias Sánchez, Dalai Lama, Hans Küng, Shimon Peres and Madeleine Albright.

Twin towns – sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in the Czech Republic

Prague is twinned with:


A number of other settlements are derived or similar to the name of Prague. In many of these cases, Czech emigration has left a number of namesake cities scattered over the globe, with a notable concentration in the New World.

Additionally, Kłodzko is sometimes referred to as "Little Prague" (German: Klein-Prag). Although now in Poland, it had been traditionally a part of Bohemia until 1763 when it became part of Silesia.[148]

See also


  1. ^ German: Prag, Latin: Praga


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Further reading

Culture and society[edit]

  • Banville, John. Prague Pictures: Portraits of a City. Bloomsbury, 2004.
  • Becker, Edwin et al., ed. Prague 1900: Poetry and Ecstasy (2000). 224 pp.
  • Boehm, Barbara Drake; et al. (2005). Prague: The Crown of Bohemia, 1347–1437. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 978-1588391612. Archived from the original on 13 July 2018. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  • Burton, Richard D. E. Prague: A Cultural and Literary History (2003). 268 pp. excerpt and text search Archived 21 April 2022 at the Wayback Machine
  • Cohen, Gary B. The Politics of Ethnic Survival: Germans in Prague, 1861–1914 (1981). 344 pp.
  • Fucíková, Eliska, ed. Rudolf II and Prague: The Court and the City (1997). 792 pp.
  • Holz, Keith. Modern German Art for Thirties Paris, Prague, and London: Resistance and Acquiescence in a Democratic Public Sphere (2004). 359 pp.
  • Iggers, Wilma Abeles. Women of Prague: Ethnic Diversity and Social Change from the Eighteenth Century to the Present (1995). 381 pp. online edition Archived 28 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  • Porizka, Lubomir; Hojda, Zdenek; and Pesek, Jirí. The Palaces of Prague (1995). 216 pp.
  • Rybár, Ctibor. Jewish Prague: Notes on History and Culture — A Guidebook (1991).
  • Sayer, Derek. Prague: Crossroads of Europe. London Reaktion Books, 2018. ISBN 978-1-78914-009-5.
  • Sayer, Derek. Prague, Capital of the Twentieth Century: A Surrealist History (Princeton University Press; 2013) 595 pp.; a study of the city as a crossroads for modernity.
  • Sayer, Derek. "The Language of Nationality and the Nationality of Language: Prague 1780–1920", Past & Present 1996 (153): 164–210. in Jstor Archived 15 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine
  • Spector, Scott. Prague Territories: National Conflict and Cultural Innovation in Kafka's Fin de Siècle (2000). 331 pp. online edition Archived 28 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  • Svácha, Rostislav. The Architecture of New Prague, 1895–1945 (1995). 573 pp.
  • Wittlich, Peter. Prague: Fin de Siècle (1992). 280 pp.