Uleåborg (Swedish)
Oulun kaupunki
Uleåborgs stad
City of Oulu
From top, left to right: Rantakatu in downtown Oulu; Oulu City Hall; Lyseo Upper Secondary School and the Oulu Cathedral; Shops along Kirkkokatu; Radisson Blu Hotel along Ojakatu
From top, left to right: Rantakatu in downtown Oulu; Oulu City Hall; Lyseo Upper Secondary School and the Oulu Cathedral; Shops along Kirkkokatu; Radisson Blu Hotel along Ojakatu
Flag of Oulu
Coat of arms of Oulu
Capital of Northern Finland;[1] Capital of Northern Scandinavia;[2]
Location of Oulu in Finland
Location of Oulu in Finland
Coordinates: 65°00′51″N 25°28′19″E / 65.01417°N 25.47194°E / 65.01417; 25.47194
Country Finland
Region North Ostrobothnia
 • City managerPäivi Laajala
 • City3,817.52 km2 (1,473.95 sq mi)
 • Land1,410.17 km2 (544.47 sq mi)
 • Water103.2 km2 (39.8 sq mi)
 • Urban
187.1 km2 (72.2 sq mi)
 • Rank17th largest in Finland
 • City212,127
 • Rank5th largest in Finland
 • Density150.43/km2 (389.6/sq mi)
 • Urban
208 939[4]
 • Urban density915.8/km2 (2,372/sq mi)
Population by native language
 • Finnish97.3% (official)
 • Swedish0.2%
 • Others2.4%
Population by age
 • 0 to 1417.4%
 • 15 to 6466%
 • 65 or older16.6%
Time zoneUTC+02:00 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+03:00 (EEST)
Websitewww.ouka.fi Edit this at Wikidata

Oulu (/ˈl/ OH-loo,[9][10] Finnish: [ˈou̯lu] (listen); Swedish: Uleåborg [ʉːlɛɔˈbɔrj] (listen)) is a city, municipality and a seaside resort of about 210,000 inhabitants[5] in the region of North Ostrobothnia, Finland. It is the most populous city in northern Finland and the fifth most populous in the country after: Helsinki, Espoo, Tampere and Vantaa, and the fourth largest urban area in the country after Helsinki, Tampere and Turku. Oulu's neighbouring municipalities are: Hailuoto, Ii, Kempele, Liminka, Lumijoki, Muhos, Pudasjärvi, Tyrnävä and Utajärvi.

Oulu is one of the largest cities in the world for its latitude. It is the fourth northernmost city in the world with over 100,000 inhabitants, with the three others located in Russia.

Due to its large population and geopolitically economic and cultural-historical location, Oulu has been called the "capital of Northern Finland".[1] Oulu is also considered one of Europe's "living labs", where residents experiment with new technology (such as NFC tags and ubi-screens) on a community-wide scale.[11] Despite only ranking in the top 2% universities,[12] the University of Oulu is regionally known in the field of information technology.[13][14][15] Oulu has also been very successful in recent urban image surveys; in a study published by the Finnish Economic Survey in 2008, it received the best ranking of large cities in image ratings across the country, including ratings from respondents in all provinces.[16] In the 2023 T-Media survey, Oulu was tied with Kuopio as the second most attractive city in Finland, while Tampere taking first place.[17]

Once known for wood tar and salmon, Oulu has evolved into a major high-tech centre, particularly in IT and wellness technology. Other prominent industries include wood refining, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, paper, and steel.[citation needed]

Oulu has been chosen as the European Capital of Culture for 2026.[18][19]


The city is named after the river Oulujoki, which originates in the lake Oulujärvi. There have been a number of other theories for the origin of the name Oulu. One possible source is a word in the Sami language meaning 'flood water', but there are other suggestions. At minimum, the structure of the word requires that, if originally given by speakers of a Uralic language, the name must be a derivative. In all likelihood, it also predates Finnish settlement and is thus a loanword from one of the now-extinct Saami languages once spoken in the area.

The most probable theory is that the name derives from the Finnish dialectal word oulu, meaning "floodwater", which is related to e.g. Southern Sami åulo, meaning "melted snow", åulot meaning "thaw" (of unknown ultimate origin). Two other word families have also been speculated to be related. The first is seen in the Northern Savo dialectal word uula and its Sami counterpart oalli, both meaning "river channel". The second is the Uralic root reconstructed as *uwa, meaning "river bed" (reflected as vuo in modern Finnish, also in derivatives such as vuolas "heavy-flowing"). To either of these roots, some Sami variety would have to be assumed having added further derivational suffixes.[20]


Drawing of central Oulu from the 19th century

Oulu is situated by the Gulf of Bothnia, at the mouth of river Oulujoki, which is an ancient trading site. The city proper was founded on 8 April 1605 by King Charles IX of Sweden,[21] opposite the fort built on the island of Linnansaari. This took place after favourable peace settlements with Russia, which removed the threat of attack via the main east–west waterway, the river Oulu.[citation needed] The surrounding areas were populated much earlier. Oulu was the capital of the Province of Oulu from 1776 to 2009.

In 1822, a major fire destroyed much of the city.[citation needed] The architect Carl Ludvig Engel, chiefly known for the neoclassical (empire style) buildings around Helsinki Senate Square, was enlisted to provide the plan for its rebuilding. With minor changes, this plan remains the basis for the layout of Oulu's town center. The Oulu Cathedral was built in 1832 to his designs, with the spire being finished in 1844. During the Åland War, part of the Crimean War, Oulu's harbour was raided by the British fleet, who destroyed ships and burned tar houses, leading to international criticism.[citation needed]


Satellite image of the Oulu region.

Oulu is located in northern Finland, a considerable distance from the other cities in the country. It is located 607 kilometres (377 mi) north of the capital city Helsinki. Mainland Finland's northernmost and southernmost points are roughly equidistant from Oulu. Oulu's coast sits at the Bothnian Bay (Perämeri in Finnish) and the Swedish mainland is about 180 km directly west across the Bothnian Bay. From the center of Oulu in the direction of Oulunsalo, there is Kempeleenlahti [fi], a smaller but wide, meadow-belted bay,[22] and part of it has been listed as a nature conservation area.[23] The nearby island Hailuoto is just off the coast, 53 kilometres (33 mi) away in the Bothnian Bay. Along the coast to the southwest, about 75 kilometres (47 mi) of Oulu is Raahe (Brahestad), known for its historic wooden town, and about 130 kilometres (81 mi) of Oulu is Kalajoki, known for its popular sandy beaches.


See also: Category:Districts of Oulu

The map of Oulu from 1886.

Oulu is divided into 106 city districts. The largest of these are Haukipudas, Oulunsalo, Kaakkuri, Ritaharju, Tuira, and Kello [fi].

The municipality of Ylikiiminki was merged with the city of Oulu on 1 January 2009. Oulu and the municipalities of Haukipudas, Kiiminki, Oulunsalo, and Yli-Ii were merged on 1 January 2013.[24]


Oulu has a subarctic continental climate (Köppen Dfc). It is the largest Finnish city entirely in this climatic zone as well as one of the largest such in the world. The typical features are cold and snowy winters with short and mild summers.[25][26] Average annual temperature is 3.3 °C (37.9 °F). The average annual precipitation is 477 mm (18.78 in) falling 105 days per year, mostly in late summer and fall.[citation needed] The warmest temperature ever recorded in Oulu was 33.3 °C (91.9 °F) in July 1957,[27] while the coldest temperature on record was −41.5 °C (−42.7 °F) in February 1966.[28]

Due to Oulu's far northern location, and its frequent overcast skies, it only sees on average 15 minutes of sunlight in December. During the winter solstice days only last 3 hours and 34 minutes with the sun rising 1.9 degrees over the horizon. On the other hand, during the summer solstice days last 22 hours and 3 minutes, with the sun dipping 1 degree below the horizon. This gives Oulu white nights during the summer.[29]

On June 21, 2021, Oulu was struck by the Ahti thunderstorm, causing flooding and fall of trees with the wind blowing at more than 30 meters per second.[30] The storm is known to have killed one person and injured two people.[31][32]

Climate data for Oulu, 1991–2020 normals, records 1921–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 9.3
Average high °C (°F) −4.8
Daily mean °C (°F) −8.2
Average low °C (°F) −11.9
Record low °C (°F) −37.5
Average precipitation mm (inches) 32
Average snowfall cm (inches) 33
Average precipitation days 9 8 7 6 8 8 10 10 8 10 10 10 104
Average relative humidity (%) (daily average) 87 86 82 73 67 66 71 76 82 86 90 89 80
Mean monthly sunshine hours 24 69 137 208 273 296 283 212 133 69 28 8 1,740
Average ultraviolet index 0 0 1 2 3 4 4 3 2 1 0 0 2
Source 1: FMI[33]
Source 2: FMI (record highs and lows 1921–1961)[34]

FMI (record highs and lows 1961–present)[35]

Source 3: weather2travel.com (average monthly UV index)[36]


Significant foreign resident groups[37]
Nationality Population (2020)
 Russia 1,401
 Iraq 678
 China 553
 Vietnam 501
 Somalia 472
 India 355
 Thailand 354
 Syria 291
 Turkey 273
 Iran 240

In 2008, there were 316 Swedish-speaking inhabitants as mother tongue, which was 0.2% of the total population, making the city unilingually Finnish-speaking similar to other areas in Northern Finland. With English and Swedish being compulsory school subjects, functional bi- or trilingualism acquired through language studies is not uncommon. In 2007, there were 2,417 foreign citizens living in the city,[contradictory] of whom 618 were from elsewhere in the EU. 51.1% of the population is female.

Oulu, as well as other parts of North Ostrobothnia, is well known as a strong support area of the Conservative Laestadianism revival movement.[38] A Laestadian background has been estimated to be common in construction sector management.[39]

In 2017, the population grew to over 200,000 inhabitants,[40] making Oulu the fourth Finnish locality with at least 200,000 inhabitants after Helsinki, Tampere and Turku.

Oulu was the site of the 2018 Oulu child sexual exploitation scandal. Prime Minister Juha Sipilä declared that “Sex crimes against children are inhumane acts of incomprehensible evil.”[41]


The population growth of Oulu (and merged municipalities) 1980–2015
Year Population
121 809
128 869
136 029
146 395
160 851
173 436
185 419
196 956
200 400
Source: Tilastokeskus[42]


Stora Enso has an important paper manufacturing plant in Oulu.
Former Nokia premises in Peltola.
Technopolis Linnanmaa is home to nearly 200 corporations.

As of 31 December 2008, the active working population was employed as follows:[43]

Industries Working population
Services 43,049
Industry 11,111
Commerce 10,848
Construction 5,449
Transport 3,698
Farming, forestry and mining 582
Unknown 431
Unemployment rate 16.3% (2016)
Total 75,158

In 2011, the most important employers were:[43]

Employer No. of employees
City of Oulu 9,709
Northern Ostrobothnia Hospital District 6,144
University of Oulu 3,045
Nokia Networks 2,100
Nokia Group 2,000
The Oulu Region Joint Authority for Vocational Training 1,955
Kesko Group 1,426
Cooperative Arina Group (S Group) 1,107
Stora Enso Group 1,155
Itella Corporation 780
ISS Palvelut Oy 730
ODL Group 653


Air Guitar World Championships 2012, an annual event held in Oulu since 1996

The best known cultural exports of the city of Oulu are the Air Guitar World Championships held annually in August, Mieskuoro Huutajat (also known as Screaming Men), the now defunct metal band Sentenced, and one of the best ice hockey teams in Europe, Oulun Kärpät.

Many artists, writers, and musicians live in the city. A variety of concerts — rock, classical, and jazz — as well as other cultural events take place each year. Examples include the Oulu Music Video Festival, the Air Guitar World Championships, and the Musixine Music Film Competition, all in August. In July, the annual rock festival Qstock takes place. The Oulu Music Festival is held in winter and the Oulunsalo Music Festival in summer. The Irish Festival of Oulu takes place each October, and the International Children's Film Festival each November.

Museums in Oulu include the Northern Ostrobothnia museum, the Oulu Museum of Art (OMA), the Tietomaa science center, and the Turkansaari open-air museum.

Notable statues and sculptures in Oulu include a sculpture of Frans Michael Franzén and The Bobby at the Market Place statue.

Finlands' Eurovision representatives 2021 rock band Blind Channel are from Oulu. They placed 6th in the competition.

Kalmah is a melodic death metal-band from Oulu that formed in 1998.


In the 1980s, rössypottu, salmon soup and sweet cheese (juhannusjuusto) were named Oulu's traditional parish dishes.[44]


Rotuaari pedestrian zone
Oulu Market Hall
Uusi Seurahuone restaurant on the Ahtisaari Square


Oulu Cathedral

Other points of interest


Finnair is one of the main operators of the Oulu airport with regular flights to Helsinki.

Oulu is served by Oulu Airport, the second largest airport in Finland by passenger volume. It is located 15 kilometres (9 mi) south-west of the city centre.

The Port of Oulu is one of the busiest harbours on the Bothnian Bay. It includes four separate harbour areas: Vihreäsaari oil and bulk docks, Nuottasaari docks and Oritkari docks. There is also a ferry service in Oulu, which is mostly used between Oulunsalo and the Hailuoto Island.[45]

The shortest travel time from Oulu railway station to Helsinki Central railway station is 5 h 34 min, operated by VR. Other destinations include Kolari, Rovaniemi, Seinäjoki and Tampere.

The most important road in Oulu is Highway 4 (E8/E75) that runs from Helsinki to Utsjoki via Lahti, Jyväskylä, Oulu, Kemi and Rovaniemi. Other highways running to and from Oulu are Highway 20 to Kuusamo and Highway 22 to Kajaani.[46]

Oulu Bus Station

Oulu is notable for its transportation network dedicated to non-motor vehicular traffic, including pedestrians and bicycles (termed "light" traffic in Finland). In 2022, the city contained more than 950 kilometres (590 mi) of pathways and more than 300 underpasses and bridges devoted exclusively to pedestrian and bicycle traffic. The network is used year-round. The ratio of walking and cycling traffic pathways to residents is the highest in Finland and the cycling mode share is 20 percent.[47][48][49] Oulu is often touted as an excellent city for bicycling, even in winter.[50][51]

In 2015, a large underground parking facility, Kivisydän (Stone Heart), opened in the city center directly beneath main shopping streets. The network of parallel roads for cars and pedestrians was drilled in the rock at the depth of 30 meters (98 ft). The parking facility includes two ramps, 900 visitor parking lots (expandable to 1500), six access points to the ground served by 19 elevators (expandable to nine and 25), a service facility for commercial delivery vehicles, and ubi-screens that guide the driver to the selected ground access point and help locate the parked car by its license number.[52][53]

Solar power

In 2015, the Kaleva Media printing plant in Oulu became the most powerful photovoltaic solar plant in Finland, with 1,604 solar photovoltaic (PV) units on its roof. Although the city of Oulu, located near the Arctic Circle, has only two hours of weak sunlight in December, the photovoltaic cells work almost around the clock in the summer. The cold climate means the PV panels can get up to a 25% boost per hour, as they don't overheat.[54]

Because the sun is quite low in the sky at this latitude, vertical PV installations are popular on the sides of buildings. These solar walls also capture light reflected from snow.[54]

Snow is not necessarily cleared from rooftop solar installations.[54]

The local utility, Oulun Energia, is owned by the city of Oulu. The energy mix it receives from the Nordic-wide grid includes wood pellets, waste incineration, bioenergy, hydro-electric, geothermal, wind, nuclear, peat, natural gas and coal.[54]


Kärpät wins the Finnish championship in 2005 after beating Jokerit.
Oulun Luistinseura beat Jyväskylän Seudun Palloseura in the 2014 Finland men's national bandy championship final at the Raksila Artificial Ice Rink Pakkalan kenttä.

Ice hockey is the most popular spectator sport in Oulu. The local club Kärpät has won the SM-liiga championship title eight times (1981, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2014, 2015 and 2018). It has also twice been the runner-up in the IIHF European Champions Cup, in 2005 and in 2006.

In football AC Oulu plays in Veikkausliiga, the premier division of Finnish football. So far OPS has claimed the Finnish football championship only twice by winning Mestaruussarja in 1979 and in 1980. Other notable football clubs include OLS, OTP and JS Hercules.

Oulu has one well-known bandy club, OLS, which plays in Bandyliiga and has become Finnish champions 14 times, most recently in 2014. The other bandy club, OPS, with its 7 championships and a bronze medal as late as in 2009, announced it would be closing down after the 2009–10 season. In 2001 the city was the main venue for the Bandy World Championship.

Oulu is also home to several other sports clubs such as Oulu Northern Lights (American football), Oulun NMKY (Basketball), Oulun Lippo (Pesäpallo), Oulun Pyrintö (Track and field), SK Pohjantähti (Orienteering)), OYUS (Rugby union), Oulu Irish Elks (Gaelic football) and ETTA (Volleyball).

Oulun Tervahiihto is an annual ski marathon event held since 1889.

Terwa Run & Marathon is an annual running event held since 1989 in late May.


University of Oulu main building.

The University of Oulu and Oulu University of Applied Sciences have their main campuses located in Oulu.

Oulu is home to the most northerly architecture school in the world. The school is best known for its strong regionalistic ideas for developing architecture. This movement is named "the Oulu school" ("Oulun koulu") of architecture.[citation needed]

Oulu Vocational College has over 13 000 students. It houses several different study subjects in different units which are spread over Oulu and neighbouring municipalities. Oulu Vocational College School of Business Studies is one of the few vocational schools which has game programming in its curriculum.

Oulu International School is one of nine schools in Finland offering basic education in English. There's also a Swedish-speaking private school (Swedish Svenska Privatskolan i Uleåborg) for students up until high school. The school is the northernmost Swedish-speaking school in Finland.[55]

Notable people

International relations

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Finland

Twin towns and sister cities

Oulu is twinned with:[56]

Oulu also maintains relationships with cities twinned to former municipalities merged with Oulu in 2013:[56]

Partnership and twinning cities

In addition Oulu has eight 'Partnership & Twinning cities':[61]

International municipal projects

The educational department was a part of the Lifelong Learning Programme 2007–2013 in Finland.

See also


  1. ^ a b Oulu Information – City of Oulu
  2. ^ Oulu – Capital of Northern Scandinavia
  3. ^ "Area of Finnish Municipalities 1.1.2018" (PDF). National Land Survey of Finland. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  4. ^ Tarkoma, Jari (2008-01-15). "Taajamissa asuu 84 prosenttia väestöstä". Tiedote (in Finnish). Statistics Finland (Tilastokeskus). Retrieved 11 February 2013.
  5. ^ a b "Preliminary population structure by area, 2022M01*-2023M02*". StatFin (in Finnish). Statistics Finland. Retrieved 4 April 2023.
  6. ^ "Population according to language and the number of foreigners and land area km2 by area as of 31 December 2008". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 29 March 2009.
  7. ^ "Population according to age (1-year) and sex by area and the regional division of each statistical reference year, 2003–2020". StatFin. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 2 May 2021.
  8. ^ a b "Luettelo kuntien ja seurakuntien tuloveroprosenteista vuonna 2023". Tax Administration of Finland. 14 November 2022. Retrieved 7 May 2023.
  9. ^ "Oulu". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). HarperCollins. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  10. ^ "Oulu". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  11. ^ Saylor, Michael (2012). The Mobile Wave: How Mobile Intelligence Will Change Everything. Perseus Books/Vanguard Press. p. 63. ISBN 9781593157203.
  12. ^ "QS World University Rankings for Computer Science and Information Systems 2022".
  13. ^ Bachelor of Engineering, Information Technology – OAMK
  14. ^ Oulu Innovation Alliance
  15. ^ Tietotekniikka, Tietotekniikan tutkinto-ohjelma, tekniikan kandidaatti ja diplomi-insinööri (3v + 2v) – Opintopolku (in Finnish)
  16. ^ "Kuntien imagotutkimus 2007" (in Finnish). July 11, 2008. Retrieved November 13, 2020.
  17. ^ Hurme, Anu (29 March 2023). "Tampere listattiin jo kolmatta kertaa Suomen vetovoimaisimmaksi kaupungiksi – muista suurista kaupungeista vain Oulu paransi tulostaan" [Tampere was listed as the most attractive city in Finland for the third time – of the other big cities, only Oulu improved its result]. Yle (in Finnish). Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  18. ^ YLE: Oulu on Euroopan kulttuuripääkaupunki 2026 (in Finnish)
  19. ^ Oulu in Northern Finland selected as European Capital of Culture for 2026 – High North News
  20. ^ "Oulu-nimen etymologia". Kotimaisten kielten tutkimuskeskus. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
  21. ^ Some History – City of Oulu
  22. ^ Kempeleenlahti Bay, Oulu, Finland
  23. ^ Kempeleenlahden suojelualue (in Finnish)
  24. ^ "Uusi Oulu" [New Oulu] (in Finnish). Oulu: City of Oulu. 9 September 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
  25. ^ "Oulu, Finland Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 2019-03-03.
  26. ^ Learning, Innovative Language; FinnishPod101.com. Learn Finnish - Level 5: Advanced: Volume 1: Lessons 1-25 (in Finnish). Innovative Language Learning.
  27. ^ Ilmatieteellinen Keskuslaitos: Suomen meteorologinen vuosikirja, osa 1a 1957.
  28. ^ Ilmatieteellinen Keskuslaitos:Suomen meteorologinen vuosikirja, osa 1a 1966.
  29. ^ "Sunrise and sunset times in Oulu". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2022-03-12.
  30. ^ "Watch: Thunderstorm slams Oulu on Monday". YLE. 2021-06-21. Retrieved 2021-06-23.
  31. ^ "One killed in Oulu as meteorologists warn of more thunderstorms to come". Helsinki Times. 2021-06-22. Retrieved 2021-06-23.
  32. ^ "Weather: 'It was shocking' – The Ahti storm that hit Oulu on Monday left extensive devastation, more thunderstorms expected on Tuesday". Pledge Times. Retrieved 2021-06-23.
  33. ^ "FMI normals 1991-2020". FMI. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  34. ^ https://helda.helsinki.fi/bitstream/handle/10138/15734/2009nro8.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y[bare URL PDF]
  35. ^ "FMI open data". FMI. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  36. ^ "Oulu climate guide". Weather 2 Travel. Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  37. ^ http://pxnet2.stat.fi/PXWeb/pxweb/fi/StatFin/StatFin__vrm__vaerak/statfin_vaerak_pxt_032.px/table/tableViewLayout2/?rxid=726cd24d-d0f1-416a-8eec-7ce9b82fd5a4[permanent dead link]
  38. ^ Lestadiolaiset pitävät Pohjois-Pohjanmaan väkiluvun kasvussaMTVuutiset (in Finnish)
  39. ^ Lestadiolaisyrittäjä hyötyy uskonyhteisön verkostoista – Taloushyödyt houkuttavat jäämään, vaikka vakaumus olisi jo mennytYLE (in Finnish)
  40. ^ Nyt se tapahtui: Oulun väkiluku ylitti 200 000 asukkaan rajan – avoimet ovet tulossaKaleva (in Finnish)
  41. ^ Aleksi Teivainen (6 December 2018). "Police: 10 people suspected of sex crimes against minors in Oulu". Helsinki Times. Retrieved 31 January 2019. Prime Minister Juha Sipilä (Centre) on Wednesday issued an official statement on the much-discussed case, saying the events have shocked many, for a good reason. "Sex crimes against children are inhumane acts of incomprehensible evil," he stated
  42. ^ "Väestö kielen mukaan sekä ulkomaan kansalaisten määrä ja maa-pinta-ala alueittain 1980–2012" (in Finnish). Tilastokeskus. 22 April 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2013.[permanent dead link]
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  44. ^ Jaakko Kolmonen (1988). Kotomaamme ruoka-aitta: Suomen, Karjalan ja Petsamon pitäjäruoat (in Finnish). Helsinki: Patakolmonen. p. 171. ISBN 951-96047-3-1.
  45. ^ IS: Vieraille lauttamatka on osa Hailuodon idylliä (in Finnish)
  46. ^ Autoilijan Tiekartta 2007 – Road map (Map). 1:800,000. AffectoGenimap Finland Oy. 2006. ISBN 978-951-593-047-7.
  47. ^ Jeffrey Pratte, "Mainstreaming Bicycling in Winter Cities: The case of Oulu, Finland", Masters thesis, University of Manitoba (Canada), 2011. P. 99-100
  48. ^ Anders Swanson, "Winter Cycling for Everyone", (Video, 21:30 min.), Vimeo, 2013
  49. ^ BBC, "The cycle-mad city in Finland that doesn't stop for snow", (Video, 2 min.)
  50. ^ Swanson, Anders (12 February 2016). "Ice cycles: the northerly world cities leading the winter bicycle revolution". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 February 2023.
  51. ^ Steensig, Sara Lilja (1 January 2021). "Meet the bike-loving Finnish city that keeps pedalling even in the snow". Euronews. Retrieved 9 February 2023.
  52. ^ "Oulun Liikekeskus - Parking". Archived from the original on 2016-03-10. Retrieved 2016-03-09.
  53. ^ "Kivisydän parking facility in Oulu". Oulunliikekeskus.fi. Archived from the original on 2016-03-10. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
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