Regions
maakunta  (Finnish)
landskap  (Swedish)
Regions of Finland labelled EN.svg
CategoryUnitary state
LocationFinland
Number19
Populations29,884 (Åland) — 1,689,725 (Uusimaa)
Areas1,553 km2 (Åland) — 92,674 km2 (Lapland)
Government
  • Regional council
Subdivisions

Finland is divided into 19 regions (Finnish: maakunta; Swedish: landskap).[a]

The regions are governed by regional councils that serve as forums of cooperation for the municipalities of each region. The councils are composed of delegates from the municipal councils. The main tasks of regional councils are regional planning, development of enterprises, and education. Between 2004 and 2012 the regional council of Kainuu was elected via popular elections as part of an experimental regional administration.[2]

In 2022 new wellbeing services counties were established as part of a health care and social services reform. The wellbeing services counties follow the regional borders, and are governed by directly elected county councils.[3]

Åland

One region, Åland, has a special status and has a much higher degree of autonomy than the others, with its own Parliament and local laws, due to its unique history and the fact that the overwhelming majority of its people are Finland Swedes. The sole language of Åland is Swedish/Finland Swedish, unlike the rest of the country where Finnish and Swedish share official status. It has its own elected head of government who carries the title of Premier and heads the Lantråd, the regional executive. Most powers that would be exercised by the Government of Finland on the mainland are instead exercised by Åland-specific authorities which execute independent policy in most areas. The Åland islanders elect a single representative to the national legislature, while the Government of Finland appoints a Governor to represent the national government on Åland. Åland is a demilitarized zone and Åland islanders are exempt from conscription.

Representation of the state

In addition to inter-municipal cooperation, which is the responsibility of regional councils, there are 15 Centres for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment (Finnish: elinkeino-, liikenne- ja ympäristökeskus, abbreviated ely-keskus), which is responsible for the local administration of labour, agriculture, fisheries, forestry and entrepreneurial affairs. They are each responsible for one or more of regions of Finland, and include offices of the Ministries of Employment and the Economy, Transport and Communications and Environment. The Finnish Defence Forces regional offices are responsible for the regional defence preparations and for the administration of conscription within the region.

List of regions

Regions of Finland blank map.svg
Lapland (Finland) Lapland
Northern Ostrobothnia North Ostrobothnia
 Kainuu
 North Karelia
Northern Savonia North Savo
Southern Savonia South Savo
Southern Ostrobothnia South Ostrobothnia
Ostrobothnia (region) Ostrobothnia
 Central Ostrobothnia
 Central Finland
 Pirkanmaa
 Satakunta
Finland Proper Southwest Finland
Tavastia Proper Kanta-Häme
Päijänne Tavastia Päijät-Häme
 South Karelia
 Kymenlaakso
 Uusimaa
 Åland
Flag Coat of arms English name[4] Finnish name Swedish name Capital Area (km2) Population
(31 Dec 2019)[5]
Lapland
Lapland Lappi Lappland Rovaniemi 92,674 177,161
North Ostrobothnia
North Ostrobothnia Pohjois-Pohjanmaa Norra Österbotten Oulu 36,815 412,830
Kainuu
Kainuu
Kainuu Kainuu Kajanaland Kajaani 20,197 72,306
North Karelia
North Karelia
North Karelia Pohjois-Karjala Norra Karelen Joensuu 17,761 161,211
North Savonia
North Savonia
North Savo Pohjois-Savo Norra Savolax Kuopio 16,768 244,236
Flag of South Savonia.svg
Etelä-Savo
South Savo Etelä-Savo Södra Savolax Mikkeli 14,257 142,335
South Karelia
South Karelia Etelä-Karjala Södra Karelen Lappeenranta 5,327 127,757
Central Finland
Central Finland
Central Finland Keski-Suomi Mellersta Finland Jyväskylä 16,703 275,104
South Ostrobothnia
South Ostrobothnia
South Ostrobothnia Etelä-Pohjanmaa Södra Österbotten Seinäjoki 13,444 188,685
Ostrobothnia
Ostrobothnia Pohjanmaa Österbotten Vaasa 7,753 180,445
Central Ostrobothnia
Central Ostrobothnia
Central Ostrobothnia Keski-Pohjanmaa Mellersta Österbotten Kokkola 5,020 68,158
Pirkanmaa
Pirkanmaa Pirkanmaa Birkaland Tampere 12,585 517,666
Satakunta
Satakunta
Satakunta Satakunta Satakunta Pori 7,820 216,752
Päijät-Häme
Päijät-Häme
Päijät-Häme Päijät-Häme Päijänne-Tavastland Lahti 5,125 199,604
Kanta-Häme
Kanta-Häme
Kanta-Häme (Tavastia Proper) Kanta-Häme Egentliga Tavastland Hämeenlinna 5,199 170,925
Kymenlaakso
Kymenlaakso Kymenlaakso Kymmenedalen Kotka, Kouvola 5,149 171,167
Uusimaa
Uusimaa
Uusimaa Uusimaa Nyland Helsinki 9,097 1,689,725
Southwest Finland
Southwest Finland Varsinais-Suomi Egentliga Finland Turku 10,663 479,341
Åland
Åland
Åland Ahvenanmaa Åland Mariehamn 1,553 29,884

Former region

Regions of Finland in 2000.
Regions of Finland in 2000.
Coat of Arms Name Official English name[6] Finnish name Swedish name Capital Dissolution (date)
Itä-Uusimaa.vaakuna.svg
Eastern Uusimaa Itä-Uusimaa Itä-Uusimaa[7] Östra Nyland Porvoo January 1, 2011

Regional border changes

1997

2001

2002

2005

2007

2010

2013

2016

2021

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Northern Sami: eanangoddi, Inari Sami: eennâmkodde, and Skolt Sami: mäddkåʹdd.[1]

References

  1. ^ "Sátnegirjjit, Dictionaries of Finnish, Swedish, the Sami Languages, English and Russian". dicts.uit.no. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  2. ^ "Historiallinen maakuntahallinto opetti valtiota". Yle uutiset. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  3. ^ "Health and social services reform". Finnish Government. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  4. ^ "Suomen hallintorakenteeseen ja maakuntauudistukseen liittyviä termejä sekä maakuntien ja kuntien nimet fi-sv-en-(ru)" (PDF). vnk.fi. p. 8–9. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
  5. ^ Tilastokeskus. "Population". www.stat.fi.
  6. ^ "Regions of Finland 2010". Statistics Finland. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  7. ^ "Valtioneuvosto päätti Uudenmaan ja Itä-Uudenmaan maakuntien yhdistämisestä" (in Finnish). Ministry of Finance. October 22, 2009. Archived from the original on August 7, 2011. Retrieved December 30, 2010.
  8. ^ "Statistics Finland". www2.stat.fi. Retrieved 2022-07-04.