The Nordic model comprises the economic and social policies as well as typical cultural practices common to the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden).[1] This includes a comprehensive welfare state and multi-level collective bargaining[2] based on the economic foundations of social corporatism,[3][4] and a commitment to private ownership within a market-based mixed economy[5] — with Norway being a partial exception due to a large number of state-owned enterprises and state ownership in publicly listed firms.[6]

Although there are significant differences among the Nordic countries,[7] they all have some common traits. The three Scandinavian countries are constitutional monarchies, while Finland and Iceland have been republics since the 20th century. All the Nordic countries are however described as being highly democratic and all have a unicameral form of governance and use proportional representation in their electoral systems. They all support a universalist welfare state aimed specifically at enhancing individual autonomy and promoting social mobility, with a sizable percentage of the population employed by the public sector (roughly 30% of the work force in areas such as healthcare, education, and government),[8] and a corporatist system with a high percentage of the workforce unionized and involving a tripartite arrangement, where representatives of labour and employers negotiate wages and labour market policy is mediated by the government.[9] As of 2020, all of the Nordic countries rank highly on the inequality-adjusted HDI and the Global Peace Index as well as being ranked in the top 10 on the World Happiness Report.[10]

Although it was developed in the 1930s under the leadership of social democrats,[11] the Nordic model began to gain attention after World War II.[12] It has transformed in some ways over the last few decades, including increased deregulation and expanding privatization of public services,[13][11] but is still distinguished from other models by the strong emphasis on public services and social investment.[14]

Overview and aspects

Flags of the Nordic countries from left to right: Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark
Flags of the Nordic countries from left to right: Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark

The Nordic model has been characterized as follows:[15]

Economic system

The Nordic model is underpinned by a mixed-market capitalist economic system that features high degrees of private ownership,[35][36] with the exception of Norway which includes a large number of state-owned enterprises and state ownership in publicly listed firms.[6]

The Nordic model is described as a system of competitive capitalism combined with a large percentage of the population employed by the public sector, which amounts to roughly 30% of the work force, in areas such as healthcare and higher education. In Norway, Finland, and Sweden, many companies and/or industries are state-run or state-owned[37][38][39][40] like utilities, mail, rail transport, airlines, electrical power industry, fossil fuels, chemical industry, steel mill, electronics industry, machine industry, aerospace manufacturer, shipbuilding, and the arms industry.[41] In 2013, The Economist described its countries as "stout free-traders who resist the temptation to intervene even to protect iconic companies", while also looking for ways to temper capitalism's harsher effects and declared that the Nordic countries "are probably the best-governed in the world."[8][42] Some economists have referred to the Nordic economic model as a form of "cuddly capitalism", with low levels of inequality, generous welfare states, and reduced concentration of top incomes, contrasting it with the more "cut-throat capitalism" of the United States, which has high levels of inequality and a larger concentration of top incomes, among others social inequalities.[15][43][44]

As a result of the Sweden financial crisis of 1990–1994, Sweden implemented economic reforms that were focused on deregulation, decentralization of wage bargaining, and the strengthening of competition laws.[45] Despite being one of the most equal OECD nations, from 1985 to the 2010s Sweden saw the largest growth in income inequality among OECD economies.[46][47] Other effects of the 1990s reforms was the substantial growth of mutual fund savings, which largely began with the government subsidizing mutual fund savings through the so-called Allemansfonder program in the 1980s;[48] today 4 out of 5 people aged 18–74 have fund savings.[49]

Norway's particularities

The state of Norway has ownership stakes in many of the country's largest publicly listed companies, owning 37% of the Oslo stock market[50] and operating the country's largest non-listed companies, including Equinor and Statkraft. In January 2013, The Economist reported that "after the second world war the government nationalised all German business interests in Norway and ended up owning 44% of Norsk Hydro's shares. The formula of controlling business through shares rather than regulation seemed to work well, so the government used it wherever possible. 'We invented the Chinese way of doing things before the Chinese', says Torger Reve of the Norwegian Business School."[50] The government also operates a sovereign wealth fund, the Government Pension Fund of Norway, whose partial objective is to prepare Norway for a post-oil future but "unusually among oil-producing nations, it is also a big advocate of human rights—and a powerful one, thanks to its control of the Nobel peace prize."[51]

Norway is the only major economy in the West where younger generations are getting richer, with a 13% increase in disposable income for 2018, bucking the trend seen in other Western nations of Millennials becoming poorer than the generations which came before.[52]

Lutheran influence

Some academics have theorized that Lutheranism, the dominant traditional religion of the Nordic countries, had an effect on the development of social democracy there. Schröder posits that Lutheranism promoted the idea of a nationwide community of believers and led to increased state involvement in economic and social life, allowing for nationwide welfare solidarity and economic co-ordination.[53][54][55] Esa Mangeloja says that the revival movements helped to pave the way for the modern Finnish welfare state. During that process, the church lost some of its most important social responsibilities (health care, education, and social work) as these tasks were assumed by the secular Finnish state.[56] Pauli Kettunen presents the Nordic model as the outcome of a sort of mythical "Lutheran peasant enlightenment", portraying the Nordic model as the result of a sort of "secularized Lutheranism";[55][57] however, mainstream academic discourse on the subject focuses on "historical specificity", with the centralized structure of the Lutheran church being but one aspect of the cultural values and state structures that led to the development of the welfare state in Scandinavia.[58]

Labour market policy

The Nordic countries share active labour market policies as part of a social corporatist economic model intended to reduce conflict between labour and the interests of capital. This corporatist system is most extensive in Norway and Sweden, where employer federations and labour representatives bargain at the national level mediated by the government. Labour market interventions are aimed at providing job retraining and relocation.[59]

The Nordic labour market is flexible, with laws making it easy for employers to hire and shed workers or introduce labour-saving technology. To mitigate the negative effect on workers, the government labour market policies are designed to provide generous social welfare, job retraining and relocation services to limit any conflicts between capital and labour that might arise from this process.[60]

Nordic welfare model

The Nordic welfare model refers to the welfare policies of the Nordic countries, which also tie into their labour market policies. The Nordic model of welfare is distinguished from other types of welfare states by its emphasis on maximising labour force participation, promoting gender equality, egalitarian, and extensive benefit levels, the large magnitude of income redistribution and liberal use of expansionary fiscal policy.[61]

While there are differences among the Nordic countries, they all share a broad commitment to social cohesion, a universal nature of welfare provision in order to safeguard individualism by providing protection for vulnerable individuals and groups in society, and maximising public participation in social decision-making. It is characterized by flexibility and openness to innovation in the provision of welfare. The Nordic welfare systems are mainly funded through taxation.[62]

Despite the common values, the Nordic countries take different approaches to the practical administration of the welfare state. Denmark features a high degree of private sector provision of public services and welfare, alongside an assimilation immigration policy. Iceland's welfare model is based on a "welfare-to-work" (see workfare) model while part of Finland's welfare state includes the voluntary sector playing a significant role in providing care for the elderly. Norway relies most extensively on public provision of welfare.[62]

Gender equality

When it comes to gender equality, the Nordic countries hold one of the smallest gaps in gender employment inequality of all OECD countries,[63] with less than 8 points in all Nordic countries according to International Labour Organization standards.[64] They have been at the front of the implementation of policies that promote gender equality; the Scandinavian governments were some of the first to make it unlawful for companies to dismiss women on grounds of marriage or motherhood. Mothers in Nordic countries are more likely to be working mothers than in any other region and families enjoy pioneering legislation on parental leave policies that compensate parents for moving from work to home to care for their child, including fathers.[65] Although the specifics of gender equality policies in regards to the work place vary from country to country, there is a widespread focus in Nordic countries to highlight "continuous full-time employment" for both men and women as well as single parents as they fully recognize that some of the most salient gender gaps arise from parenthood. Aside from receiving incentives to take shareable parental leave, Nordic families benefit from subsidized early childhood education and care and activities for out-of-school hours for those children that have enrolled in full-time education.[63]

The Nordic countries have been at the forefront of championing gender equality and this has been historically shown by substantial increases in women's employment. Between 1965 and 1990, Sweden's employment rate for women in working-age (15–64) went from 52.8% to 81.0%.[64] In 2016, nearly three out of every four women in working-age in the Nordic countries were taking part in paid work. Nevertheless, women are still the main users of the shareable parental leave (fathers use less than 30% of their paid parental-leave-days), foreign women are being subjected to under-representation,[63] and Finland still holds a notable gender pay-gap; the average woman's salary is 83% of that of a man, not accounting for confounding factors such as career choice.[66]

Poverty reduction

The Nordic model has been successful at significantly reducing poverty.[67] In 2011, poverty rates before taking into account the effects of taxes and transfers stood at 24.7% in Denmark, 31.9% in Finland, 21.6% in Iceland, 25.6% in Norway, and 26.5% in Sweden. After accounting for taxes and transfers, the poverty rates for the same year became 6%, 7.5%, 5.7%, 7.7% and 9.7% respectively, for an average reduction of 18.7 p.p.[68] Compared to the United States, which has a poverty level pre-tax of 28.3% and post-tax of 17.4% for a reduction of 10.9 p.p., the effects of tax and transfers on poverty in all the Nordic countries are substantially bigger.[68] In comparison to France (27 p.p. reduction) and Germany (24.2 p.p. reduction), the taxes and transfers in the Nordic countries are smaller on average.[68]

Social democracy

Vote percentage over time of the main social democratic parties in Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway[69] .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Labour Party (Norway)   Swedish Social Democratic Party    Social Democrats (Denmark)   Social Democratic Party of Finland
Vote percentage over time of the main social democratic parties in Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway[69]

Social democrats have played a pivotal role in shaping the Nordic model, with policies enacted by social democrats being pivotal in fostering the social cohesion in the Nordic countries.[70] Among political scientists and sociologists, the term social democracy has become widespread to describe the Nordic model due to the influence of social democratic party governance in Sweden and Norway, in contrast to other classifications such as Christian democratic, liberal, Mediterranean, radical, and hybrid, based on consistency levels ("pure", "medium-high consistency" and "medium consistency").[71] According to sociologist Lane Kenworthy, the meaning of social democracy in this context refers to a variant of capitalism based on the predominance of private property and market allocation mechanisms alongside a set of policies for promoting economic security and opportunity within the framework of a capitalist economy as opposed to a political ideology that aims to replace capitalism.[72][73]

While countries such as Austria, Belgium, Canada, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom have been categorized as social democratic at least once, the Nordic countries have been the only ones to be constantly categorized as such. In a review by Emanuele Ferragina and Martin Seeleib-Kaiser of works about the different models of welfare states, apart from Belgium and the Netherlands, categorized as "medium-high socialism", the Scandinavian countries analyzed (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) were the only ones to be categorized by sociologist Gøsta Esping-Andersen as "high socialism", which is defined as socialist attributes and values (equality and universalism) and the social democratic model, which is characterized by "a high level of decommodification and a low degree of stratification. Social policies are perceived as 'politics against the market.'" They summarized the social democratic model as being based on "the principle of universalism, granting access to benefits and services based on citizenship. Such a welfare state is said to provide a relatively high degree of autonomy, limiting the reliance on family and market."[71]

As of the 1990s, the Nordic identity has been explained with cultural, not political factors; by the 2010s, politics has been re-entering the conversation on the Nordic identity. According to Johan Strang, cultural explanation benefits neoliberalism, during whose rise the cultural phenomenon coincided. Strang states that "[t]he Social Democratic model, which was still very much alive during the Cold War, has now been abandoned, and other explanations for Nordic success have been sought to replace it."[11]


The Nordic model traces its foundation to the "grand compromise" between workers and employers spearheaded by farmer and worker parties in the 1930s. Following a long period of economic crisis and class struggle, the "grand compromise" served as the foundation for the post-World War II Nordic model of welfare and labour market organization. The key characteristics of the Nordic model were the centralized coordination of wage negotiation between employers and labour organizations, termed a social partnership, as well as providing a peaceful means to address class conflict between capital and labour.[4]

Magnus Bergli Rasmussen has challenged that farmers played an important role in ushering Nordic welfare states. A 2022 study by him found that farmers had strong incentives to resist welfare state expansion and farmer MPs consistently opposed generous welfare policies.[74]

Although often linked to social democratic governance, the Nordic model's parentage also stems from a mixture of mainly social democratic, centrist, and right-wing political parties, especially in Finland and Iceland, along with the social trust that emerged from the "great compromise" between capital and labour. The influence of each of these factors on each Nordic country varied as social democratic parties played a larger role in the formation of the Nordic model in Sweden and Norway, whereas in Iceland and Finland right-wing political parties played a much more significant role in shaping their countries' social models.[75]

Social security and collective wage bargaining policies were rolled back following economic imbalances in the 1980s and the financial crises of the 1990s which led to more restrictive budgetary policies that were most pronounced in Sweden and Iceland. Nonetheless, welfare expenditure remained high in these countries, compared to the European average.[76]


Social welfare reforms emerged from the Kanslergade Agreement of 1933 as part of a compromise package to save the Danish economy.[4] Denmark was the first Nordic country to join the European Union in the 1970s, reflecting the different political approaches to it among the Nordic countries.[11]


The early 1990s recession affected the Nordic countries and caused a deep crisis in Finland, and came amid the context of the dissolution of the Soviet Union and collapse of trade from the Eastern Bloc. Like in Sweden, Finland's universalistic welfare state based on the Nordic model was weakened and no longer based on the social-democratic middle ground, as several social welfare policies were often permanently dismantled; however, Finland was hit even harder than Sweden. During the crisis, Finland looked to the European Union, which they were more committed and open to joining than Sweden and especially Norway, while Denmark had already joined the EU by the 1970s.[11]


According to analyst Harpa Njálsdóttir, Iceland in the late 2010s moved away from the Nordic model towards the economic liberal model of workfare. She also noted that with the large changes having been made to the social security system, "70% of elderly people now live well below national subsistence criteria, while about 70% of those who live alone and in bad conditions are women."[77]


Norway's "grand compromise" emerged as a response to the crisis of the early 1930s between the trade union confederation and Norwegian Employers' Association, agreeing on national standards in labour–capital relations and creating the foundation for social harmony throughout the period of compromises. For a period between the 1980s and the 1990s, Norway underwent more neoliberal reforms and marketization than Sweden during the same time frame, while still holding to the traditional foundations of the "social democratic compromise" that was specific to Western capitalism from 1945 to 1973.[78]

Norway was the Nordic country least willing to join the European Union. While Finland and Sweden suffered greatly from the 1990s recession, Norway began to earn enough revenue from their oil.[11] As of 2007, the Norwegian state maintained large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, among them petroleum, natural gas, minerals, lumber, seafood and fresh water. The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product.[79]


In Sweden, the grand compromise was pushed forward by the Saltsjöbaden Agreement signed by employer and trade union associations at the seaside retreat of Saltsjöbaden in 1938. This agreement provided the foundation for Scandinavian industrial relations throughout Europe's Golden Age of Capitalism. The Swedish model of capitalism developed under the auspices of the Swedish Social Democratic Party which assumed power in 1932 and retained uninterrupted power until 1976. Initially differing very little from other industrialized capitalist countries, the state's role in providing comprehensive welfare and infrastructure expanded after the Second World War until reaching a broadly social democratic consensus in the 1950s which would become known as the social liberal paradigm,[4] which was followed by the neoliberal paradigm by the 1980s and 1990s.[80] According to Phillip O'Hara, "Sweden eventually became part of the Great Capitalist Restoration of the 1980s and 1990s. In all the industrial democracies and beyond, this recent era has seen the retrenchment of the welfare state by reduced social spending in real terms, tax cuts, deregulation and privatization, and a weakening of the influence of organized labor."[81]

In the 1950s, Olof Palme and the prime minister Tage Erlander formulated the basis of Swedish social democracy and what would become known as the "Swedish model", drawing inspiration from the reformist socialism of party founder Hjalmar Branting, who stated that socialism "would not be created by brutalized...slaves [but by] the best positioned workers, those who have gradually obtained a normal workday, protective legislation, minimum wages." Arguing against those to their left, the party favored moderatism and wanted to help workers in the here and now, and followed the Fabian argument that the policies were steps on the road to socialism, which would not come about through violent revolution but through the social corporative model of welfare capitalism,[82] to be seen as progressive in providing institutional legitimacy to the labour movement by recognizing the existence of the class conflict between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat as a class compromise within the context of existing class conflict.[83] This Swedish model was characterized by a strong labour movement as well as inclusive publicly funded and often publicly administered welfare institutions.[4]

By the early 1980s, the Swedish model began to suffer from international imbalances, declining competitiveness and capital flight. Two polar opposite solutions emerged to restructure the Swedish economy, the first being a transition to socialism by socializing the ownership of industry and the second providing favorable conditions for the formation of private capital by embracing neoliberalism. The Swedish model was first challenged in 1976 by the Meidner Plan promoted by the Swedish Trade Union Confederation and trade unions which aimed at the gradual socialization of Swedish companies through wage earner funds. The Meidner Plan aimed to collectivize capital formation in two generations by having the wage earner funds own predominant stakes in Swedish corporations on behalf of workers. This proposal was supported by Palme and the Social Democratic party leadership, but it did not garner enough support upon Palme's assassination and was defeated by the conservatives in the 1991 Swedish general election.[84]

Upon returning to power in 1982, the Social Democratic party inherited a slowing economy resulting from the end of the post-war boom. The Social Democrats adopted monetarist and neoliberal policies, deregulating the banking industry, and liberalizing currency in the 1980s. The economic crisis of the 1990s saw greater austerity measures, deregulation, and the privatization of public services.[4] Into the 21st century, it greatly affected Sweden and its universalistic welfare state, although not as hard as Finland. Sweden remained more Eurosceptic than Finland, and its struggles affected all the other Nordic countries, as it was seen as "the guiding star of the north", and with Sweden fading away, other Nordic countries also felt like they were losing their political identities.[11] When the Nordic model was then gradually rediscovered, cultural explanations were sought for the special features of the Nordic countries.[11]


The Nordic model has been positively received by some American politicians and political commentators. Jerry Mander has likened the Nordic model to a kind of "hybrid" system which features a blend of capitalist economics with socialist values, representing an alternative to American-style capitalism.[85] Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders has pointed to Scandinavia and the Nordic model as something the United States can learn from, in particular with respect to the benefits and social protections the Nordic model affords workers and its provision of universal healthcare.[86][87][88]

According to Luciano Pellicani, the social and political measures adopted in countries like Sweden and Denmark are the same that some other European left-wing politicians theorised to combine justice and freedom, referring to liberal socialism and movements like Giustizia e Libertà and Fabian Society.[89] According to Naomi Klein, former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev sought to move the Soviet Union in a similar direction to the Nordic system, combining free markets with a social safety net, but still retaining public ownership of key sectors of the economy—ingredients that he believed would transform the Soviet Union into "a socialist beacon for all mankind."[90][91]

The Nordic model has also been positively received by various social scientists and economists. American professor of sociology and political science Lane Kenworthy advocates for the United States to make a gradual transition toward a social democracy similar to those of the Nordic countries, defining social democracy as such: "The idea behind social democracy was to make capitalism better. There is disagreement about how exactly to do that, and others might think the proposals in my book aren't true social democracy. But I think of it as a commitment to use government to make life better for people in a capitalist economy. To a large extent, that consists of using public insurance programs—government transfers and services."[92]

Nobel Prize-winning economist Joseph Stiglitz says that there is higher social mobility in the Scandinavian countries than in the United States and posits that Scandinavia is now the land of opportunity that the United States once was.[93] American author Ann Jones, who lived in Norway for four years, posits that "the Nordic countries give their populations freedom from the market by using capitalism as a tool to benefit everyone" whereas in the United States "neoliberal politics puts the foxes in charge of the henhouse, and capitalists have used the wealth generated by their enterprises (as well as financial and political manipulations) to capture the state and pluck the chickens."[94]

Economist Jeffrey Sachs is a proponent of the Nordic model, having pointed out that the Nordic model is "the proof that modern capitalism can be combined with decency, fairness, trust, honesty, and environmental sustainability."[95] The Nordic combination of extensive public provision of welfare and a culture of individualism has been described by Lars Trägårdh of Ersta Sköndal University College as "statist individualism."[51] A 2016 survey by the think tank Israel Democracy Institute found that nearly 60 percent of Israeli Jews preferred a "Scandinavian model" economy, with high taxes and a robust welfare state.[96]


Socialist economists Pranab Bardhan and John Roemer criticize Nordic-style social democracy for its questionable effectiveness in promoting relative egalitarianism as well as its sustainability. They posit that Nordic social democracy requires a strong labour movement to sustain the heavy redistribution required, arguing that it is idealistic to think similar levels of redistribution can be accomplished in countries with weaker labour movements. They say that even in the Scandinavian countries social democracy has been in decline since the weakening of the labour movement in the early 1990s, arguing that the sustainability of social democracy is limited. Roemer and Bardham posit that establishing a market-based socialist economy by changing enterprise ownership would be more effective than social democratic redistribution at promoting egalitarian outcomes, particularly in countries with weak labour movements.[97]

Historian Guðmundur Jónsson say that it would be historically inaccurate to include Iceland in one aspect of the Nordic model, that of consensus democracy. Addressing the time period from 1950 to 2000, Jónsson writes that "Icelandic democracy is better described as more adversarial than consensual in style and practice. The labour market was rife with conflict and strikes more frequent than in Europe, resulting in strained government–trade union relationship. Secondly, Iceland did not share the Nordic tradition of power-sharing or corporatism as regards labour market policies or macro-economic policy management, primarily because of the weakness of Social Democrats and the Left in general. Thirdly, the legislative process did not show a strong tendency towards consensus-building between government and opposition with regard to government seeking consultation or support for key legislation. Fourthly, the political style in legislative procedures and public debate in general tended to be adversarial rather than consensual in nature."[98]

In a 2017 study, economists James Heckman and Rasmus Landersøn compared American and Danish social mobility, and found that social mobility is not as high as figures might suggest in the Nordic countries, although they did find that Denmark ranks higher in income mobility. When looking exclusively at wages (before taxes and transfers), Danish and American social mobility are very similar; it is only after taxes and transfers are taken into account that Danish social mobility improves, indicating that Danish economic redistribution policies are the key drivers of greater mobility. Additionally, Denmark's greater investment in public education did not improve educational mobility significantly, meaning children of non-college educated parents are still unlikely to receive college education, although this public investment did result in improved cognitive skills amongst poor Danish children compared to their American peers. There was evidence that generous welfare policies could discourage the pursuit of higher-level education due to decreasing the economic benefits that college education level jobs offer and increasing welfare for workers of a lower education level.[99]

Some welfare and gender researchers based in the Nordic countries suggest that these states have often been over-privileged when different European societies are being assessed in terms of how far they have achieved gender equality. They posit that such assessments often utilise international comparisons adopting conventional economic, political, educational, and well-being measures.[100] By contrast, they suggest that if one takes a broader perspective on well-being incorporating, such as social issues associated with bodily integrity or bodily citizenship,[101] then some major forms of men's domination still stubbornly persist in the Nordic countries, e.g. business, violence to women, sexual violence to children, the military, academia, and religion.[102][103][104]

While praising the Nordic model as a "clear and compelling contrast to the neoliberal ideology that has strafed the rest of the world with inequality, ill-health and needless poverty," economic anthropologist Jason Hickel sharply criticizes the "ecological disaster" that accompanies it, noting that data shows the Nordic countries "have some of the highest levels of resource use and CO2 emissions in the world, in consumption based terms, drastically overshooting safe planetary boundaries," and rank towards the bottom of the Sustainable Development Index. He argues that the model needs to updated for the Anthropocene, and reduce overconsumption while retaining the positive elements of progressive social democracy including universal healthcare and education, paid vacations and reasonable working hours in order to "stand as a beacon for the rest of the world in the 21st century."[105]


George Lakey, author of Viking Economics, says that Americans generally misunderstand the nature of the Nordic model, commenting: "Americans imagine that "welfare state" means the U.S. welfare system on steroids. Actually, the Nordics scrapped their American-style welfare system at least 60 years ago, and substituted universal services, which means everyone—rich and poor—gets free higher education, free medical services, free eldercare, etc."[106]

In a speech at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government, Lars Løkke Rasmussen, the centre-right Danish prime minister from the conservative-liberal Venstre party, addressed the American misconception that the Nordic model is a form of socialism, which is conflated with any form of planned economy, stating: "I know that some people in the US associate the Nordic model with some sort of socialism. Therefore, I would like to make one thing clear. Denmark is far from a socialist planned economy. Denmark is a market economy."[107]

See also



  1. ^ Simon, Carsta (20 December 2017). "Why Norwegians Don't Have Their Pigs in the Forest: Enlightening the Nordic Art of 'Co-operation'". Behavior and Social Issues. 26: 172. doi:10.5210/bsi.v26i0.7317. ISSN 1064-9506.
  2. ^ Kjellberg, Anders (2019). "Sweden: Collective Bargaining Under the Industry Norm". In Müller, Torsten; Vandaele, Kurt; Waddington, Jeremy, eds. (2019). Collective Bargaining in Europe: Towards an Endgame. Brussels: European Trade Union Institute. III. pp. 583–604. ISBN 978-2-87452-514-8.
  3. ^ Rosser, J. Barkley; Rosser, Marina V. (2003). Comparative Economics in a Transforming World Economy (2nd ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. p. 226. ISBN 978-0-262-18234-8.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Simon Reid, Henry (2015). The Political Origins of Inequality: Why a More Equal World Is Better for Us All. University of Chicago Press. p. 132. ISBN 978-0226236797. The dynamics were slightly different in each country. The social welfare reforms that emerged out of the Kanslergae Agreement in Denmark in 1933 came at the height of the interwar economic crisis and was part of a wider compromise package to save the Danish economy. It was a coincidence, but a telling one, that on the same day that the agreement was ratified, Hitler was appointed chanceller of the Reich in Berlin, convinced that he had a better way of saving the economy. In Sweden, the politics of grand compromise were pushed forward with the so-called Basic Agreement – essentially a commitment to the spirit of give-and-take in labour disputes – signed by the employer and labour union associations at the unprepossessing seaside retreat of Saltsjobaden in 1938 ... But in truth the Agreement was the foundation for the relative industrial harmony that would mark Scandinavian industrial relations throughout Europe's Golden Age. In Norway, the empowerment of women as well as workers was key. Women workers marched in 1905 and achieved limited suffrage in 1907, with full suffrage coming in 1913, some five years before it came to Sweden.
  5. ^ Sandbu, Martin (28 August 2018). "What the Nordic mixed economy can teach today's new left". Financial Times. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
  6. ^ a b "Norway: The rich cousin". The Economist. 2 February 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
  7. ^ Lane, Kenworthy (2013). Social Democratic America. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 138. ISBN 9780199322527.
  8. ^ a b "The Nordic countries: The next supermodel". The Economist. 2 February 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  9. ^ Hicks, Alexander (20 January 2000). Social Democracy and Welfare Capitalism: A Century of Income Security Politics. Cornell University Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-0801485565. By the late 1950s, labor had been incorporated alongside Swedish business in fully elaborated corporatist institutions of collective bargaining and policy making, public as well as private, supply-side (as for labour training) as well as demand side (e.g., Keynesian). During the 1950s and 1960s, similar neocorpratist institutions developed in Denmark and Norway, in Austria and the Netherlands, and somewhat later, in Belgium and Finland.
  10. ^ Helliwell, John; et al. (20 March 2020). "World Happiness Report 2020". United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h Liukas, Christa (1 November 2019). "The Nordic brand replaced the welfare state – did politics disappear from the Nordic model?". University of Helsinki. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  12. ^ Petersen, Klaus (March 2009). "Constructing Nordic Welfare? Nordic Social Political Cooperation" (PDF). In Christiansen, Niels Finn; Edling, Nils; Haave, Per; Petersen, Klaus (eds.). The Nordic Model of Welfare: A Historical Reappraisal. Copenaghen: Museum Tusculanum Press. pp. 67–96. Retrieved 3 October 2020 – via Helsinki University.
  13. ^ Kautto, Mikko; Kuitto, Kati (2021). Béland, Daniel; Leibfried, Stephan; Morgan, Kimberly J.; Obinger, Herbert (eds.). The Nordic Countries. The Oxford Handbook of the Welfare State. Oxford University Press. pp. 802–825. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198828389.013.46. ISBN 978-0-19-882838-9.
  14. ^ Kautto, Mikko; Kuitto, Kati (2021). Béland, Daniel; Leibfried, Stephan; Morgan, Kimberly J.; Obinger, Herbert (eds.). The Nordic Countries. The Oxford Handbook of the Welfare State. Oxford University Press. pp. 802–825. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198828389.013.46. ISBN 978-0-19-882838-9.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i Andersen, Torben M.; Holmström, Bengt; Honkapohja, Seppo; Korkman, Sixten; Söderström, Hans Tson; Vartiainen, Juhana (2007). The Nordic Model: Embracing globalization and sharing risks (PDF). Yliopistopaino, Helsinki: Taloustieto Oy. ISBN 978-951-628-468-5. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  16. ^ "Healthcare in Sweden". Sweden. 12 June 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
  17. ^ "Economy Rankings". Doing Business. The World Bank Group. 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  18. ^ a b 20 March 2020. The Nordic Exceptionalism: What Explains Why the Nordic Countries Are Constantly Among the Happiest in the World. WHR 2020. Chapter 7. Retrieved: 2 September 2021.
  19. ^ "Democracy Index 2020: In sickness and in health?". Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  20. ^ "Corruption Perceptions Index 2015". Transparency International. Full Table and Rankings. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  21. ^ "The Nordic Model". In focus 2001. Nordic Labour Journal. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  22. ^ Anders Kjellberg (2017) "Self-regulation versus State Regulation in Swedish Industrial Relations". In Mia Rönnmar and Jenny Julén Votinius (eds.) Festskrift till Ann Numhauser-Henning. Lund: Juristförlaget i Lund 2017, pp. 357–383.
  23. ^ Bruhn, Anders; Kjellberg, Anders; Sandberg, Åke (2013). "A New World of Work Challenging Swedish Unions". In Sandberg, Åke; Allvin, Michael (eds.). Nordic Lights. Work, Management and Welfare in Scandinavia. Lund University. Stockholm. pp. 126–186. ISBN 978-91-86949-37-2. OCLC 860835691. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  24. ^ "Trade Union Density". OECD StatExtracts. OECD. 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  25. ^ "Collective bargaining coverage". OECD. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  26. ^ Kjellberg, Anders (4 April 2006). "The Swedish unemployment insurance – will the Ghent system survive?" (pdf). Transfer European Review of Labour and Research; Quarterly Review of the Etui Research Department. Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research. 12: 87–98. doi:10.1177/102425890601200109. ISSN 1024-2589. S2CID 153819218. Retrieved 26 July 2016 – via Lund University.
  27. ^ Wearing, David (22 May 2014). "Where's the worst place to be a worker? Most of the world". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  28. ^ "Index of Economic Freedom – Countries". Index of Economic Freedom. The Heritage Foundation. 2008. Archived from the original on 25 December 2008. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  29. ^ Growing Unequal? Income Distribution and Poverty in OECD Countries. OECD. 2008. p. 233. doi:10.1787/9789264044197-en. ISBN 978-92-64-04418-0 – via Keepeek 360.
  30. ^ "OECD Revenue Statistics".
  31. ^ "The Nordic model is about more than high taxes – CapX". 15 January 2015.
  32. ^ "How Scandinavian Countries Pay for Their Government Spending – Tax Foundation". 10 June 2015.
  33. ^ Gregoire, Carolyn (1 August 2015). "The Happiest Countries In The World". The Huffington Post (published 10 September 2013). Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  34. ^ Rankin, Jennifer (20 March 2017). "Happiness is on the wane in the US, UN global report finds". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  35. ^ Sachs, Jeffrey (2006). "Revisiting the Nordic Model: Evidence on Recent Macroeconomic Performance". Perspectives on the Performance of the Continental Economies. Center for Capitalism & Society, Venice Summer Institute. pp. 387–412. CiteSeerX doi:10.7551/mitpress/9780262015318.003.0012. ISBN 9780262015318. First, like the Anglo-Saxon economies, the Nordic economies are overwhelmingly private-sector owned, open to trade, and oriented to international markets. Financial, labor, and product market forces operate powerfully throughout non-state sector. In short, these are capitalist economies. ... Second, there is no single Nordic model, and still less, an unchanging Nordic model. What has been consistently true for decades is a high level of public social outlays as a share of national income, and a sustained commitment to social insurance and redistributive social support for the poor, disabled, and otherwise vulnerable parts of the population.
  36. ^ McWhinney, James E. (25 June 2013). "The Nordic Model: Pros and Cons". Investopedia. Retrieved 16 September 2015. The Nordic model is a term coined to capture the unique combination of free market capitalism and social benefits that have given rise to a society that enjoys a host of top-quality services, including free education and free healthcare, as well as generous, guaranteed pension payments for retirees. These benefits are funded by taxpayers and administered by the government for the benefit of all citizens.
  37. ^ "State Shareholdings in Finland". Valtioneuvoston kanslia. Prime Minister's Office/Ministry of Trade and Industry. 2006. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  38. ^ "State shareholdings and parliamentary authorisations". Valtioneuvoston kanslia. 8 April 2022. Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  39. ^ "State-owned enterprises". Regeringskansliet. Government Offices of Sweden. 7 November 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  40. ^ "The State Ownership Report" (PDF). Regjeringen. Ministry of Trade, Industry and Fisheries. 2019. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  41. ^ Bruening, Matt (5 August 2017). "Nordic Socialism Is Realer Than You Think". People's Policy Project. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  42. ^ "The secret of their success". The Economist. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  43. ^ Hopkin, Jonathan; Lapuente, Victor; Moller, Lovisa (29 January 2014). "Lower levels of inequality are linked with greater innovation in economies". London School of Economics. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
  44. ^ Lane, Kenworthy (2013). Social Democratic America. New York City: Oxford University Press. pp. 88–93. ISBN 9780199322527.
  45. ^ Erlandsen, Espen; Lundsgaard, Jens (2007). "How Regulatory Reforms in Sweden Have Boosted Productivity". OECD Economics Department Working Paper. OECD Economics Department Working Papers. Paris: OECD Publishing (577). doi:10.1787/084244078600.
  46. ^ Divided We Stand: Why Inequality Keeps Rising (paperback ed.). Paris: OECD Publishing. 2011. ISBN 9789264111639. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  47. ^ Nilsson, Patricia (29 August 2018). "Swedish society's big divisions — in 6 charts". Financial Times. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  48. ^ Hoikkala, Hanna (22 May 2019). "Swedes Become World Champions With 100% Stashing Cash in Funds". BloombergQuint. Bloomberg News. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  49. ^ Heyman, Fredrik; Norbäck, Pehr-Johan; Persson, Lars (24 June 2019). "The Turnaround of the Swedish Economy: Lessons from Large Business Sector Reforms". The World Bank Research Observer. 34 (2): 274–308. doi:10.1093/wbro/lky007. hdl:10986/35085. ISSN 0257-3032.
  50. ^ a b "Norway: The rich cousin – Oil makes Norway different from the rest of the region, but only up to a point". The Economist. 2 February 2013. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
  51. ^ a b "The secret of their success". The Economist. 2 February 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  52. ^ Savage, Maddy (10 July 2018). "Unlike most millennials, Norway's are rich". BBC News. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
  53. ^ Schröder, Martin (2013). Integrating Varieties of Capitalism and Welfare State Research. London: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 96, 144–145, 149, 155, 157.
  54. ^ Markkola, Pirjo (2011). Kettunen, Pauli; Petersen, Klaus (eds.). "The Lutheran Nordic Welfare States". Beyond Welfare State Models. Transnational Historical Perspectives on Social Policy. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing: 102–118. ISBN 9781849809603 – via Google Books.
  55. ^ a b Kettunen, Pauli (2010). "The Sellers of Labour Power as Social Citizens: A Utopian Wage Work Society in the Nordic Visions of Welfare" (PDF). NordWel Studies in Historical Welfare State Research: 16–45.
  56. ^ Sinnemäki, Kaius; Portman, Anneli; Tilli, Jouni; Nelson, Robert H, eds. (2019). On the Legacy of Lutheranism in Finland: Societal Perspectives. doi:10.21435/sfh.25. ISBN 9789518581355.
  57. ^ Nelson, Robert H. (2017). Lutheranism and the Nordic Spirit of Social Democracy: A Different Protestant Ethic. Bristol: ISD. pp. 21, 121. ISBN 978-87-7184-416-0 – via Google Books.
  58. ^ Hilson, Mary (2008). The Nordic Model: Scandinavia since 1945. London: Reaktion Books. pp. 112–133. ISBN 9781861894618 – via Google Books.
  59. ^ Rosser, Mariana V.; Rosser Jr., J. Barkley (23 July 2003). Comparative Economics in a Transforming World Economy. MIT Press. p. 226. ISBN 978-0262182348. Liberal corporatism is largely self-organized between labor and management, with only a supporting role for government. Leading examples of such systems are found in small, ethnically homogeneous countries with strong traditions of social democratic or labor party rule, such as Sweden's Nordic neighbors. Using a scale of 0.0 to 2.0 and subjectively assigning values based on six previous studies, Frederic Pryor in 1988 found Norway and Sweden the most corporatist at 2.0 each, followed by Austria at 1.8, the Netherlands at 1.5, Finland, Denmark, and Belgium at 1.3 each, and Switzerland and West Germany at 1.0 each. ... [W]ith the exception of Iceland, all the Nordic countries have higher taxes, larger welfare states, and greater corporatist tendencies than most social market economies.
  60. ^ McWhinney, James E. (25 June 2013). "The Nordic Model: Pros and Cons". Investopedia. Retrieved 16 September 2015. The model is underpinned by a capitalist economy that encourages creative destruction. While the laws make it is easy for companies to shed workers and implement transformative business models, employees are supported by generous social welfare programs.
  61. ^ Esping-Andersen, G. (1991). The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  62. ^ a b The Nordic Council. "About the Nordic welfare model". Norden. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
  63. ^ a b c "Is the Last Mile the Longest?" (PDF). Nordic Council of Ministers. May 2018 – via OECD.
  64. ^ a b "Which countries have the highest gender gap in the workplace?". International Labor Organization. 6 June 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  65. ^ Moustgaard, Ulrikke (19 October 2017). "Nordic family policies – between quotas and freedom of choice". Nordic Information on Gender. Archived from the original on 23 May 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  66. ^ "Thursday's papers: Finland's gender pay gap, our duty to help, and cheaper microbreweries". YLE. 2 August 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  67. ^ Drum, Kevin (26 September 2013). "We Can Reduce Poverty If We Want To. We Just Have To Want To". Mother Jones. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  68. ^ a b c "Compare your country – Income distribution and poverty". OECD.
  69. ^ Brandal, Nik; Bratberg, Øivind; Thorsen, Dag (2013). The Nordic model of social democracy. Springer. p. 2. doi:10.1057/9781137013279. ISBN 978-1-349-43669-9.
  70. ^ Brandal, Nik; Bratberg, Øivind; Thorsen, Dag (2013). The Nordic model of social democracy. Springer. p. vi & 159. doi:10.1057/9781137013279. ISBN 978-1-349-43669-9.
  71. ^ a b Ferragina, Emanuele; Seeleib-Kaiser, Martin (October 2011). "Welfare Regime Debate: Past, Present, Futures?" (PDF). Policy and Politics. Policy Press. 39 (4): 583–611. doi:10.1332/030557311X603592. S2CID 146986126.
  72. ^ Kenworthy, Lane (January 2014). "America's Social Democratic Future". Foreign Affairs (January/February 2014). Retrieved 2 April 2014.
  73. ^ Kenworthy, Lane (1 March 2016). "Social Democracy". The Next System Project. Retrieved 27 April 2020. The chief goals social democracy attempts to realize, and that distinguish it from other actually-existing capitalisms, are economic security, equality (low inequality) of opportunity, and shared prosperity. ... Modern social democracy consists, to put it simply, of market capitalism plus generous and employment-friendly social policy... .
  74. ^ Rasmussen, Magnus Bergli (2022). "Farmers and the Origin of the Welfare State: Evidence from 308 Roll Call Votes between 1882 and 1940". Scandinavian Political Studies. 45 (2): 202–226. doi:10.1111/1467-9477.12222. ISSN 0080-6757.
  75. ^ Dolvik, Jon Erick; Flotten, Tone; Hippe, Jon M.; Jordfald, Bard (2015). The Nordic Model towards 2030: A New Chapter? NordMod2030. p. 23. ISBN 978-82-324-0185-7. The Nordic model therefore cannot exclusively be tied to social democratic party support and political dominance. In Sweden, Denmark and Norway, where the social democrats held power for large periods from the 1930s onwards, that description fits better than it does for Finland and Iceland, where centrist and right-leaning parties have set the terms of debate. But in these countries, too, the building of strong labour unions – in line with Walter Korpi's power resource mobilization thesis (Korpi 1981) – was crucial to the central role of labour and employer organizations in developing universal welfare schemes. A variety of modern social security programmes, whether sickness benefits or pensions, first appeared in negotiated collective agreements. It is moreover likely that inspirational ideas and learning experiences that passed between Nordic countries also transcended party lines within these countries.The political underpinnings of the Nordic model have thus been built on broadbased power mobilization and a higher degree of balance between the core interests in society than is evident in most other countries.
  76. ^ Veggel, Noralv (2014). "The Nordic Model – Its Arrival and Decline". Global Journal of Management and Business Research: Administration and Management. 14 (9): 60–94. ISSN 2249-4588. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  77. ^ Demurtas, Alice (9 May 2018). "Iceland No Longer Following Nordic Welfare Model". The Reykjavík Grapevine. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  78. ^ Fagerberg, Jan; Cappelen, Adne; Mjøset, Lars; Skarstein, Rune (May 1990). "The Decline of Social-Democratic State Capitalism in Norway". New Left Review: 60–94. Retrieved 30 March 2020. Norway has, together with Sweden, often been idealized as the most successful case of postwar social democracy...the neo-liberal 'blue wave' which rolled over Western Europe in the 1980s has had considerably greater impact in Norway than in Sweden, combining with the pressures of a destabilized international economy to threaten many of the postwar structures. This makes it easier to appreciate the earlier accomplishments of social democracy, but it also shows that the Nordic innovations often depended upon the convergence of specific national conditions with the dynamic phase of Western capitalism that lasted from 1945 to 1973.
  79. ^ Acher, John (6 September 2007). "Update 1-Statistics Norway raises '07 GDP outlook, cuts '08". Reuters. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  80. ^ Carson, Marcus (2004). From Common Market to Social Europe?: Paradigm Shift & Institutional Change in European Union Policy on Food, Asbestos & Chemicals, & Gender Equality. Stockholm: Stockholm University. p. 231. ISBN 978-9-12202-0-882.
  81. ^ O'Hara, Phillip (1999). Encyclopedia of Political Economy: L–Z. London: Routledge. p. 1248. ISBN 978-0415154260.
  82. ^ Berman, Sheri (2006). The Primacy of Politics: Social Democracy and the Making of Europe's Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 156. ISBN 978-1-13945-759-0.
  83. ^ Moschonas, Gerassimos (2002). In the Name of Social Democracy: The Great Transformation, 1945 to the Present. Translated by Elliott, Gregory. London: Verso Books. pp. 69–70. ISBN 978-1-85984-639-1.
  84. ^ O'Hara, Phillip (1999). Encyclopedia of Political Economy: L–Z. Routledge. p. 1248. ISBN 978-0415154260. The critical issues were perhaps revealed most clearly in the Swedish case. Among the most advanced of the social welfare states, Sweden in the early 1980s faced a pivotal choice between capitalism and the transition to socialism. In the discourse focused upon its nagging problems of international imbalances, declining competitiveness, and capital flight, two polar solutions emerged. Olaf Palme supported an aggressive use of workers' funds, by which capital formation would have been largely collectivized in two generations. The funds would have come to own predominant stakes in Swedish corporations on behalf of workers. The other alternative was to retrench the welfare state and provide conditions favorable to private capitals formation. Palme's proposal appears never to have garnered widespread support and was left with no champion in the wake of his assassination.
  85. ^ Mander, Jerry (24 July 2013). "There Are Good Alternatives to US Capitalism, But No Way to Get There". Alternet. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
  86. ^ Sanders, Bernie (26 May 2013). "What Can We Learn From Denmark?". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
  87. ^ Issenberg, Sasha (9 January 2010). "Sanders a growing force on the far, far left". Boston Globe. You go to Scandinavia, and you will find that people have a much higher standard of living, in terms of education, health care, and decent paying jobs.
  88. ^ Aleem, Zeeshan (4 May 2015). "Bernie Sanders Says the U.S. Could Learn a Lot From Scandinavia. Here's Why He's Right". Mic. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  89. ^ Petti, Edoardo (1 December 2014). "Le critiche di D'Alema alla Terza Via? Frutto della presunzione storica del Pci. Parla Pellicani". (in Italian).
  90. ^ Klein, Naomi (2008). The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. Picador. p. 276. ISBN 978-0312427993.
  91. ^ Whyman, Philip; Baimbridge, Mark; Mullen, Andrew (2012). The Political Economy of the European Social Model (Routledge Studies in the European Economy. Routledge. p. 108. ISBN 978-0415476294. In short, Gorbachev aimed to lead the Soviet Union towards the Scandinavian social democratic model.
  92. ^ Matthews, Dylan (9 January 2014). "This sociologist has a plan to make America more like Sweden". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
  93. ^ "'Scandinavian Dream' is true fix for America's income inequality". CNN Money. 3 June 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  94. ^ "After I Lived in Norway, America Felt Backward. Here's Why". The Nation. 28 January 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  95. ^ "Prof Jeffrey Sachs' plea to the Nordic countries". Global Health Minders. 18 November 2015. Archived from the original on 1 September 2019. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  96. ^ Sales, Ben (23 May 2016). "Survey: Israeli Jews Want Broader Welfare State, Israeli Arabs Prefer 'American Model'". Haaretz. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  97. ^ Bardhan, Pranab; Roemer, Johen E. (1992). "Market socialism, a case for rejuvenation". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 6 (3): 104. doi:10.1257/jep.6.3.101. [W]e believe that social democracy requires rather special political circumstances that are absent in many countries for which our market socialism proposal may be feasible. Since it (social democracy) permits a powerful capitalist class to exist (90 percent of productive assets are privately owned in Sweden), only a strong and unified labor movement can win the redistribution through taxes that is characteristic of social democracy. It is idealistic to believe that tax concessions of this magnitude can be effected simply through electoral democracy without an organized labor movement, when capitalists organize and finance influential political parties. Even in the Scandinavian countries, strong apex labor organizations have been difficult to sustain and social democracy is somewhat on the decline now.
  98. ^ Jónsson, Guðmundur (8 August 2014). "Iceland and the Nordic Model of Consensus Democracy". Scandinavian Journal of History. 39 (4): 510–528. doi:10.1080/03468755.2014.935473. ISSN 0346-8755. S2CID 143545092.
  99. ^ Heckman, James; Landersøn, Rasmus (2017). "The Scandinavian Fantasy: The Sources of Intergenerational Mobility in Denmark and the US" (PDF). Scandinavian Journal of Economics. 119 (1): 178–230. doi:10.1111/sjoe.12219. PMC 5476927. PMID 28649168.
  100. ^ "Mind the 100 Year Gap: 2020". World Economic Forum. 2019. Retrieved 19 January 2021.
  101. ^ Pringle, Keith (2016). "Doing (Oppressive) Gender via Men's Relations with Children". In Häyrén, Anneli; Wahlström Henriksson, Helena (eds.). Critical Perspectives on Masculinities and Relationalities: In Relation to What?. New York: Springer. pp. 23–34. ISBN 9783319290119.
  102. ^ Hearn, Jeff; Pringle, Keith (2006). European Perspectives on Men and Masculinities: National and Transnational Approaches. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780230594470.
  103. ^ Pringle, Keith (2011). "Comparative Studies of Well-Being in Terms of Gender, Ethnicity and the Concept of Bodily Citizenship: Turning Esping-Andersen on His Head?". In Golańska, Dorota; Hearn, Jeff; Olesky, Elżbieta H. (eds.). The Limits of Gendered Citizenship: Contexts and Complexities. London: Routledge. pp. 137–156. ISBN 9780415851268.
  104. ^ Balkamar, Dag; Hearn, Jeff; Pringle, Keith (2018). "Men, Masculinities and Social Policy". In Shaver, Sheila (ed.). Handbook of Gender and Social Policy. Oxford: Edward Elgar. pp. 55–73. ISBN 9781785367120.
  105. ^ Hickel, Jason (6 December 2019). "The dark side of the Nordic model". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 29 June 2022.
  106. ^ "The "Continuing Revelation" of Scandinavian Economies". America. 22 July 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  107. ^ "Denmark's prime minister says Bernie Sanders is wrong to call his country socialist". Vox. 31 October 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2019.

Further reading