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Humanism is a philosophical stance that emphasizes the individual and social potential, and agency of human beings, whom it considers the starting point for serious moral and philosophical inquiry.

The meaning of the term "humanism" has changed according to successive intellectual movements that have identified with it. During the Italian Renaissance, ancient works inspired Italian scholars, giving rise to the Renaissance humanism movement. During the Age of Enlightenment, humanistic values were re-enforced by advances in science and technology, giving confidence to humans in their exploration of the world. By the early 20th century, organizations dedicated to humanism flourished in Europe and the United States, and have since expanded worldwide. In the early 21st century, the term generally denotes a focus on human well-being and advocates for human freedom, autonomy, and progress. It views humanity as responsible for the promotion and development of individuals, espouses the equal and inherent dignity of all human beings, and emphasizes a concern for humans in relation to the world.

Starting in the 20th century, humanist movements are typically non-religious and aligned with secularism. Most frequently, humanism refers to a non-theistic view centered on human agency, and a reliance on science and reason rather than revelation from a supernatural source to understand the world. Humanists tend to advocate for human rights, free speech, progressive policies, and democracy. People with a humanist worldview maintain religion is not a precondition of morality, and object to excessive religious entanglement with education and the state.

Contemporary humanist organizations work under the umbrella of Humanists International. Well-known humanist associations are Humanists UK and the American Humanist Association.

Etymology and definition

The word "humanism" derives from the Latin word humanitas, which was first used in ancient Rome by Cicero and other thinkers to describe values related to liberal education.[1] This etymology survives in the modern university concept of the humanities—the arts, philosophy, history, literature, and related disciplines. The word reappeared during the Italian Renaissance as umanista and entered the English language in the 16th century.[2] The word "humanist" was used to describe a group of students of classical literature and those advocating for a classical education.[3] In the early 19th century, the term humanismus was used in Germany with several meanings and from there, it re-entered the English language with two distinct denotations; an academic term linked to the study of classic literature and a more-common use that signified a non-religious approach to life contrary to theism.[4] It is probable Bavarian theologian Friedrich Immanuel Niethammer coined the term humanismus to describe the new classical curriculum he planned to offer in German secondary schools.[5] Soon, other scholars such as Georg Voigt and Jacob Burckhardt adopted the term.[6] In the 20th century, the word was further refined, acquiring its contemporary meaning of a naturalistic approach to life, and a focus on the well-being and freedom of humans.[7]

There is no single, widely accepted definition of humanism, and scholars have given different meanings to the term.[8] For philosopher Sidney Hook, writing in 1974, humanists are opposed to the imposition of one culture in some civilizations, do not belong to a church or established religion, do not support dictatorships, and do not justify the use of violence for social reforms. Hook also said humanists support the elimination of hunger and improvements to health, housing, and education.[9] In the same edited collection, Humanist philosopher H. J. Blackham argued humanism is a concept focusing on improving humanity's social conditions by increasing the autonomy and dignity of all humans.[10] In 1999, Jeaneane D. Fowler said the definition of humanism should include a rejection of divinity, and an emphasis on human well-being and freedom. She also noted there is a lack of shared belief system or doctrine but, in general, humanists aim for happiness and self-fulfillment.[11]

In 2015, prominent humanist Andrew Copson attempted to define humanism as follows:

According to the International Humanist and Ethical Union:

Humanism is a democratic and ethical life stance, which affirms that human beings have the right and responsibility to give meaning and shape to their own lives. It stands for the building of a more humane society through an ethic based on human and other natural values in the spirit of reason and free inquiry through human capabilities. It is not theistic, and it does not accept supernatural views of reality.[13]

Dictionaries define humanism as a worldview or philosophical stance. According to Merriam Webster Dictionary, humanism is " ... a doctrine, attitude, or way of life centered on human interests or values; especially: a philosophy that usually rejects supernaturalism and stresses an individual's dignity and worth and capacity for self-realization through reason".[14]

History

Predecessors

Traces of humanism can be found in ancient Greek philosophy.[15] Pre-Socratic philosophers were the first Western philosophers to attempt to explain the world in terms of human reason and natural law without relying on myth, tradition, or religion.[16] Protagoras, who lived in Athens c. 440 BCE, put forward some fundamental humanist ideas, although only fragments of his work survive. He made one of the first agnostic statements; according to one fragment: "About the gods I am able to know neither that they exist nor that they do not exist nor of what kind they are in form: for many things prevent me for knowing this, its obscurity and the brevity of man's life". (80B4 DK) [17] Socrates spoke of the need to "know thyself"; his thought changed the focus of then-contemporary philosophy from nature to humans and their well-being.[18] Socrates, a theist who was executed for atheism, investigated the nature of morality by reasoning.[19] Aristotle (384–322 BCE) taught rationalism and a system of ethics based on human nature that also parallels humanist thought.[17] In the third century BCE, Epicurus developed an influential, human-centered philosophy that focused on achieving eudaimonia. Epicureans continued Democritus' atomist theory—a materialistic theory that suggests the fundamental unit of the universe is an indivisible atom. Human happiness, living well, friendship, and the avoidance of excesses were the key ingredients of Epicurean philosophy that flourished in and beyond the post-Hellenic world.[17] It is a repeated view among scholars that the humanistic features of ancient Greek thought are the roots of humanism 2,000 years later.[20]

Arabic translations of Ancient Greek literature during the Abbasid Caliphate in the eighth and ninth centuries influenced Islamic philosophers. Many medieval Muslim thinkers pursued humanistic, rational, and scientific discourse in their search for knowledge, meaning, and values. A wide range of Islamic writings on love, poetry, history, and philosophical theology show medieval Islamic thought was open to humanistic ideas of individualism, occasional secularism, skepticism, liberalism, and free speech; schools were established at Baghdad, Basra and Isfahan.[21]

Renaissance

Main article: Renaissance humanism

Portrait of Petrarch painted by Altichiero in 1376
Portrait of Petrarch painted by Altichiero in 1376
David by Michelangelo, 1501–1504. Artistic work during the Renaissance illustrates the emphasis given to anatomical details of humans.
David by Michelangelo, 1501–1504. Artistic work during the Renaissance illustrates the emphasis given to anatomical details of humans.

The intellectual movement later known as Renaissance humanism first appeared in Italy and has greatly influenced both contemporaneous and modern Western culture.[22] Renaissance humanism emerged in Italy alongside a renewed interest in literature and the arts in 13th-century Italy.[23] Italian scholars discovered Ancient Greek thought, particularly that of Aristotle, through Arabic translations from Africa and Spain.[24] Other centers were Verona, Naples, and Avignon.[25] Petrarch, who is often referred to as the father of humanism, is a significant figure.[26] Petrarch was raised in Avignon; he was inclined toward education at a very early age and studied alongside his well-educated father. Petrarch'ims enthusiasm for ancient texts led him to discover manuscripts such as Cicero's Pro Archia and Pomponius Mela's De Chorographia that were influential in the development of the Renaissance.[27] Petrarch wrote Latin poems such as Canzoniere and De viris illustribus, in which he described humanist ideas.[28] His most-significant contribution was a list of books outlining the four major disciplines—rhetoric, moral philosophy, poetry, and grammar—that became the basis of humanistic studies (studia humanitatis). Petrarch's list relied heavily on ancient writers, especially Cicero.[29]

The revival of classicist authors continued after Petrarch's death. Florence chancellor and humanist Coluccio Salutati made his city a prominent center of Renaissance humanism; his circle included other notable humanists—including Leonardo Bruni, who rediscovered, translated, and popularized ancient texts.[30] Humanists heavily influenced education.[31] Vittorino da Feltre and Guarino Veronese created schools based on humanistic principles; their curriculum was widely adopted and by the 16th century, humanistic paideia was the dominant outlook of pre-university education.[32] Parallel with advances in education, Renaissance humanists made progress in fields such as philosophy, mathematics, and religion. In philosophy, Angelo Poliziano, Nicholas of Cusa, and Marsilio Ficino further contributed to the understanding of ancient classical philosophers and Giovanni Pico della Mirandola undermined the dominance of Aristotelian philosophy by revitalizing Sextus Empiricus' skepticism. Religious studies were affected by the growth of Renaissance humanism when Pope Nicholas V initiated the translation of Hebrew and Greek biblical texts, and other texts in those languages, to contemporaneous Latin.[33]

Humanist values spread from Italy in the 15th century. Students and scholars went to Italy to study before returning to their homelands carrying humanistic messages. Printing houses dedicated to ancient texts were established in Venice, Basel, and Paris.[32] By the end of 15th century, the center of humanism had shifted from Italy to northern Europe, with Erasmus of Rotterdam being the leading humanist scholar. [34] The longest-lasting effect of Renaissance humanism was its education curriculum and methods. Humanists insisted on the importance of classical literature in providing intellectual discipline, moral standards, and a civilized taste for the elite—an educational approach that reached the contemporary era.[35]

Enlightenment

During the Age of Enlightenment, humanistic ideas resurfaced, this time further from religion and classical literature.[36] Science, reason, and intellectualism advanced, and the mind replaced God as the means with which to understand the world. Divinity was no longer dictating human morals, and humanistic values such as tolerance and opposition to slavery started to take shape. Life-changing technological discoveries allowed ordinary people to face religion with a new morality, and greater confidence about humanity and its abilities.[36] New philosophical, social, and political ideas appeared. Some thinkers rejected theism outright; and atheism, deism, and hostility to organized religion were formed.[37] During the Enlightenment, Baruch Spinoza redefined God as signifying the totality of nature; Spinoza was accused of atheism but remained silent on the matter.[38] Naturalism was also advanced by prominent Encyclopédistes. Baron d'Holbach wrote the polemic System of Nature, claiming religion is built on fear and helped tyrants throughout history.[39] Diderot and Helvetius combined their materialism with sharp, political critique.[39]

Also during the Enlightenment, the abstract conception of humanity started forming—a critical juncture for the construction of humanist philosophy. Previous appeals to "men" now shifted toward "man"; this is evident in political documents like The Social Contract (1762) of Rousseau, in which he says "Man is born free, but is everywhere in chains". Likewise, Thomas Paine's Rights of Man uses the singular form of the word, revealing a universal conception of "man".[40] In parallel, Baconian empiricism—though not humanism per se—led to Thomas Hobbes's materialism.[41]

According to scholar J. Brent Crosson, while the belief the birth of humanism was solely a European affair is widely held, intellectual thought from other continents such as Africa and Asia significantly contributed as well. He also notes during enlightenment, the universal man did not encompass all humans but was shaped by gender and race. According to Crosson, the shift from man to human started during enlightenment and is still ongoing.[42] Also, Crosson noted that enlightenment, especially in Britain during scientific revolution, produce not only the notion of universal man and an optimism that reason will prevail over religious superstitions, but also gave birth to pseudoscientific ideas such as race that shaped European history. He gives the paradigm of Africa, which was a contribution to knowledge until the Renaissance but was disregarded afterwards.[43]

From Darwin to current era

French philosopher Auguste Comte (1798–1857) introduced the idea—which is sometimes attributed to Thomas Paine—of a "religion of humanity". This was intended to be an atheist cult based on some humanistic tenets, and had some prominent members but soon declined. It was nonetheless influential during the 19th century, and its humanism and rejection of supernaturalism are echoed in the works of later authors such as Oscar Wilde, George Holyoake—who coined the word secularismGeorge Eliot, Émile Zola, and E. S. Beesly. Paine's The Age of Reason, along with the 19th-century Biblical criticism of the German Hegelians David Strauss and Ludwig Feuerbach, also contributed to new forms of humanism.[44][45]

Advances in science and philosophy provided scholars with further alternatives to religious belief. Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection offered naturalists an explanation for the plurality of species.[46] Darwin's theory also suggested humans are simply a natural species, contradicting the traditional theological view of humans as more than animals.[47] Philosophers Ludwig Feuerbach, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Karl Marx attacked religion on several grounds, and theologians David Strauss and Julius Wellhausen questioned the Bible.[46] In parallel, utilitarianism was developed in Britain through the works of Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. Utilitarianism, a moral philosophy, centers its attention on human happiness, aiming to eliminate human and animal pain via natural means.[48] In Europe and the US, as philosophical critiques of theistic beliefs grew, large parts of society distanced themselves from religion. Ethical societies were formed, leading to the contemporary humanist movement.[49]

The rise of rationalism and the scientific method was followed in the late 19th century in Britain by the start of many rationalist and ethical associations, such as the National Secular Society, the Ethical Union, and the Rationalist Press Association.[45] In the 20th century, humanism was further promoted by the work of philosophers such as A. J. Ayer, Antony Flew, and Bertrand Russell, whose advocacy of atheism in Why I Am Not a Christian further popularized humanist ideas. In 1963, the British Humanist Association evolved out of the Ethical Union, and merged with many smaller ethical and rationalist groups. Elsewhere in Europe, humanist organizations also flourished. In the Netherlands, the Dutch Humanist Alliance gained a wide base of support after World War II and in Norway, the Norwegian Humanist Association gained popular support.[50]

In the US, humanism evolved with the aid of significant figures of the Unitarian Church. Humanist magazines began to appear, including The New Humanist, which published the Humanist Manifesto I in 1933. The American Ethical Union emerged from newly founded, small, ethicist societies.[45] The American Humanist Association (AHA) was established in 1941 and became as popular as some of its European counterparts. The AHA spread to all states, and some prominent public figures such as Isaac Asimov, John Dewey, Erich Fromm, Paul Kurtz, Carl Sagan, and Gene Roddenberry became members.[50] Humanist organizations from all continents formed the International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU), which is now known as Humanists International, and promotes the humanist agenda via the United Nations organizations UNESCO and UNICEF.[51]

Varieties of humanism

Early 20th century naturalists, who viewed their humanism as a religion and participated in church-like congregations, used the term "religious humanism". Religious humanism appeared mostly in the US and is now rarely practiced. The American Humanist Association arose from religious humanism.[52] The same term has been used by religious groups such as the Quakers to describe their humanistic theology.[53]

The term "Renaissance humanism" was given to a tradition of cultural and educational reform engaged in by civic and ecclesiastical chancellors, book collectors, educators, and writers that developed during the 14th and early 15th centuries. By the late 15th century, these academics began to be referred to as umanisti (humanists). [54] While modern humanism's roots can be traced to the Renaissance, Renaissance humanism vastly differs from it.[55][56]

Other terms using "humanism" in their name include:

Philosophy

Immanuel Kant provided the basis of the humanist narrative. His theory of critical philosophy formed the basis of the world of knowledge, defending rationalism and grounding it in the empirical world.[63] He also supported the idea of the moral autonomy of the individual, which is fundamental to his philosophy. According to Kant, morality is the product of the way humans live and not a set of fixed values. Instead of a universal ethic code, Kant suggested a universal procedure that shapes the ethics that differ among groups of people.[64]

Humanism is strongly linked to rationality.[65] For humanists, humans are reasonable beings, and reasoning and the scientific method are means of finding truth.[66] Humanists argue science and rationality have driven successful developments in various fields[67] while the invocation of supernatural phenomena fails to coherently explain the world. One form of irrational thinking is adducing. Humanists are skeptical of explanations of natural phenomena or diseases that rely on hidden agencies.[68]

Human autonomy is another hallmark of humanist philosophy.[69] For people to be autonomous, their beliefs and actions must be the result of their own reasoning.[69] For humanists, autonomy dignifies each individual; without autonomy, people's humanity is lessened.[70] Humanists also consider human essence to be universal, irrespective of race and social status, diminishing the importance of collective identities and signifying the importance of individuals.[71]

Philosopher and humanist advocate Corliss Lamont, in his book The Philosophy of Humanism (1997), states:

In the Humanist ethics the chief end of thought and action is to further this-earthly human interests on behalf of the greater glory of people. The watchword of Humanism is happiness for all humanity in this existence as contrasted with salvation for the individual soul in a future existence and the glorification of a supernatural Supreme Being ... It heartily welcomes all life-enhancing and healthy pleasures, from the vigorous enjoyments of youth to the contemplative delights of mellowed age, from the simple gratifications of food and drink, sunshine and sports, to the more complex appreciation of art and literature, friendship and social communion... [72]

Themes

Morality

The humanist attitude toward morality has changed since its beginning. Starting in the 18th century, humanists were oriented toward an objective and universalist stance on ethics. Both Utilitarian philosophy—which aims to increase human happiness and decrease suffering—and Kantian ethics, which states one should act in accordance with maxims one could will to become a universal law, shaped the humanist moral narrative until the early 20th century. Because the concepts of free will and reason are not based on scientific naturalism, their influence on humanists remained in the early 20th century but was reduced by social progressiveness and egalitarianism.[73] As part of social changes in the late 20th century, humanist ethics evolved to support secularism, civil rights, personal autonomy, religious toleration, multiculturalism, and cosmopolitanism.[74]

A naturalistic criticism of humanistic morality is the denial of the existence of morality. For naturalistic skeptics, morality was not hardwired within humans during their evolution; humans are primarily selfish and self-centered.[75] Defending humanist morality, humanist philosopher John R. Shook makes three observations that lead him to the acceptance of morality. According to Shook, homo sapiens has a concept of morality that must have been with the species since the beginning of human history, developing by recognizing and thinking upon behaviors. He adds morality is universal among human cultures and all cultures strive to improve their moral level. Spook concludes while morality was initially generated by our genes, culture shaped human morals and continues to do so. He calls "moral naturalism" the view morality is a natural phenomenon, can be scientifically studied, and is a tool rather than a set of doctrines that was used to develop human culture.[76]

Humanist philosopher Brian Ellis advocates a social humanist theory of morality called "social contractual utilitarianism", which is based on Hume's naturalism and empathy, Aristotelian virtue theory, and Kant's idealism. According to Ellis, morality should aim for eudaimonia, an Aristotelian concept that combines a satisfying life with virtue and happiness by improving societies worldwide.[77] Humanist Andrew Copson takes a consequentialist and utilitarian approach to morality; according to Copson, all humanist ethical traits aim at human welfare.[78] Philosopher Stephen Law emphasizes some principles of humanist ethics; respect for personal moral autonomy, rejection of god-given moral commands, an aim for human well-being, and "emphasiz[ing] the role of reason in making moral judgements".[79]

Humanism's godless approach to morality has driven criticism from religious commentators. The necessity for a divine being delivering sets of doctrines for morals to exist is a common argument; according to Dostoevsky in The Brothers Karamazov; "if God does not exist, then everything is permitted". This argument suggests chaos will ensue if religious belief disappears.[80] For humanists, theism is an obstacle to morality rather than a prerequisite for it.[81] According to humanists, acting only out of fear, adherence to dogma, and expectation of a reward is a selfish motivation rather than morality.[82] Humanists point to the subjectivity of the supposedly objective divine commands by referring to the Euthyphro dilemma; "does God command something because it is good or is something good because God commands it?" If goodness is independent from God, humans can reach goodness without religion but relativism is invited if God creates goodness.[83] Another argument against this religious criticism is the human-made nature of morality, even through religious means. The interpretation of holy scriptures almost always includes human reasoning; different interpreters reach contradictory theories.[84]

Religion

Humanism has widely been seen as antithetical to religion.[85] Philosopher of religion David Kline, traces the roots of this animosity since the Renaissance, when humanistic views deconstructed the previous religiously defined order. Kline describes several ways this antithesis has evolved. Kline notes the emergence of a confident human-made knowledge, which was a new way of epistemology, repelled the church from its authoritative position. Kline uses the paradigm of non-humanists Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo to illustrate how scientific discoveries added to the deconstruction of the religious narrative in favor of human-generated knowledge. This ultimately uncoupled the fate of humans from the divine will, prompting social and political shifts.[86] The relation of state and citizens changed as civic humanistic principles emerged; people were no longer to be servile to religiously grounded monarchies but could pursue their own destinies.[87] Kline also points at the aspect of personal beliefs that added to the hostility between humanism and religion. Humanism was associated with prominent thinkers who rationally advocated against the existence of God. Critique of theism continued through the humanistic revolutions in Europe, challenging religious worldviews, attitudes and superstitions on a rational basis—a tendency that continued to the 20th century.[88]

According to Stephen Law, humanist adherence to secularism placed humans at odds with religion, especially nationally dominant religions striving to retain privileges gained in the last centuries. Worth notes religious persons can be secularists. Law notes secularism is criticized for suppressing freedom of expression of religious persons but firmly denies such accusation; instead, he says, secularism protects this kind of freedom but opposes the privileged status of religious views. [89]

According to Andrew Copson, humanism is not incompatible with some aspects of religion. Copson sees elements of religion, such as belief, practice, identity and culture, in which a person adhering to few religious doctrines could also be humanist.[90] Copson adds that religious critics usually frame humanism as an enemy of religion but most humanists are proponents of religious tolerance or exhibit a curiosity about religion's effects in society and politics, commenting: "Only a few are regularly outraged by other people’s false beliefs per se".[91]

The meaning of life

In the 19th century, the problem of the meaning of life arose, along with the decline of religion and its accompanied teleology, puzzling both society and philosophers.[92] Unlike religions, humanism does not have a definite view on the meaning of life.[93] Humanists commonly say people create rather than discover meaning. While many philosophers such as Kierkegaard, Schopenhauer, and Nietzsche wrote on the meaning of life in a godless world, the work of Albert Camus has echoed and shaped humanism. In Camus' The Myth of Sisyphus, he quotes a Greek myth in which the absurd hero Sisyphus is destined to push a heavy rock up a hill; the rock slips back and he must repeat the task.[94]

Personal humanist interpretations of the meaning of life vary from the pursuit of happiness without recklessness and excesses to participation in human history, and connection with loved ones, living animals, and plants.[93][a] Some answers are close to those of religious discourse if the appeal to divinity is overlooked.[96] According to humanist professor Peter Derks, elements that contribute to the meaning of life are a morally worthy purpose in life, positive self-evaluation, an understanding of one's environment, being seen and understood by others, the ability to emotionally connect with others, and a desire to have a meaning in life.[97] Humanist professor Anthony B. Pinn places the meaning of life in the quest of what he calls "complex subjectivity". Pinn, who is advocating for a non-theistic, humanistic religion inspired by African cultures, says seeking the never-reaching meaning of life contributes to well-being, and that rituals and ceremonies, which are occasions for reflection, provide an opportunity to assess the meaning of life, improving well-being.[98]

Well-being and the living of a good life are at the center of humanist reflection. For humanists, well-being is linked with values that arise from the meaning of life that each human sets for him or herself.[99] Humanist philosopher Bertrand Russell described the good life as one "inspired by love, guided by knowledge".[100] A.C. Grayling noted a good life "is the life that feels meaningful and fulfilling to the one living it".[101] Despite the platitudes, humanism does not have a doctrine of good life nor offers any certainties; each person should decide for themself what constitutes a good life.[102] For humanists, it is vital the option for a meaningful and fulfilling life is available to all members of society.[103]

In public life

In politics

The hallmark of contemporary humanism in politics is the demand for secularism.[104] Philosopher Alan Haworth said secularism delivers fair treatment to all citizens of a nation-state since all are treated without discrimination; religion is a private issue and the state should have no power over it.[105] He also adds secularism helps plurality and diversity, which are fundamental aspects of our modern world.[106] Haworth, also examines political objections to humanist calsl for secularism. He examines the conservative argument of Edmund Burke that calls for common sense rather than abstract reasoning, and preserving traditional and Christian values and puts importance on national continuity. Haworth said Christian values have not stopped Europeans committing atrocities. While this kind of barbarism can be found in most civilizations, Haworth notes religion usually fuels rhetoric and enables these actions. He also said the values of hard work, honesty, and charity are found in other civilizations. [107] According to Haworth, humanism opposes the irrationality of nationalism and totalitarianism, whether these are part of fascism or Marxist–Leninist communism.[108]

According to professor Joseph O. Baker, in political theory, contemporary humanism is sculptured by two main axons;[clarification needed] the first is individualistic and the second inclines to collectivism. The trajectory of these two axons led to libertarianism and socialism respectively, but a range of combinations exists. Individualistic humanists often have a philosophical perspective of humanism; in the politics, these are inclined to libertarianism and in ethics tend to follow a scientistic approach. Collectivists have a more-applied view of humanism, lean toward socialism, and have a humanitarian approach to ethics.[109] The second group has connections with the thought of young Marx, especially his anthropological views rejecting his political practices.[110] A factor that repels many humanists from the libertarian view is the consequences they feel it bears. Libertarianism is tied to neoliberalism and capitalistic society that is conceived to be inhumane.[111]

Humanism has been a part of both major 20th-century ideological currents—liberalism and Marxism. Early 19th-century socialism was connected to humanism. In the 20th century, a humanistic interpretation of Marxism focused on Marx's early writings, viewing Marxism not as "scientific socialism" but as a philosophical critique aimed at the overcoming of "alienation". In the US, liberalism is associated mostly with humanistic principles, which is distinct from the European use of the same word, which has economical connotations.[112] In the post-1945 era, Jean-Paul Sartre and other French existentialists advocated for humanism, linking it to socialism while trying to stay neutral during the Cold War.[113]

In psychology and counseling

Main article: Humanistic psychology

Humanist counseling is humanism-inspired applied psychology, which is a major current of counseling. There are various approaches such as discussion and critical thinking, replying to existential anxiety, and focusing on social and political dimensions of problems.[114] Humanist counseling focuses on respecting the client's worldview and placing it in the correct cultural context. The approach emphasizes an individual's inherent drive towards self-actualization and creativity. It also recognizes the importance of moral questions about one's interactions with people according to one's worldview. This is examined using a process of dialogue.[115] Generally, humanist counseling aspires to help people to live a good, fulfilling, and meaningful life by continual interpretation and reflection.[116] Humanist counseling originated in the post-World War II Netherlands.[117]

Humanistic counseling, a different term from humanist counseling, is based on the works of psychologists Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. It introduced a positive, humanistic psychology in response to what Rogers and Maslow viewed as the over-pessimistic view of psychoanalysis in the early 1960s. Other sources include the philosophies of existentialism and phenomenology.[117]

Some modern counseling organizations have humanist origins, like the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy, which was founded by Harold Blackham, which he developed alongside the British Humanist Association's Humanist Counselling Service.[118] Modern-day humanist pastoral care in the UK and the Netherlands draws on elements of humanistic psychology.[119]

Geographies of humanism

This section is written like a personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay that states a Wikipedia editor's personal feelings or presents an original argument about a topic. Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. (January 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Africa

In Africa, contemporary humanism has been shaped by the continent's colonial history, and the introduction of Christianity and Islam. African philosophers focused on inter-dependency among humans, and between humans and nature.[120] Pre-colonial oral traditions reflecting African views on humanity and human good were eliminated by the entrance of European powers. Christianity and Islam advanced, and many intra-African atrocities took place. Africans never abandoned the ideas of human value and the mutual interdependence of humans, which are core features of African humanism. This idea was advanced by philosophers such as Kwasi Wiredu and Jean-Godefroy Bidima. Wiredu emphasized the need of human interaction for humans to become what they are, and projected his thought to the need for democracy. According to Bidima, the interaction should be enduringly since history[clarification needed] and humans are constantly evolving.[121] According to socialist philosopher Léopold Sédar Senghor, Africans were naturally leaning towards humanism and socialism, not because of its scientific or epistemological basis, but because of their intuition.[122]

Middle East

It is a widely held view among scholars that due to the dominance of Islam, humanistic values found a hostile environment in the Middle East and were unable to flourish there.[123] According to scholar Khurram Hussain, however, some traits of the early Islamic world resemble humanism. He notes Islam unified a diverse population and provided political, epistemological, and social solutions to the then-fragmented Arab world.[124] Also according to Hussain, there is a form of humanism within the Islamic anthropology. To support his argument, he notes examples such as the lack of "original sin", indicating in Islamic theology the human is a free, moral agent. He also said Islamic scholars such as Ibn al-‛Arabī and al-Jīlī placed humans at the center of the universe, a place occupied by God in Christian traditions.[125] Khurram Hussain also notes the Arab Spring of 2011 revived certain humanistic values—including democracy, freedom, and fairness—in the Middle East, and argues they are not incompatible with Islam.[126]

East Asia

In East Asia, Confucianism's core ideas are humanistic.[127] The philosophy of Confucius (551–479 BCE), which became the basis of the state ideology of successive Chinese dynasties and nearby polities in East Asia, has several humanistic traits, placing a high value on human life, and discounting mysticism and superstition—including speculations on ghosts and an afterlife.[128] Confucianism is considered a religious form of humanism because supernatural phenomena such as Heaven (tian)—which supposedly guides the world—have a place in it.[129] According to sinologist Theodore de Bary, In the Analects of Confucius, humanist ideals include respectfulness, reasonableness, kindness, and enthusiasm for learning. A fundamental teaching of Confucius is a person can become a junzi (someone who is noble, just, or kind) through education. Without religious appeals, Confucius advised people to act according to an axiom that is the negative mirror of the Western golden rule: "Is there one word that one can act upon throughout the course of one's life?" According to Confucius; "Reciprocity [shu]—what you would not want for yourself, do not do to others". (Analects 15:23) After Confucius' death, his disciple Mencius (371–289 BCE) centered his philosophies on secular, humanistic concerns like the nature of good governance and the role of education rather than on ideas founded on the state or folk religions.[130] Societies in China, Japan, and Korea were shaped by the prevalence of humanistic Confucianism.[127]

Early Taoism also had some humanistic tenets. Taoism initially developed as a naturalistic philosophy, aiming for the harmony of self, society, and the universe. Naturalness is achieved by wu wei (non‐action); philosopher Michael LaFargue said the philosophy's fundamental book, the Tao Te Ching, is based on humanistic thought.[131] Buddhism has also been noted to include elements of humanistic thought because Buddhism aims to the salvage humans from the sorrows of life, after abandoning egoistic tendencies, and coming in peace with society and universe.[132]

North America

The United States Constitution was shaped by humanistic ideas originating from the Enlightenment but did not go far enough to tackle gender-and-race-inequality issues.[133] According to Carol Wayne White, Black communities experiencing injustice moved toward atheism in the 20th century. Later, many Black organizations loosely connected within the Black Lives Matter movement rejected theism or embraced a humanistic agenda.[134] Black literature reveals the quest for freedom and justice in a community often subordinated to white dominance.[135]

Latin America

Humanism in Latin America is hard to detect, mainly because of the dominance of Catholicism and Protestantism.[136] European positivism had influenced the thought of scholars and political leaders in Latin America during the 19th century but its influences wavered in the next century.[137] In recent years[when?], the number of humanist organizations in Latin America has increased.[136]

Europe

In Europe, various currents of 19th century thought, such as freethinkers, ethicists, atheists and rationalists have merged to form the contemporary humanist movement.[138] Various national organizations founded the European Humanist Federation (EHF) in 1991, affirming their support for secularism. All humanistic organizations promote a naturalistic worldview, scientific approach, individualism, and solidarity but they vary in terms of their practice. One view is that they should focus on meeting the needs of non-religious peoples and their members; the other is pursuing activism to bring about social change. These two main patterns in European humanism that coexist within humanist organizations often collude with each other.[139]

Demographics

Humanists demographic data are sparse. Scholar Yasmin Trejo examined the results of Pew Research Center's 2014 Religious Landscape Study.[140] Trejo did not use self-identification to measure humanists but combined the answers of two questions: "Do you believe in God or a universal spirit?" (she chose those answered 'no') and "when it comes to questions of right or wrong, which of the following do you look to most for guidance?" (picking answers 'scientific information' and 'philosophy and reason'). According to Trejo, most humanists identify as atheist or agnostic (37% and 18%), 29% as "nothing in particular", while 16% of humanists identify as religious.[141] She also found most humanists (80%) were raised in a religious background. [142] Sixty percent of humanists are married to non-religious spouses, while one quarter are married to a Christian.[143] There is a gender divide among humanists; 67 percent are male. Trejo says this can be explained by the fact more males self-identify as atheist, while women have stronger connections to religion because of socialization, community influence, and stereotypes.[144] Other findings note the high level of education of most humanists, indicating a higher socioeconomic status.[145] The population of humanists is overwhelming non-Hispanic white; according to Trejo, this is because minority groups are usually very religious.[146]

Criticisms

Criticism of humanism focus on its adherence to human rights, which some critics have called "Western". Critics say humanist values have become a tool of Western moral dominance, which is a form of neo-colonialism that leads to oppression and a lack of ethical diversity.[147] Other critics say humanism is an oppressive philosophy because it is not free from the biases of the white, heterosexual males who shaped it.[148] History professor Samuel Moyn attacks humanism for its advocacy of human rights; according to Moyn, in the 1960s, human rights were a declaration of anti-colonial struggle but during the 1970s, they were transformed into a utopian vision, replacing the failing utopias of the 20th century. The humanist underpinning of human rights turns them into a moral tool that is impractical and ultimately non-political. He also notes a commonality between humanism and the Catholic discourse on human dignity.[149]

Anthropology professor Talal Asad said humanism is a project of modernity and a secularized continuation of Western Christian theology. According to Asad, just as the Catholic Church passed the Christian doctrine of love to Africa and Asia while assisting in the enslavement of large parts of their population, humanist values have at times been a pretext for Western countries to expand their influence to other parts of the world to humanize "barbarians".[150] Asad has also said humanism is not a purely secular phenomenon but takes the idea of the essence of humanity from Christianity.[151] According to Asad, Western humanism cannot incorporate other humanistic traditions, such as those from India and China, without subsuming and ultimately eliminating them.[152]

Sociology professor Didier Fassin said humanism's focus on empathy and compassion, rather than goodness and justice, is a problem. According to Fassin, humanism originated in the Christian tradition, particularly the Parable of the Good Samaritan, in which empathy is universalized. Fassin also said humanism's central essence, the sanctity of human life, is a religious victory hidden in a secular wrapper.[153]

Another argument states humanism is opposed to traditional values, and destroys family and family values.[72] A similar argument says, with a more religious tone, the materialism of humanism diminishes humanity because humans no longer have a soul or a higher nature, nor are they a reflection of God.[154]

Antihumanism

Main article: Antihumanism

Antihumanism is a philosophical theory that rejects humanism as a pre-scientific ideology.[155] This argument developed during the 19th and 20th centuries in parallel with the advancement of humanism. Prominent thinkers questioned the metaphysics of humanism and the human nature of its concept of freedom.[148] Nietzsche, while departing from a humanistic, pro-Enlightenment viewpoint, criticized humanism for illusions on a number of topics, especially the nature of truth. According to Nietzsche, objective truth is an anthropomorphic illusion and humanism is meaningless,[156] and replacing theism with reason and science simply replaces one religion with another.[157]

According to Karl Marx, humanism is a bourgeois project that attempts to present itself as radical but is not.[158] After the atrocities of World War II, questions about human nature and the concept of humanity were renewed.[159] During the Cold War, influential Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser introduced the term "theoretical antihumanism" to attack both humanism and humanist-like socialist currents, eschewing more structural and formal interpretations of Marx. According to Althusser, Marx's early writings resonate with the humanistic idealism of Hegel, Kant, and Feuerbach but Marx radically moved toward scientific socialism in 1845, rejecting concepts such as the essence of man.[160] Other antihumanist writers such as Martin Heidegger and Michel Foucault attacked the notion of humanity using psychoanalysis, Marxism, and linguistic theory.[161]

Humanist organizations

Richard Dawkins accepting the Services to Humanism award 2012 at the British Humanist Association Annual Conference
Richard Dawkins accepting the Services to Humanism award 2012 at the British Humanist Association Annual Conference

Humanist organizations exist in several countries. Humanists International is a global organization.[162] Humanists UK—formerly the British Humanist Association—and the American Humanist Association are two of the oldest humanist organizations.

In 2015, London-based Humanists UK had around 28,000 members and a budget of over £1 million to cover operational costs. Its membership includes some high-profile people such as Richard Dawkins, Brian Cox, Salman Rushdie, Polly Toynbee, and Stephen Fry, who are mostly known for their participation in public debate; promoting reason, science and secularism; and objecting to state funding for faith-based events and institutions.[163] Humanists UK organizes and conducts non-religious[164] ceremonies for weddings, namings, comings of age, and funerals. According to Stephen Law, ceremonies and rituals exist in our culture because they help humans express emotions rather than having a magical effect on the participants.[165]

The American Humanist Association (AHA) was formed in 1941 from previous humanist associations. Its journal The Humanist is the continuation of a previous publication The Humanist Bulletin.[51] In 1953, the AHA established the "Humanist of the Year" award to honor individuals who promote science.[166] A few decades later[when?], it became a well-recognized organization, initiating campaigns for abortion rights and opposing discriminatory policies, resulted in it becoming a target of the religious right by the 1980s.[167]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ To illustrate the importance of pursuing happiness without excesses, Andrew Copson quotes Epicurus: "When I say that pleasure is the goal of living I do not mean the pleasures of libertines ... I mean, on the contrary, the pleasure that consists of freedom from bodily pain and mental agitation. Pleasant life is not the product of one drinking party after another or sexual intercourse with women and young men or of the seafood and other delicacies afforded by the serious table. On the contrary, it is the result of sober thinking ... " Copson is citing 66 Epicurus, Letter to Menoeceus, in The Art of Happiness, trans. Strodach, p. 159.[95]

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Sources

Further reading