Jean Meslier
ChurchRoman Catholic Church
Personal details
Born(1664-06-15)15 June 1664
Died17 June 1729(1729-06-17) (aged 65)
Étrépigny, France
DenominationRoman Catholic

Jean Meslier (French: [melje]; also Mellier; 15 June 1664[1] – 17 June 1729) was a French Catholic priest (abbé) who was discovered, upon his death, to have written a book-length philosophical essay promoting atheism and materialism. Described by the author as his "testament" to his parishioners, the text criticizes and denounces all religions.


Church of Étrépigny, the parish church where Meslier preached.

Jean Meslier was born in Mazerny in the Ardennes. He began learning Latin from a neighbourhood priest in 1678 and eventually joined the seminary; he later claimed, in the Author's Preface to his Testament, this was done to please his parents. At the end of his studies, he took Holy orders and, on 7 January 1689, became priest at Étrépigny, in Champagne.

One public disagreement with a local nobleman aside, Meslier was to all appearances generally unremarkable. However, he was twice reproved by clerical authorities for inappropriately employing young adult servant women, with whom the atheist and Meslier biographer Michel Onfray suggests he was sexually involved.[2] "Discreetly and secretly, the curé had to practice the joy of free love advocated in his work," writes Onfray.[2] He lived like a pauper, and every penny left over was donated to the poor.[3][need quotation to verify][non-primary source needed][better source needed]

When Meslier died in Étrépigny, there were found in his house three copies of a 633-page octavo manuscript in which the village curate denounces organised religion as "but a castle in the air" and theology as "but ignorance of natural causes reduced to a system".


Further information: Atheism during the Age of Enlightenment and Criticism of Christianity

In his Testament, Meslier repudiated not only the God of conventional Christianity, but even the generic God of the natural religion of the deists.[4] For Meslier, the existence of evil was incompatible with the idea of a good and wise God.[5] He denied that any spiritual value could be gained from suffering,[6] and he used the deist's argument from design against god, by showing the evils that he had permitted in this world.[7] To him, religions were fabrications fostered by ruling elites; although the earliest Christians had been exemplary in sharing their goods, Christianity had long since degenerated into encouraging the acceptance of suffering and submission to tyranny as practised by the kings of France: injustice was explained away as being the will of an all-wise Being.[8] None of the arguments used by Meslier against the existence of God were original. In fact, he derived them from books written by orthodox theologians in the debate between the Jesuits, Cartesians, and Jansenists. Their inability to agree on a proof for God's existence was taken by Meslier as a good reason not to presume that there were compelling grounds for belief in God.[4]

Meslier's philosophy was that of an atheist.[9] He also denied the existence of the soul and dismissed the notion of free will. In Chapter V, the priest writes, "If God is incomprehensible to man, it would seem rational never to think of Him at all". Meslier later describes God as "a chimera" and argues that the supposition of God is not prerequisite to morality. In fact, he concludes that "Whether there exists a God or not ... men's moral duties will always be the same so long as they possess their own nature". In chapters XXXIII and XXXIV, Meslier challenged Jesus' mental health by implying that Jesus "was really a madman, a fanatic" (étoit véritablement un fou, un insensé, un fanatique).[10][11]

In his most famous quote, Meslier refers to a man who "wished that all the great men in the world and all the nobility could be hanged, and strangled with the guts of the priests."[12] Meslier admits that the statement may seem crude and shocking, but comments that this is what the priests and nobility deserve, not for reasons of revenge or hatred, but for love of justice and truth.[13] Equally well-known is the version by Diderot: "And [with] the guts of the last priest let's strangle the neck of the last king."[14] During the political unrest of May 1968, the radical students of the Sorbonne Occupation Committee paraphrased Meslier's epigram, stating that "humanity won’t be happy till the last capitalist is hung with the guts of the last bureaucrat."[15]

Meslier also vehemently attacked social injustice and sketched out a kind of rural proto-communism.[9] All the people in a region would belong to a commune in which wealth would be held in common, and everybody would work. Founded on love and brotherhood, the communes would ally to help each other and preserve peace.[16] An opponent of cruelty to animals, Meslier wrote that "it is an act of cruelty, of barbarism, to kill, to strike unconscious, and to cut the throat of animals, who do no harm to anyone, the way we do." He considered the lack of compassion and concern by Christians for animal suffering at the hands of man to be, according to Matthieu Ricard, further proof of "the nonexistence, or the malice, of their God."[17]

Voltaire's Extrait

Various edited abstracts (known as "extraits") of the Testament were printed and circulated, condensing the multi-volume original manuscript and sometimes adding material that was not written by Meslier. Abstracts were popular because of the length and convoluted style of the original. Voltaire often mentions Meslier (referring to him as "a good priest") in his correspondence, in which he tells his daughter to "read and read again" Meslier's only work, and says that "every honest man should have Meslier's Testament in his pocket." He also described Meslier as writing "in the style of a carriage-horse". Voltaire published his own expurgated version as Extraits des sentiments de Jean Meslier (first edition, 1762).[5] Voltaire's edition changed the thrust of Meslier's arguments, or drew on other Extraits which did this,[18] so that he appeared to be a deist—like Voltaire—rather than an atheist.

The following passage is found at the end of Voltaire's Extrait, and has been cited in support of the view that Meslier was not really an atheist;[19] however, the passage does not appear in either the 1864 complete edition of the Testament, published in Amsterdam by Rudolf Charles,[20] or in the complete works of Meslier published 1970–1972.[21]

I will finish by begging God, so outraged by that sect, to deign to recall us to natural religion, of which Christianity is the declared enemy. To that simple religion that God placed in the hearts of all men, which teaches us that we only do unto others what we want to have done unto us. Then the universe will be composed of good citizens, of just fathers, of submissive children, of tender friends. God gave us this religion in giving us reason. May fanaticism no longer pervert it! I die more filled with these wishes than with hopes. This is the exact summary of the in-folio testament of Jean Meslier. We can judge how weighty is the testimony of a dying priest who asks God's forgiveness.

Another book, Good Sense (French: Le Bon Sens),[22] published anonymously in 1772, was long attributed to Meslier, but was in fact written by Baron d'Holbach.[23] The complete Testament of Meslier was published in English translation (by Michael Shreve) for the first time in 2009.[24]


In his book In Defense of Atheism (2007), the atheist philosopher Michel Onfray describes Meslier as the first person to write an entire text in support of atheism. He writes:

For the first time (but how long will it take us to acknowledge this?) in the history of ideas, a philosopher had dedicated a whole book to the question of atheism. He professed it, demonstrated it, arguing and quoting, sharing his reading and his reflections, and seeking confirmation from his own observations of the everyday world. His title sets it out clearly: Memoir of the Thoughts and Feelings of Jean Meslier; and so does his subtitle: Clear and Evident Demonstrations of the Vanity and Falsity of All the Religions of the World. The book appeared in 1729, after his death. Meslier had spent the greater part of his life working on it. The history of true atheism had begun.[25]

Prior to announcing Meslier as the first atheist philosopher, Onfray considers and dismisses Cristóvão Ferreira, a Portuguese and former Jesuit who renounced his faith under Japanese torture in 1633 and went on to write a book titled The Deception Revealed. Onfray decides that Ferreira was not such a good candidate as Meslier, since Ferreira converted to Zen Buddhism. The Situationist cultural theorist Raoul Vaneigem praised Meslier's resistance to hierarchical authority, claiming that "the last full-fledged exemplars of priests genuinely loyal to the revolutionary origins of their religion were Jean Meslier and Jacques Roux fomenting jacquerie and riot".[26] According to Colin Brewer (2007), who co-produced a play about Meslier's life,

Historians argue about who was the first overt, post-Classical atheist but Meslier was arguably the first to put his name to an incontrovertibly atheist document. That this important event is largely unrecognised (Meslier was absent from both Richard Dawkins’ and Jonathan Miller's recent TV series on atheism) is due partly to Voltaire who published, in 1761, a grossly distorted "Extract" that portrayed Meslier as a fellow-deist and entirely suppressed Meslier's anti-monarchist, proto-communist opinions.



  1. ^ See Morehouse (1936, p. 12) and Meslier (2009).
  2. ^ a b "Jean Meslier and "The Gentle Inclination of Nature"". 22 February 2010.
  3. ^ Meslier, Jean (15 July 1864). "Le testament de Jean Meslier ..." R. C. Meijer – via Google Books.
  4. ^ a b Maria Rosa Antognazza (2006). "Arguments for the existence of God: the continental European debate", pp. 734–735, in Haakonssen, Knud. The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-Century Philosophy, vol. 2. Cambridge University Press.
  5. ^ a b Fonnesu, Luca (2006). "The problem of theodicy", pp. 766, in Haakonssen, Knud. The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-century Philosophy, vol. 2. Cambridge University Press.
  6. ^ Peter Byrne, James Leslie Houlden (1995), Companion Encyclopedia of Theology, p. 259. Taylor & Francis.
  7. ^ J. O. Lindsay, (1957), The New Cambridge Modern History, p. 86. Cambridge University Press.
  8. ^ John Hedley Brooke (1991), Science and Religion: Some Historical Perspectives, p. 171. Cambridge University Press.
  9. ^ a b Peter France, (1995), The new Oxford companion to literature in French, p. 523. Oxford University Press
  10. ^ Meslier, Jean (1864). Le Testament (in French). Vol. 2. Amsterdam: A la Librairie Étrangère, Raison R.C. Meijer. pp. 42–67. LCCN 74194533. OCLC 827215244. Reedited: Mémoire des pensées et des sentiments de Jean Meslier (2007), Tome 1: Pièces, preuves 1 à 3. Preface, Jean Meslier's library catalogue, bibliography, edition and notes by Hervé Baudry-Krüger, Soignies: Talus d’approche, p. 152.
  11. ^ Kryvelev, Iosif Aronovich (1987). "Mentally Ill (according to J. Meslier, A. Binet-Sanglé and Ya. Mints)". Christ: Myth or Reality?. Religious studies in the USSR; ser. 2. Moscow: ″Social Sciences Today″ Editorial Board. LCCN 87157196. OCLC 64860072. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  12. ^ Meslier, Jean (15 July 1864). "Le testament: 1 éd. orig". Meijer – via Google Books.
  13. ^ George Huppert (1999), The style of Paris: Renaissance origins of the French Enlightenment, p. 108. Indiana University Press.
  14. ^ Diderot, Dithrambe sur Féte des Rois: «Et des boyaux du dernier prêtre serrons le cou du dernier roi.»
  15. ^ "Telegrams" Archived 27 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Situationist International Online, accessed 4 July 2013.
  16. ^ "Utopianism in the Renaissance and Enlightenment", in Donald F. Busky (2002), Communism in History and Theory, pp. 54–55. Greenwood.
  17. ^ Ricard, Matthieu (2016). A Plea for the Animals: The Moral, Philosophical, and Evolutionary Imperative to Treat All Beings with Compassion. Shambhala. p. 19. ISBN 978-1611803051.
  18. ^ See Wade (1933) for a discussion of the different versions and Extraits of the manuscript of the Testament.
  19. ^ See for example: McGrath, Alister (2004). The Twilight of Atheism (p. 24).
  20. ^ Morehouse (1936, pp. 26–27); see also Wade (1933, p. 387, especially pp. 393–94).
  21. ^ Deprun et al (1972).
  22. ^ "Baron d'Holbach – Good Sense". Archived from the original on 19 October 2007. Retrieved 2 October 2007.
  23. ^ Baron d'Holbach – Good Sense: Transcription Notes Archived 20 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. "Holbach published Le Bon Sens anonymously in 1772. The book was mistakenly identified as the work of Jean Meslier (1664–1729), a Catholic priest who had renounced Christianity in a posthumously published Testament. As late as the 20th century English translations of Le Bon Sens were still being published under Meslier's name, often bearing such titles as Common Sense and Superstition in All Ages. Editions ascribed to Meslier frequently include an abstract of his Testament together with Voltaire's correspondence regarding Meslier."
  24. ^ Testament: Memoir of the Thoughts and Sentiments of Jean Meslier. Prometheus Books, 2009. ISBN 1-59102-749-7.
  25. ^ Michel Onfray, In Defence of Atheism, translation by Jeremy Leggatt, Arcade Publishing, 2007, p. 29.
  26. ^ Raoul Vaneigem, The Revolution of Everyday Life, trans. Donald Nicholson-Smith, PM Press, 2012, p. 148.

Further reading