The question of whether the historical Jesus was in good mental health has been explored by multiple psychologists, philosophers, historians, and writers. The first person to openly question Jesus' sanity was French psychologist Charles Binet-Sanglé, the chief physician of Paris and author of the book La Folie de Jésus.[1][2] This view finds both supporters and opponents.

Opinions challenging the sanity of Jesus

The assessment of the sanity of Jesus first occurs in the gospels. The Gospel of Mark reports the opinion of members of his family who believe that Jesus "is beside himself." Some psychiatrists, religious scholars and writers explain that Jesus' family, followers (John 7:20),[3] and contemporaries seriously regarded him as delusional, possessed by demons, or insane.[2][4][5][6][7][8]

And when his family heard it, they went out to seize him, for people were saying, "He is beside himself". And the scribes who came down from Jerusalem said, "He is possessed by Be-el′zebul, and by the prince of demons he casts out the demons".

— Mark 3:21–22, Revised Standard Version[9]

The accusation contained in the Gospel of John is more literal:

There was again a division among the Jews because of these words. Many of them said, "He has a demon, and he is mad; why listen to him?"

— John 10:19–20, Revised Standard Version[10]

Justin Meggitt [Wikidata], a lecturer at the University of Cambridge,[11] suggests in his article ″The Madness of King Jesus: Why was Jesus Put to Death, but his Followers were not?″ (2007)[5] and in his book The Madness of King Jesus: The Real Reasons for His Execution (2010)[12] that Pilate and the other Roman people regarded Jesus as an insane deceived lunatic.[5] According to the Gospels, Jesus was presented to Pilate and sentenced to death as a royal pretender, but the standard Roman procedure was the prosecution and execution of would-be insurgents with their leaders. Therefore, to suggest that Jesus was put to death by the Roman authorities as some kind of royal pretender does not explain sufficiently why he was killed, unlike his disciples.[5]

Jean Meslier (1664–1729) had similar thoughts in the 18th century. In chapters 33 and 34 of his Testament, he provides evidence for his conclusion that Jesus ″was really a madman, a fanatic″ (étoit véritablement un fou, un insensé, un fanatique).[8][13]

Challenging the sanity of Jesus continued in the 19th century with the first quest for the historical Jesus. David Friedrich Strauss (Das Leben Jesu, second edition, 1864)[14] claimed that Jesus was a fanatic.[2][15] Lemuel K. Washburn (Was Jesus insane?) concluded, "Jesus was not divine, but insane".[16][17] Oskar Panizza introduced Jesus as a psychopathological and paranoid case.[18][19][20] Oskar Holtzmann (1903) diagnosed Jesus to be "ecstatic", which he described to be a pathologically-strong excitability of the imagination and the power of will.[2][21] Georg Lomer [fr] (as George de Loosten, 1905) attempted to retrospectively diagnose Jesus as generally mentally ill, similarly to Jean Meslier.[2][22] Emil Rasmussen [ru] (1905) determined Jesus to be either epileptic or paranoid. Using a few examples, he developed a description of the typical pathological prophet ("Prophetentypus") and applied it to Jesus.[2][23] Julius Baumann [sv] (1908) hypothesised that the abnormalities he found in Jesus' behaviour could be explained by a nerve overstimulation (Nervenüberreizung).[24] However, it was not until the publication of Charles Binet-Sanglé's four-volume work La folie de Jésus from 1908 to 1915 that the topic was extensively and visibly discussed.

Binet-Sanglé diagnosed Jesus as suffering from religious paranoia:[8][25]

In short, the nature of the hallucinations of Jesus, as they are described in the orthodox Gospels, permits us to conclude that the founder of Christian religion was afflicted with religious paranoia.

— (vol. 2, p. 393)

His view was shared by the New York psychiatrist William Hirsch, who in 1912 published his study, Religion and Civilization: The Conclusions of a Psychiatrist,[26] which enumerated a number of Jesus' mentally-aberrant behaviours. Hirsch agreed with Binet-Sanglé in that Jesus had been afflicted with hallucinations and pointed to his "megalomania, which mounted ceaselessly and immeasurably".[2] Hirsch concluded that Jesus was just a "paranoid":

But Christ offers in every respect an absolutely typical picture of a wellknown mental disease. All that we know of him corresponds so exactly to the clinical aspect of paranoia, that it is hardly conceivable how anybody at all acquainted with mental disorders, can entertain the slightest doubt as to the correctness of the diagnosis.

— (p. 103)

The Soviet psychiatrist Y. V. Mints (1927) also diagnosed Jesus as suffering from paranoia.[8][27][28] The literature of the Soviet Union in the 1920s, following the tradition of the demythologization of Jesus in the works of Strauss, Renan, Nietzsche, and Binet-Sanglé, put forward two main themes: mental illness and deception. That was reflected in Mikhail Bulgakov's novel The Master and Margarita in which Jesus is depicted by Pontius Pilate as a harmless madman. It was only at the turn of the 1920s and the 1930s that the mythological option, the denial of the existence of Jesus, won the upper hand in Soviet propaganda.[29]

Jesus' mental health was also questioned by the British psychiatrists William Sargant[30] and Raj Persaud,[31] a number of psychologists of the psychoanalytic orientation, like Georges Berguer [de] in his study Quelques traits de la vie de Jésus au point de vue psychologique et psychanalytique.[32][33]

Władysław Witwicki, a rationalist philosopher and psychologist,[34] in the comments to his own translation of the Gospels of Matthew and Mark, Dobra Nowina według Mateusza i Marka[35] (The Good News according to Matthew and Mark [pl]), which is in fact a psychobiography of Jesus,[36] attributed that Jesus had subjectivism, an increased sense of his own power and superiority over others, egocentrism and the tendency to subjugate other people.[37] He also had difficulties communicating with the outside world and dissociative identity disorder, which made him a schizothymic or even schizophrenic type (according to Ernst Kretschmer's typology).[38][39][40]

The English psychiatrist Anthony Storr in his final book Feet of Clay; Saints, Sinners, and Madmen: A Study of Gurus (1996)[41] suggested that there are psychological similarities between crazy "messiahs" such as Jim Jones and David Koresh and respected religious leaders including Jesus.[42] Storr tracks typical patterns, often involving psychotic disorders that shape the development of the guru.[43] His study is an attempt to look at Jesus as one of many gurus. Storr agrees with most scholars of historical Jesus, who are inclined to the hypothesis of Jesus as apocalyptic prophet:

It seems inescapable that Jesus did share the apocalyptic view that God's final conquest of evil was at hand and that God's kingdom would be established upon earth in the near future.[44]

Storr recognises Jesus' many similarities to other gurus. It was, for example, going through a period of internal conflict during his fasting in the desert. According to Storr, if Jesus really considered himself a deputy for God and believed that one day he would come down from heaven to rule, he was very similar to the gurus whom he had previously described as preachers of delusions possessed by mania of greatness. He notes that Jesus was not ideal in family life (Mark 3:31–35,[45] Mark 13:12–13).[46] Gurus often remain indifferent to family ties. Other similarities, according to Storr, include Jesus' faith in receiving a special revelation from God and a tendency to elitism, in the sense that Jesus believed that he had been specially marked by God.[47]

In 1998–2000, Leszek Nowak (born 1962) from Poznań, Poland[a] authored a study in which, based on his own history of religious delusion of mission and overvalued ideas and information communicated in the Gospels, made an attempt at reconstructing Jesus' psyche,[48] with the view of Jesus as apocalyptic prophet,[49] taking into account the hypothesis of "suicide by proxy".[50] He does so in chapters containing, in sequence, an analysis of character traits of the "savior of mankind", a description of the possible course of events from the period of Jesus' public activity, and a naturalistic explanation of his miracles.

In 2012, a team of psychiatrists, behavioral psychologists, neurologists and neuropsychiatrists from the Harvard Medical School published a research that suggested the development of a new diagnostic category of psychiatric disorders related to religious delusion and hyperreligiosity.[4] They compared the thoughts and behaviors of the most important figures in the Bible (Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Paul)[4] with patients affected by mental disorders related to the psychotic spectrum using different clusters of disorders and diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV-TR),[4] and concluded that these Biblical figures "may have had psychotic symptoms that contributed inspiration for their revelations",[4] such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, delusional disorder, delusions of grandeur, auditory-visual hallucinations, paranoia, Geschwind syndrome (especially Paul) and abnormal experiences associated with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).[4] The authors hypothesised that Jesus may have sought death through "suicide by proxy".[4]

Opinions defending the sanity of Jesus

Opinions and publications questioning the sanity of Jesus, especially Charles Binet-Sanglé and William Hirsch, triggered polemical reactions. They were first challenged by Albert Schweitzer in his doctoral thesis, The Psychiatric Study of Jesus: Exposition and Criticism,[51][2] (Die psychiatrische Beurteilung Jesu: Darstellung und Kritik, 1913)[52][25][53] and by the American theologian Walter E. Bundy [Wikidata] in his 1922 book, The psychic health of Jesus. Bundy summarized his defense of Jesus′ sanity:[54][2]

A pathography of Jesus is possible only upon the basis of a lack of acquaintance with the course and conclusions of New Testament criticism and an amateur application of the principles of the science of psychiatry.

— (p. 268)

In 1908, Philipp Kneib, in his book, Moderne Leben-Jesu-Forschung unter dem Einflusse der Psychiatrie, defended the sanity of Jesus against the arguments of Holtzmann, Lomer, Rasmussen and Baumann.[55]

The mental health of Jesus is also defended by psychiatrists Olivier Quentin Hyder,[56] also by Pablo Martinez and Andrew Sims in their book Mad or God? Jesus: The healthiest mind of all (2018).[57][58] Christian apologists, such as Josh McDowell[59] and Lee Strobel,[60] also take up the subject of Jesus' sanity defense.

The defense of Jesus' mental health was devoted to an editorial in the magazine of Italian Jesuits La Civiltà Cattolica, published November 5, 1994.[61] To the title question E se Gesù si fosse ingannato? ("What if Jesus was deceived?") the editors replied in the negative by arguing that Jesus was not a fanatic or megalomaniac but a mentally-healthy and very realistic person. Therefore, he did not deceive himself by saying that he was the messiah and the Son of God.[62]

Pope Benedict XVI wrote in his book Jesus of Nazareth:

A broad current of liberal scholarship has interpreted Jesus′ Baptism as a vocational experience. After having led a perfectly normal life in the province of Galilee, at the moment of his Baptism he is said to have had an earth-shattering experience. It was then, we are told, that he became aware of his special relationship to God and his religious mission. This mission, moreover, supposedly originated from the expectation motif then dominant in Israel, creatively reshaped by John, and from the emotional upheaval that the event of his Baptism brought about in Jesus′ life. But none of this can be found in the texts. However much scholarly erudition goes into the presentation of this reading, it has to be seen as more akin to a ″Jesus novel″ than as an actual interpretation of the texts. The texts give us no window into Jesus′ inner life – Jesus stands above our psychologizing (Guardini, Das Wesen des Christentums).[63]

C. S. Lewis famously considered Jesus' mental health in what is known as Lewis's trilemma (the formulation quoted here is by John Duncan):

Christ either deceived mankind by conscious fraud, or He was Himself deluded and self-deceived, or He was Divine. There is no getting out of this trilemma. It is inexorable.

The agnostic atheist New Testament scholar Bart Ehrman wrote on his own blog:

And he may well have thought (I think he did think) that he would be made the messiah in the future kingdom. That may have been a rather exalted view of himself, but I don't think it makes Jesus crazy. It makes him an unusually confident apocalyptic prophet. There were others with visions of grandeur at the time. I don't think that makes him mentally ill. It makes him a first-century apocalyptic Jew.[64]

See also


  1. ^ Not to be confused with Polish philosopher and lawyer Leszek Nowak (1943–2009), also from Poznań.


  1. ^ Binet-Sanglé, Charles (1908–1915). La folie de Jésus [The Madness of Jesus] (in French). Vol. 1–4. Paris: A. Maloine. LCCN 08019439. OCLC 4560820.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Havis, Don (April–June 2001). "An Inquiry into the Mental Health of Jesus: Was He Crazy?". Secular Nation. Minneapolis: Atheist Alliance Inc. ISSN 1530-308X. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
  3. ^ John 7:20
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Murray, Evan D.; Cunningham, Miles G.; Price, Bruce H. (October 2012). "The Role of Psychotic Disorders in Religious History Considered". Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. American Psychiatric Association. 24 (4): 410–426. doi:10.1176/appi.neuropsych.11090214. ISSN 1545-7222. OCLC 823065628. PMID 23224447. S2CID 207654711.
  5. ^ a b c d Meggitt, Justin J. (June 1, 2007). "The Madness of King Jesus: Why was Jesus Put to Death, but his Followers not?". Journal for the Study of the New Testament. London: Sage Publications. 29 (4): 379–413. doi:10.1177/0142064X07078990. ISSN 0142-064X. S2CID 171007891.
  6. ^ Hirsch, William (1912). Religion and Civilization: The Conclusions of a Psychiatrist. New York: The Truth Seeker Company. p. 135. LCCN 12002696. OCLC 39864035. OL 20516240M. That the other members of his own family considered him insane, is said quite plainly, for they openly declare, "He is beside himself."
  7. ^ Kasmar, Gene (1995). All the obscenities in the Bible. Brooklyn Center, MN: Kas-mark Pub. Co. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-9645-9950-5. He was thought to be insane by his own family and neighbors in 'when his friends heard of it, they went out to lay hold on him: for they said, He is beside himself... (Mark 3:21–22 – The Greek existemi, translated as "beside himself", actually means insane and witless). The Greek 'ho para, translated as "friends", also means family.
  8. ^ a b c d Kryvelev, Iosif Aronovich (1987). "Mentally Ill (according to J. Meslier, A. Binet-Sanglé and Ya. Mints)". Christ: Myth or Reality?. Religious studies in the USSR; ser. 2. Moscow: ″Social Sciences Today″ Editorial Board. LCCN 87157196. OCLC 64860072. Retrieved 2020-04-30.
  9. ^ Mark 3:21–22
  10. ^ John 10:19–20
  11. ^ "Dr Justin Meggitt – Faculty of Divinity". University of Cambridge. Retrieved 2020-06-13.
  12. ^ Meggitt, Justin J. (2010). The Madness of King Jesus: The Real Reasons for His Execution. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-8488-5410-9.
  13. ^ Meslier, Jean (1864). Le Testament (in French). Vol. 2. Amsterdam: A la Librairie Étrangère, Raison R.C. Meijer. pp. 42–67. LCCN 74194533. OCLC 827215244.
  14. ^ Strauss, David Friedrich (1864). Das Leben Jesu, für das deutsche Volk bearbeitet. Leipzig: F.A. Brockhaus. LCCN 17022642. OCLC 459102643. OL 18817475M.
  15. ^ Bundy, Walter E. (1922). The Psychic Health of Jesus. New York: The Macmillan Company. p. 4. LCCN 22005555. OCLC 644667928. OL 25583375M.
  16. ^ Washburn, Lemuel K. (1889). Was Jesus insane?. New York: The Truth Seeker Company. p. 20.
  17. ^ Bundy, Walter E. (1922). The Psychic Health of Jesus. New York: The Macmillan Company. p. 27. LCCN 22005555. OCLC 644667928. OL 25583375M.
  18. ^ Panizza, Oskar (1898). "Christus in psicho-patologischer Beleuchtung". Zürcher Diskuszjonen (in German). 5 (1): 1–8. OCLC 782007054.
  19. ^ Düsterberg, Rolf (1988). Die gedrukte Freiheit: Oskar Panizza und die Zürcher Diskussjonen. Europäische Hochschulschriften; Reihe 1, Deutsche Sprache und Literatur; 1098 (in German). Frankfurt am Main: P. Lang. pp. 40–91. ISBN 3-8204-0288-8.
  20. ^ Müller, Jürgen (1990). Oskar Panizza: Versuch einer immamenten Interpretation (in German). Würzburg. pp. 248–256. OCLC 923572143.
  21. ^ Oskar, Holtzmann (1903). War Jesus Ekstatiker?: eine Untersuchung zum Leben Jesu. Tübingen: J. C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck). ISBN 1-332-63400-1. OCLC 902994315.
  22. ^ Lomer, Georg (1905). Jesus Christus vom Standpunkte des Psychiaters : eine kritische Studie für Fachleute und gebildete Laien. Bamberg: Handels-Druckerei. OCLC 31247627.
  23. ^ Rasmussen, Emil (1905). Jesus, eine vergleichende psychologische Studie (in German). Leipzig: Verlag Julius Zeitler. OCLC 14790352. OL 20020984W.
  24. ^ Baumann, Julius (1908). Die Gemütsart Jesu : nach jetziger wissenschaftlicher, insbesondere jetziger psychologischer Methode erkennbar gemacht. Leipzig: Alfred Kröner. OCLC 1091268451.
  25. ^ a b Gettis, Alan (June 1987). "The Jesus delusion: A theoretical and phenomenological look". Journal of Religion and Health. Springer. 26 (2): 131–136. doi:10.1007/BF01533683. ISSN 0022-4197. JSTOR 27505915. OCLC 4643399839. PMID 24301876. S2CID 29415793.
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  27. ^ Sirotkina, Irina (2002). Diagnosing Literary Genius: A Cultural History of Psychiatry in Russia, 1880–1930. Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-8018-7689-9.
  28. ^ Минц, Я. В. (1927). "Иисус Христос – как тип душевнобольного" [Jesus Christ: A Sample of Mentally Ill]. Клинический архив гениальности и одарённости (эвропатологии) (in Russian). Vol. 3. Leningrad. pp. 243–252.
  29. ^ Дождикова, Надежда (2009). "Чем был недоволен Берлиоз? О романе М. А. Булгакова "Мастер и Маргарита" и "проблеме Христа"". Нева (in Russian) (7). ISSN 0130-741X. Retrieved 2019-05-11.
  30. ^ Sargant, William (22 August 1974). "The movement in psychiatry away from the philosophical". The Times: 14. ISSN 0140-0460. Perhaps, even earlier, Jesus Christ might simply have returned to his carpentry following the use of modern [psychiatric] treatments.
  31. ^ Persaud, Raj (27 April 1993). "Health: A madman can look a lot like a messiah: There is no easy way for cult followers to tell if their leader is sane, says Raj Persaud". The Independent. Retrieved 2018-10-25. Two thousand years ago Jesus received a crown of thorns. Today the Messianic have electro-convulsive therapy.
  32. ^ Berguer, Georges (1920). Quelques traits de la vie de Jésus: au point de vue psychologique et psychanalytique (in French). Genève–Paris: Edition Atar. OCLC 417009760.
  33. ^ Berguer, Georges (1923). Some aspects of the life of Jesus from the psychological and psycho-analytic point of view. Translated by Brooks, Eleanor Stimson; Brooks, Van Wyck. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co. LCCN 23012901. OCLC 2628145. OL 6656731M.
  34. ^ Nowicki, Andrzej (1982). Witwicki (in Polish). Warszawa: Wiedza Powszechna. pp. 7–9. ISBN 83-214-0301-8.
  35. ^ Witwicki, Władysław (1958). Dobra Nowina według Mateusza i Marka [The Good News according to Matthew and Mark] (in Polish). Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. OCLC 681830910.
  36. ^ Citlak, Amadeusz (2016). "The Lvov-Warsaw School: The forgotten tradition of historical psychology". History of Psychology. American Psychological Association. 19 (2): 105–124. doi:10.1037/hop0000029. ISSN 1093-4510. OCLC 6029347169. S2CID 22112845.
  37. ^ Szmyd, Jan (1996). Psychologiczny obraz religijności i mistyki: z badań psychologów polskich [Psychological picture of religiousness and mysticism: from the research of the Polish psychologists] (in Polish). Kraków: Wydawn. Naukowe WSP. p. 197. ISBN 978-8-3868-4154-7.
  38. ^ Citlak, Amadeusz (2015). "Psychobiography of Jesus Christ in view of Władysław Witwicki's theory of cratism". Journal for Perspectives of Economic Political and Social Integration. Scientific Society KUL. 21 (1–2): 155–184. doi:10.2478/pepsi-2015-0007. ISSN 2300-0945. OCLC 998362074. S2CID 151801662. Retrieved 2022-09-21.
  39. ^ Citlak, Amadeusz (2016). Relacje społeczne świata antycznego w świetle teorii kratyzmu. Psychologia historyczna w szkole lwowsko-warszawskiej [Social relations of the ancient world in the light of the theory of cratism. Historical psychology in the Lwów–Warsaw school] (in Polish). Warszawa: Instytut Psychologii PAN. pp. 61–62. ISBN 978-83-939589-7-9.
  40. ^ Jarzyńska, Karina (2008-04-10). "Jezus jako egocentryczny schizotymik" [Jesus as an egocentric schizotymic]. Racjonalista (in Polish). Fundacja Wolnej Myśli. Retrieved 2020-07-28.
  41. ^ Storr, Anthony (1996). Feet of Clay; Saints, Sinners, and Madmen: A Study of Gurus. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-684-82818-9.
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  43. ^ "Feet Of Clay: The Power and Charisma of Gurus". Storytel. 2015-05-19. Retrieved 2019-08-13.
  44. ^ Storr, Anthony (1997). Feet of Clay; Saints, Sinners, and Madmen: A Study of Gurus. New York: Free Press Paperbacks. p. 142. ISBN 0-684-83495-2.
  45. ^ Mark 3:31–35
  46. ^ Mark 13:12–13
  47. ^ Storr, Anthony (1997). Feet of Clay; Saints, Sinners, and Madmen: A Study of Gurus. New York: Free Press Paperbacks. pp. 143–146. ISBN 0-684-83495-2.
  48. ^ Leszek Nowak, Prywatna Witryna Internetowa Leszka Nowaka at Internet Archive (in Polish)
  49. ^ Analysis of fragments of the New Testament books for Jesus as apocalyptic prophet: Leszek Nowak, "A great mistake and disappointment of early Christianity" at Internet Archive (in Polish)
  50. ^ Leszek Nowak, "Prowokator" ("Instigator") at Internet Archive (in Polish)
  51. ^ Schweitzer, Albert (1948). The Psychiatric Study of Jesus: Exposition and Criticism. Translated by Joy, Charles R. Boston: Beacon Press. LCCN 48006488. OCLC 614572512. OL 6030284M.
  52. ^ Schweitzer, Albert (1913). Die psychiatrische Beurteilung Jesu: Darstellung und Kritik (in German). Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck). LCCN 13021072. OCLC 5903262. OL 20952265W.
  53. ^ Seidel, Michael (January 2009). "Albert Schweitzer's MD thesis on Criticism of the medical pathographies on Jesus". Würzburger medizinhistorische Mitteilungen. Königshausen & Neumann. 28 (1): 276–300. ISSN 0177-5227. PMID 20509445.
  54. ^ Bundy, Walter E. (1922). The Psychic Health of Jesus. New York: The Macmillan Company. LCCN 22005555. OCLC 644667928. OL 25583375M.
  55. ^ Philipp, Kneib (1908). Moderne Leben-Jesu-Forschung unter dem Einflusse der Psychiatrie. Meinz: Verlag von Kirchheim & Co. OCLC 936445547.
  56. ^ Hyder, Olivier Quentin (1977-12-01). "On the Mental Health of Jesus Christ". Journal of Psychology and Theology. Biola University. 5 (1): 3–12. doi:10.1177/009164717700500101. ISSN 0091-6471. OCLC 7318879878. S2CID 149626975.
  57. ^ Martinez, Pablo; Sims, Andrew (2018). Mad or God? Jesus: The healthiest mind of all. London: InterVarsity Press. ISBN 978-1-783-59606-5.
  58. ^ Sims, Andrew (2018-07-17). "Mad or God? A senior psychiatrist on the mental health of Jesus". Christian News on Christian Today. Christian Today. Retrieved 2018-08-23.
  59. ^ McDowell, Josh (1977). "Lord, Liar, or Lunatic?". More Than a Carpenter. Wheaton, Illinois: Living Books. pp. 22–32. ISBN 978-0-8423-4552-1.
  60. ^ Strobel, Lee (2013). "The Psychological Evidence". The Case for Christ. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan. pp. 154–166. ISBN 978-0-3103-3930-4.
  61. ^ "E se Gesù si fosse ingannato?". La Civiltà Cattolica (in Italian). 3465: 213–225. November 5, 1994. ISSN 0009-8167. Retrieved 2021-04-20.
  62. ^ Moynihan, Robert (December 1994). "Was Jesus Deceived?". Inside the Vatican. ISSN 1068-8579. Retrieved 2021-04-20.
  63. ^ Pope Benedict XVI (2007). Jesus of Nazareth: From the Baptism in the Jordan to the Transfiguration. Translated by Walker, Adrian J. New York: Doubleday. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-0-3855-2434-6.
  64. ^ Ehrman, Bart D. "Were Jesus' Followers Crazy? Was He? Mailbag June 4, 2016". The Bart Ehrman Blog. Retrieved 5 February 2019.

Further reading