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A guru (Sanskrit: गुरु) is one who is regarded as having great knowledge, wisdom and authority in a certain area, and who uses it to guide others (teacher). As a principle for the development of consciousness it leads the creation from unreality to reality, from the darkness of ignorance to the light of knowledge. In its purest form this principle manifests on earth as a divine incarnation (saint), a person with supreme knowledge about God and all creation.[1] Other forms of manifestation of this principle also include parents, school teachers [1], non-human objects (books) and even one's own intellectual discipline.[2]

In the religious sense the term is commonly used in Hinduism and Sikhism, as well as in other Indian religions and new religious movements. Finding a true guru is often held to be a prerequisite for attaining self-realization. Guru Nanak, founder of the Sikh religion said: "Even if a thousand suns and moons rose, they would be unable to remove the darkness of ignorance within the heart. This can only be removed through the grace of the Guru." [3] In contemporary India, the word "guru" is widely used with the general meaning of "teacher". In Western usage, the meaning of guru has been extended to cover anyone who acquires followers, though not necessarily in an established school of philosophy or religion.[4] In a further Western extension, guru is used to refer to a person who has authority because of his or her perceived secular knowledge or skills, such as in business.

Etymology

Guru is composed of the syllables gu and ru, the former signifying 'darkness', and the latter signifying 'the destroyer of that [darkness]', hence a guru is one characterized as someone who dispels spiritual ignorance (darkness), with spiritual illumination (light) -as per Advaya-Tãraka Upanishad (verse 16)[citation needed],

The syllable gu means shadows
The syllable ru, he who disperses them,
Because of the power to disperse darkness
the guru is thus named.

— Advayataraka Upanishad 14—18, verse 5

The word guru, a noun, means "teacher" or spiritual master in Sanskrit and in other languages derived from Sanskrit, such as Hindi, Marathi, Bengali, Gujarati and Nepali, or influenced by Sanskrit, such as Indonesian and also Malays. Guru is also used in other Indo-European languages, such as Persian from time to time to refer to a wise and knowledgeable figure who can guide and shed light in the time of need.

As a noun the word means the imparter of knowledge (jñāna; Also Persian: Dāna). As an adjective, it means 'heavy,' or 'weighty,' in the sense of "heavy with knowledge,"[5] heavy with spiritual wisdom,[6] "heavy with spiritual weight,"[7] "heavy with the good qualities of scriptures and realization,"[8] or "heavy with a wealth of knowledge."[9] The word has its roots in the Sanskrit gri (to invoke, or to praise), and may have a connection to the word gur, meaning 'to raise, lift up, or to make an effort'.[10]

Sanskrit guru is cognate with Latin gravis 'heavy; grave, weighty, serious'[11] and Greek barus 'heavy'. All three derive from the Proto-Indo-European root *gʷerə-, specifically from the zero-grade form *gʷr̥ə-.[12]

A traditional etymology of the term "guru" is based on the interplay between darkness and light. The guru is seen as the one who "dispels the darkness of ignorance."[13][14][15] In some texts it is described that the syllables gu (गु) and ru (रु) stand for darkness and light, respectively.[16]

Reender Kranenborg disagrees, stating that darkness and light have nothing to do with the word guru. He describes this as a folk etymology.[17]

Another etymology of the word "guru" found in the Guru Gita, includes gu as "beyond the qualities" and ru as "devoid of form", stating that "He who bestows that nature which transcend the qualities is said to be guru".[18] The meanings of "gu" and "ru" can also be traced to the Sutras indicating concealment and its annulment.[13]

In Western Esotericism and the Science of Religion, Pierre Riffard makes a distinction between "occult" and "scientific" etymologies, citing as an example of the former the etymology of 'guru' in which the derivation is presented as gu ("darkness") and ru ('to push away'); the latter he exemplifies by "guru" with the meaning of 'heavy'.[19]

The Guru in Hinduism

The importance of finding a guru who can impart transcendental knowledge (vidyā) is emphasised in Hinduism. One of the main Hindu texts, the Bhagavad Gita, is a dialogue between God in the form of Krishna and his friend Arjuna, a Kshatriya prince who accepts Krishna as his guru on the battlefield, prior to a large battle. Not only does this dialogue outline many of the ideals of Hinduism, but their relationship is considered an ideal one of Guru-Shishya. In the Gita, Krishna speaks to Arjuna of the importance of finding a guru:

Acquire the transcendental knowledge from a Self-realized master by humble reverence, by sincere inquiry, and by service. The wise ones who have realized the Truth will impart the Knowledge to you. [20]

In the sentence mentioned above, guru is used more or less interchangeably with satguru (literally: true teacher) and satpurusha. Compare also Swami. The disciple of a guru is called a śiṣya or chela. Often a guru lives in an ashram or in a gurukula (the guru's household), together with his disciples. The lineage of a guru, spread by disciples who carry on the guru's message, is known as the guru parampara, or disciplic succession.

Some Hindu denominations like BAPS Swaminarayan Sanstha hold that a personal relationship with a living guru, revered as the embodiment of God, is essential in seeking moksha. The guru is the one who guides his or her disciple to become jivanmukta, the liberated soul able to achieve salvation in his or her lifetime.

The role of the guru continues in the original sense of the word in such Hindu traditions as the Vedānta, yoga, tantra and bhakti schools. Indeed, it is now a standard part of Hinduism that a guru is one's spiritual guide on earth. In some more mystical traditions it is believed that the guru could awaken dormant spiritual knowledge within the pupil. The act of doing this is known as shaktipat.

In Hinduism, the guru is considered a respected person with saintly qualities who enlightens the mind of his or her disciple, an educator from whom one receives the initiatory mantra, and one who instructs in rituals and religious ceremonies. The Vishnu Smriti and Manu Smriti regard the teacher and the mother and father as the most venerable influences on an individual.

Some influential gurus in the Hindu tradition were Adi Shankaracharya, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, and Shri Ramakrishna. Other gurus who continued the yogic tradition into the 20th century include: Sri Sri Ravi Shankar, Shri Aurobindo Ghosh, Shri Ramana Maharshi, Sathya Sai Baba, Sri Chandrashekarendra Saraswati (The Sage of Kanchi), Swami Sivananda, Paramahansa Yogananda, Swami Chinmayananda, Swami Vivekananda and A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. See also the list of Hindu gurus.

In Indian culture, a person without a guru or a teacher (acharya) was once looked down on as an orphan or unfortunate one. The word anatha in Sanskrit means "the one without a teacher." An acharya is the giver of gyan (knowledge) in the form of shiksha (instruction). A guru also gives diksha initiation which is the spiritual awakening of the disciple by the grace of the guru. Diksha is also considered to be the procedure of bestowing the divine powers of a guru upon the disciple, through which the disciple progresses continuously along the path to divinity.

The concept of the "guru" can be traced as far back as the early Upanishads, where the idea of the Divine Teacher on earth first manifested from its early Brahmin associations. Guru also mean a beauty artist or someone who teaches about beauty.

Gurus do not appeal to scriptures for their authority, nor are they prophets who declare the will of God. Indeed, there is an understanding in some forms of Hinduism that if the devotee were presented with the guru and God, first he would pay respect to the guru, since the guru had been instrumental in leading him to God.[21][22][23] Some traditions claim "Guru, God and Self" (Self meaning soul, not personality) are one and the same. Saints and poets in India have expressed the following views about the relationship between Guru and God:

Kabir

Guru and God both appear before me. To whom should I prostrate?
I bow before Guru who introduced God to me.[24]

Brahmanand

It is my great fortune that I found Satguru, all my doubts are removed.
I bow before Guru. Guru's glory is greater than God's.

Brahmanda Purana

Guru is Shiva without his three eyes,
Vishnu without his four arms
Brahma without his four heads.
He is parama Shiva himself in human form

Adi Shankara begins his Gurustotram or Verses to the Guru with the following Sanskrit Sloka, that has become a widely sung Bhajan:

Guru Brahma, Guru Vishnu, Guru Devo Maheshwara. Guru Sakshath Parambrahma, Tasmai Shri Gurave Namaha. (tr: Guru is the creator Brahma, Guru is the preserver Vishnu, Guru is the destroyer Siva. Guru is directly the supreme spirit — I offer my salutations to this Guru.)

Swami Tripurari states:

At first we shall see Sri Guru as saksad-hari, representing Krsna [God] in general and in this sense non-different from him. Only after some time as we advance will we begin to see him as representing a particular potency of Krsna, and this will be relative to one's developing innate serving tendency. Different disciples may see the same guru as representing different potencies.[25]

The Inner Guru

Main article: Inner Guru

There is a subtle principle that resides within all of us, which is unborn and undying. It is a repository of infinite strength, wisdom, abundance and auspiciousness. It is bliss infinite and the giver of supreme happiness. It is the support-less, infinite sky of supreme wisdom. It is the silent witness of everything. It is neither male, nor female. It exists beyond all dualities. It is not bounded by time, space or conditions. This witnessing presence is pure and clear like the sky, luminous like the morning Sun. It is our inner Guru. [26]

The guru-shishya tradition

Main article: Guru-shishya tradition

The guru-shishya tradition is the transmission of teachings from a guru (teacher, गुरू) to a 'śiṣya' (disciple, िशष्य). In this relationship, subtle and advanced knowledge is conveyed and received through the student's respect, commitment, devotion and obedience. The student eventually masters the knowledge that the guru embodies.

The dialogue between guru and disciple is a fundamental component of Hinduism, established in the oral traditions of the Upanishads (c. 2000 BC). The term Upanishad derives from the Sanskrit words upa (near), ni (down) and şad (to sit) — "sitting down near" a spiritual teacher to receive instruction. Examples include the relationship between Krishna and Arjuna in the Mahabharata (Bhagavad Gita), and between Rama and Hanuman in the Ramayana. In the Upanishads, the guru-disciple relationship appears in many settings (a husband answers a wife's questions about immortality; a teenage boy is taught by Yama, who is Death personified, etc.) Sometimes the sages are female, and sometimes the instruction is sought by kings.

In the Vedas, the brahmavidya or knowledge of Brahman is communicated from guru to shishya orally.

The word Sikh is derived from the Sanskrit shishya.[27]

Classification of gurus

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According to the Deval Smriti there can be eleven kinds of gurus and according to Nama Chintamani there are ten types.

In his book about neo-Hindu movements in the Netherlands, Kranenborg distinguishes four types of gurus in India:[dubious ][17]

  1. the spiritual advisor for higher caste Hindus who also performs traditional rituals and who is not connected to a temple (thus not a priest);
  2. the enlightened master who derives his authority from his experience, such as achieving enlightenment. This type appears in bhakti movements and in tantra and asks for unquestioning obedience, and can have Western followers. Westerners can even become one, as have, for example Andrew Cohen, and Isaac Shapiro.
  3. the avatar, a guru who considers himself to be an incarnation of God, God-like, or an instrument of God, or who is considered as such by others.
  4. A "guru" in the form of a book i.e. the Guru Granth Sahib in the Sikh religion;

Attributes of guru

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Gurus of several Hindu denominations are often referred to as Satgurus.

In the Upanishads, five signs of satguru (true guru) are mentioned.

In the presence of the satguru; Knowledge flourishes (Gyana raksha); Sorrow diminishes (Dukha kshaya); Joy wells up without any reason (Sukha aavirbhava); Abundance dawns (Samriddhi); All talents manifest (Sarva samvardhan).

According to the Indologist Georg Feuerstein, the preceptors were traditionally treated with great reverence, granted excessive authority, and identified with the transcendental Reality. He writes that partly to counterbalance this deification, some Hindu schools began to emphasize that the real teacher is the transcendental Self.[28]

The Shiva Samhita, a late medieval text on Hatha yoga, enshrines the figure of the guru as essential for liberation, and asserts that the disciple should give all his or her property and livestock to the guru upon diksha (initiation).[28]

The Vishnu Smriti and Manu Smriti regard the Acharya (teacher/guru), along with the mother and the father, as the most venerable individuals. The mother and father are the first "guru," the spiritual guru is the second.

The Mundak Upanishad says that in order to realize the supreme godhead, one should surrender one's self before the guru who knows the secrets of the Vedas.

On the role of the guru, Swami Sivananda asks: "Do you realize now the sacred significance and the supreme importance of the Guru's role in the evolution of man? It was not without reason that the India of the past carefully tended and kept alive the lamp of Guru-Tattva. It is therefore not without reason that India, year after year, age after age, commemorates anew this ancient concept of the Guru, adores it and pays homage to it again and again, and thereby re-affirms its belief and allegiance to it. For, the true Indian knows that the Guru is the only guarantee for the individual to transcend the bondage of sorrow and death, and experience the Consciousness of the Reality."

Some scriptures and gurus have warned against false teachers, and have recommended that the spiritual seeker test the guru before accepting him. Some have given criteria on how to distinguish false from genuine ones:

Rituals

Guru Purnima is the day when the disciple wakes up and expresses gratitude. The purpose of the Guru Purnima (or Poornima) celebration is to review the preceding year to see how much one has progressed in life, to renew one's determination, and to focus on one's progress on the spiritual path.

Guru Puja (literally "worship of the guru") the practice of worshiping the guru through the making of offerings and requesting inspiration from the guru. Vows and commitments made by the disciple or chela, which might have lost their strength, are renewed.

Guru Bhakti (literally "devotion to the guru") is considered important in many schools and sects.

In modern Hinduism

See also: Contemporary Hindu movements

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Best known representatives include Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (Transcendental Meditation), Sai Baba, A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Balyogeshwar (also known as "Guru Maharaj Ji", "Maharaji", and "Prem Rawat") (Divine Light Mission), and Rajneesh (Sannyasis).[31]

Guru in Buddhism

In the Theravada Buddhist tradition, the teacher is a valued and honoured mentor worthy of great respect and is a source of inspiration on the path to Enlightenment, however the teacher is not generally considered to be a guru but rather a spiritual friend or Kalyāṇa-mittatā.

In the Tibetan tradition, the guru is seen as the Buddha, the very root of spiritual realization and the basis of the path. Without the teacher, it is asserted, there can be no experience or insight. In Tibetan texts, great emphasis is placed upon praising the virtues of the guru. Blessed by the guru, whom the disciple regards as a Bodhisattva, or the embodiment of Buddha, the disciple can continue on the way to experiencing the true nature of reality. The disciple shows great appreciation and devotion for the guru, whose blessing is the last of the four foundations of Vajrayana Buddhism.

The Dalai Lama, speaking of the importance of the guru, said: "Rely on the teachings to evaluate a guru: Do not have blind faith, but also no blind criticism."[32] He also observed that the term 'living Buddha' is a translation of the Chinese words huo fuo. In Tibetan, he said, the operative word is lama which means 'guru'. A guru is someone who is not necessarily a Buddha, but is heavy with knowledge. The term vajra is also used, meaning 'master'.[33]

Tantric teachings include the practice of guru yoga, visualizing the guru and making offerings praising the guru. The guru is known as the vajra (literally "diamond") guru.[33] Initiations or ritual empowerments are necessary before the student is permitted to practise a particular tantra. The guru does not perform initiation as an individual, but as the person's own Buddha-nature reflected in the personality of the guru. The disciple is asked to make samaya or vows and commitments which preserve the spiritual link to the guru, and is told that to break this link is a serious downfall.

See also: Tibetan Buddhism

Guru in Sikhism

Main article: Sikh Gurus

The title Guru (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ) is fundamental to the Sikh religion. Indeed, the Sikhs have carried the word to an even greater abstraction, while retaining the original usage, and use it to relate to an understanding or knowledge imparted through any medium.

Sikhism is derived from the Sanskrit word shishya, or disciple. The core beliefs of Sikhism are of belief in one God and in the teachings of the Ten Gurus, enshrined in Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh holy book.

Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the first guru of Sikhism, was opposed to the caste system prevalent in India in his time, and he accepted Hindus, Muslims and people from other religions as disciples. His followers referred to him as the Guru (teacher). Before his death he designated a new Guru to be his successor and to lead the Sikh community. This procedure was continued, and the tenth and last Guru, Guru Gobind Singh (AD 1666–1708) initiated the Sikh ceremony in AD 1699.

For Sikhs, the Gurus were not in the Christian sense "Sons of God". Sikhism says we are all the children of God and by deduction, God is our mother/father.

On the importance of guru, Nanak says: Let no man in the world live in delusion. Without a Guru none can cross over to the other shore.

# Name Date of birth Guruship on Date of death Age at death Major Life highlights Father Mother
1 Guru Nanak 15 April 1469 -- 22 September 1539 69 * Founded Sikhism * Spiritual revelations registered as 974 hymns in Guru Granth Sahib * Rejected the authority of the Vedas * Preached the new idea of God as (Supreme, Universal, All-powerful and truthful, Formless, Fearless, Without Hate, Self-existent, Ever-lasting creator of all things, The eternal and absolute truth) * Attacked the citadel of the Hindu caste system, promoting equality of all * Emphasized the equality of women *Rejected the path of renunciation; emphasized leading a householder's life * Condemned the theocracy of Mughal emperor Babar * Started the institution of Guru ka Langar * Undertook 4 major journeys, travelling far and wide (including visits to Haridwar, Varanasi, Tibet, Srinagar, Lahore, Mecca, Medina, Baghdad, Syria, Turkey, Kabul, Kandhar, etc.) * Died of natural causes Mehta Kalu Mata Tripta
2 Guru Angad 31 March 1504 7 September 1539 29 March 1552 48 * Spiritual revelations registered as 63 Saloks (stanzas) in Guru Granth Sahib * Established new religious institutions to strengthen the base of Sikhism * Standardized and popularized the Gurumukhi Script* Opened many new schools * Started the tradition of Mall Akhara for physical as well as spiritual development * Popularized and expanded the institution of Guru ka Langar * Died of natural causes Baba Pheru Mata Ramo
3 Guru Amar Das 5 May 1479 26 March 1552 1 September 1574 95 * 869 verses including Anand Sahib in the Guru Granth Sahib * Established Manji & Piri system of religious missions for men and women respectively * Strengthened the Langar community kitchen system * Preached against the Hindu society's Sati system (burning alive of a wife at the pyre of her deceased husband), advocated widow-remarriage; Asked the women to discard "Purdah" (veil worn by Muslim women). * Asked Akbar to remove the toll-tax (pilgrim's tax) for non-Muslims while crossing Yamuna and Ganges Rivers * Died of natural causes Tej Bhan Bhalla Bakht Kaur
4 Guru Ram Das 24 September 1534 1 September 1574 1 September 1581 46 * 638 hymns in 30 ragas in the Guru Granth Sahib, which include 246 Padei, 138 Saloks, 31 Ashtpadis and 8 Vars * Composed the four Lawans (stanzas) of the Anand Karaj, a distinct marriage code for Sikhs separate from the orthodox and traditional Hindu Vedi system* Laid the foundation stone of Chak Ramdas or Ramdas Pur, now called Amritsar * Strongly decried superstitions, caste system and pilgrimages *Died of natural causes Baba Hari Das Mata Daya Vati
5 Guru Arjan 15 April 1563 1 September 1581 30 May 1606 43 * Compiled the Guru Granth Sahib, and installed it at Sri Harmandir Sahib on Bhadon Sudi 1st Samvat 1661 (August/September 1604), A landmark event in Sikh history* Contributed about 2000 verses to the Guru Granth Sahib * Founded the town of Tarn Taran Sahib near Goindwal Sahib * Built a house for Lepers. * Was tortured and executed on the orders of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir * Hailed as the first martyr of Sikh religion, and as Shaheedan-de-Sartaj (The crown of martyrs) Rām Dās Mata Bhani
6 Guru Har Gobind 19 June 1595 25 May 1606 28 February 1644 48 * Instituted the practice of maintaining armed legion of Sikh warrior-saints * Waged wars against rulers Jahangir and Shah Jahan * Died of natural causes Arjun Dēv Mata Ganga
7 Guru Har Rai 16 January 1630 3 March 1644 6 October 1661 31 * Sheltered Dara Shikoh; persecuted by Aurangzeb who framed charges of anti-Islamic blasphemy against Guru Ji and Sikh verses of Guru Granth Sahib * Died of natural causes Baba Gurditta Mata Nihal Kaur
8 Guru Har Krishan 7 July 1656 6 October 1661 30 March 1664 7 * Forcibly summoned to Delhi (the imperial capital of Aurangzeb) under framed charges * Died of the age of 8 due to smallpox, which he contracted while healing the sick people during an epidemic. Hari Rā'i Mata Krishan Kaur
9 Guru Tegh Bahadur 1 April 1621 20 March 1665 11 November 1675 54 * Opposed the forced conversions of the Hindu Kashmiri Pandits by Muslims * Was consequently persecuted, imprisoned, tortured and executed under the orders of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. Contributed many hymns (Shlokas) to Guru Granth Sahib * Spread Sikhism far and wide to Bihar and Assam * Hari Gōbind Mata Nanki
10 Guru Gobind Singh 22 December 1666 11 November 1675 7 October 1708 41 * Founded Khalsa in 1699 * Last Sikh Guru in human form * Passed the Guruship of the Sikhs to the Guru Granth Sahib * Died of complications from stab wounds inflicted by Pashtun assassins sent by Mughal governor Wazir Khan Tēġ Bahādur Mata Gujri
11 Guru Granth Sahib n/a 7 October 1708 n/a n/a Final and last, eternal living guru - -


In addition to the Ten Gurus of Sikhism, the Guru Granth Sahib, their holy book, was made the eleventh perpetual guru of the Sikhs. Together they make up the Eleven Gurus of Sikhism.

See also: Sikhism

Succession and lineage (parampara)

Main article: Parampara

The word parampara (Sanskrit परमपरा) denotes a long succession of teachers and disciples in traditional Indian culture. The Hinduism Dictionary defines parampara is "the line of spiritual gurus in authentic succession of initiation; the chain of mystical power and authorized continuity, passed from guru to guru." In Sanskrit, the word literally means: Uninterrupted series of succession.

The Guru (teacher) Shishya (disciple) parampara or guru parampara, occurs where the knowledge (in any field) is passed down undiluted through the succeeding generations. It is the traditional, residential form of education, where the Shishya remains and learns with his Guru as a family member. The domains may include spiritual, artistic (kala कला such as music or dance) or educational.

David C. Lane, a professor of sociology, and, since 2005, an ex-member and critic of Radha Soami Satsang Beas, argued in 1997 that based on his research of the Radha Soami movement that few gurus have a flawless and well-documented lineage, and that there is quite often conflict between different disciples claiming to be the only legitimate successor of their guru.[1]

See also: Guru-shishya tradition and Gurukula

Views on gurus from a Western cultural perspective

As an alternative to established religions, some people in Europe and the USA who were not of Indian extraction have looked up to spiritual guides and gurus from India, seeking them to provide them answers to the meaning of life, and to achieve a more direct experience free from intellectualism and philosophy. Gurus from many denominations traveled to Western Europe and the USA and established followings. One of the first to do so was Swami Vivekananda who addressed the World Parliament of Religions assembled in Chicago, Illinois in 1893.

In particular during the 1960s and 1970s many gurus acquired groups of young followers in Western Europe and the USA. According to the American sociologist David G. Bromley this was partially due to the repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Act (United States) in 1965 which permitted Asian gurus entrance to the USA.[34] According to the Dutch Indologist Albertina Nugteren, the repeal was only one of several factors and a minor one compared with the two most important causes for the surge of all things 'Eastern': the post-war cross-cultural mobility and the general dissatisfaction with established Western values.[35] According to the professor in sociology Stephen A. Kent at the University of Alberta and Kranenborg (1974), one of the reasons why in 1970s young people including hippies turned to gurus was because they found that drugs had opened for them the existence of the transcendental or because they wanted to get high without drugs.[36][37] According to Kent, another reason why this happened so often in the USA then, was because some anti-Vietnam war protesters and political activists became worn out or disillusioned of the possibilities to change society through political means, and as an alternative turned to religious means.[37] Some gurus and the groups they lead attracted opposition. One example of such group was the Hare Krishna movement (ISKCON) founded by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada in 1966, many of whose followers voluntarily accepted the demandingly ascetic lifestyle of bhakti yoga on a full-time basis, in stark contrast to much of the popular culture of the time.[38]

According to Kranenborg (1984), Jesus fits the Hindu definition and characteristics of a guru.[39]

Gurus in the West

Gurus who established a discipleship or who are/were spiritual leaders of notable organizations in Western countries include:

Viewpoints

Gurus and the Guru-shishya tradition have been criticized and assessed by secular scholars, theologians, anti-cultists, skeptics, and religious philosophers.

Notable scandals and controversies

Some notable scandals and controversies regarding gurus or the groups that they founded are:

See also

References

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  1. ^ a b Paramhans Swami Maheshwarananda, The hidden power in humans, Ibera Verlag, pages 70. ISBN 3-85052-197-4
  2. ^ Various Guru: The Guiding Light (2009) p.11. Chinmaya Mission West ISBN 978-1-60827-000-2
  3. ^ Paramhans Swami Maheshwarananda, The hidden power in humans, Ibera Verlag, pages 155. ISBN 3-85052-197-4
  4. ^ Forsthoefel, T. and C. Humes. Gurus in America (2005) p.3. SUNY Publishers ISBN 0-7914-6574-8
  5. ^ Tirha, B. B. A Taste of Transcendence, (2002) p. 161, Mandala Press. ISBN 1-886069-71-9

    "Guru: a spiritual master; one who is heavy with knowledge of the Absolute and who removes nescience with the light of the divine."

  6. ^ Lipner, Julius J.,Their Religious Beliefs and Practices p.192, Routledge (UK), ISBN 0-415-05181-9
  7. ^ Cornille, C. The Guru in Indian Catholicism (1991) p.207. Peeters Publishers ISBN 90-6831-309-6
  8. ^ Hopkins, Jeffrey Reflections on Reality (2002) p. 72. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21120-0
  9. ^ Varene, Jean. Yoga and the Hindu Tradition (1977). p.226. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-85116-8
  10. ^ Lowitz, Leza A. (2004). Sacred Sanskrit Words. Stone Bridge Press. p. 85. 1-880-6568-76.
  11. ^ Barnhart, Robert K. (1988). The Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology. H.W. Wilson Co. p. 447. ISBN 0-8242-0745-9.
  12. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4th ed.). Houghton Mifflin. 2000. p. 2031. ISBN 0-395-82517-2.
  13. ^ a b Grimes, John. A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English. (1996) p.133. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-3067-7

    "The etymological derivation of the word guru is in this verse from Guru Gita: 'The root gu stands for darkness; ru for its removal. The removal of the darkness of ignorance in the heart is indicated by the word "guru'" (Note: Guru Gita is a spiritual text in the Markandeya Purana, in the form of a dialog between Siva and Parvati on the nature of the guru and the guru/disciple relationship.) [...] the meanings of gu and ru can also be traced to the Panini-sutras gu samvarane and ru himsane, indicating concealment and its annulment.

  14. ^ Ibid.

    "Guru: remover of darkness, bestower of light'"

  15. ^ Krishnamurti, J. The Awakening of Intelligence. (1987) p.139. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-064834-1
  16. ^ Murray, Thomas R. Moral Development Theories - Secular and Religious: A Comparative Study. (1997). p. 231. Greenwood Press

    [...] the term is a combination of the two words gu(darkness) and ru (light), so together they mean 'divine light that dispels all darkness.'

    Guru is the light that disperses the darkness of ignorance.

  17. ^ a b Kranenborg, Reender (Dutch language) Neohindoeïstische bewegingen in Nederland : een encyclopedisch overzicht page 50 (En: Neo-Hindu movements in the Netherlands, published by Kampen Kok cop. (2002) ISBN 90-435-0493-9 Kranenborg, Reender (Dutch language) Neohindoeïstische bewegingen in Nederland : een encyclopedisch overzicht (En: Neo-Hindu movements in the Netherlands, published by Kampen Kok cop. (2002) ISBN 90-435-0493-9 page 50
    Dutch original: "a. De goeroe als geestelijk raadsman Als we naar het verschijnsel goeroe in India kijken, kunnen we constateren dat er op zijn minst vier vormen van goeroeschap te onderscheiden zijn. De eerste vorm is die van de 'geestelijk raadsman'. Voordat we dit verder uitwerken eerst iets over de etymologie. Het woord goeroe komt uit het Sanskriet, wordt geschreven als 'guru' en betekent 'zwaar zijn', 'gewichtig zijn', vooral in figuurlijk opzicht. Zo krijgt het begrip 'guru' de betekenis van 'groot', 'geweldig' of 'belangrijk', en iets verdergaand krijgt het aspecten van 'eerbiedwaardig' en 'vererenswaardig'. Al vrij snel word dit toegepast op de 'geestelijk leraar'. In allerlei populaire literatuur, ook in India zelf, wordt het woord 'guru' uiteengelegd in 'gu' en 'ru', als omschrijvingen voor licht en duister; de goeroe is dan degene die zijn leerling uit het materiële duister overbrengt naar het geestelijk licht. Misschien doe een goeroe dat ook inderdaad, maar het heeft niets met de betekenis van het woord te maken, het is volksetymologie."
    English translation "a. The guru as spiritual adviser: If we look at the phenomenon of gurus in India then we can see that there are at least four forms of guruship that can be distinguished. The first form is that of the "spiritual adviser." Before we will elaborate on this, first something about the etymology. The word guru comes from Sanskrit and is written as 'guru' en means 'being heavy', 'being weighty', especially metaphorically. In that way, the concept of guru gets the meaning of 'big', 'great', or 'important' and somewhat further it also gets aspects of 'respectable' and 'honorable'. Soon it is applied to the 'spiritual adviser'. In various popular literature, in India herself too, the word 'guru' is explained in the parts 'gu' and 'ru', as descriptions for light and darkness: the guru is then the person who bring the student from the material darkness into the spiritual light. A guru may indeed do that, but it has nothing to do with the meaning of the word, it is folk etymology."
  18. ^ Gurugita v. 46 gukāram ca gunatitam rukāram rupavarjitam gunatitasvarupam ca yo dadyātsa guruh smrtah
  19. ^ Riffard, Pierre A. in Western Esotericism and the Science of Religion Faivre A. & Hanegraaff W. (Eds.) Peeters Publishers( 1988), ISBN 90-429-0630-8
  20. ^ Bhagavad Gītā, c4 s34
  21. ^ Ranade, Ramchandra Dattatraya Mysticism in India: The Poet-Saints of Maharashtra, pp.392, SUNNY Press, 1983. ISBN 0-87395-669-9
  22. ^ Mills, James H and Sen, Satadru (Eds.), Confronting the Body: The Politics of Physicality in Colonial and Post-Colonial India, pp.23, Anthem Press (2004), ISBN 1-84331-032-5
  23. ^ Poewe, Karla O.; Hexham, Irving (1997). New religions as global cultures: making the human sacred. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press. p. 106. ISBN 0-8133-2508-0.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
    "Gurus are not prophets who declare the will of God and appeal to propositions found in a Scripture. Rather, they are said to be greater than God because they lead to God. Gurus have shared the essence of the Absolute and experienced the oneness of being, which endows them with divine powers and the ability to master people and things in this world."
  24. ^ Kabir: Selected Couplets from the Sakhi in Transversion, 400-Odd Verses in Iambic Tetrameter Stanza Form. Motilal Banarsidass,India. 2001. p. 23. ISBN 81-208-1788-5.
  25. ^ Swami Tripurari, "The Country of Love", Sanga, 1999.
  26. ^ Banani Ray, Amit Ray, "Awakening Inner Guru", Inner Light Publishers, pp. 9-11, ISBN 8191026902
  27. ^ Singh, Harbans, Guru Nanak and the Origins of the Sikh Faith. pp. 13, (1969), Asia Publishing House
  28. ^ a b c d e f Feuerstein, Georg Dr. Encyclopedic dictionary of yoga Published by Paragon House 1st edition (1990) ISBN 1-55778-244-X
  29. ^ Swami Vivekananda Karma-yoga and Bhakti-yoga (1937)
  30. ^ Sathya Sai Baba Sandeha Nivarini: Clearance of Spiritual Doubts available online published by Sri Sathya Sai Books and Publications Trust (undated) ISBN 81-7208-010-7
  31. ^ Michae, Alex Michaels] "Hinduism past and Present" (2004) Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-08952-3, translated from German "Der Hinduismus" (1998) p.22 and p.46. Alex Micahels bio
  32. ^ "The Teacher - The Guru".
  33. ^ a b Strong, John S. (1995). The experience of Buddhism: sources and interpretations. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co. p. 76. ISBN 0-534-19164-9.
  34. ^ Bromley, David G., Ph.D. & Anson Shupe, Ph.D., Public Reaction against New Religious Movements article that appeared in Cults and new religious movements: a report of the Committee on Psychiatry and Religion of the American Psychiatric Association, edited by Marc Galanter, M.D., (1989) ISBN 0-89042-212-5
  35. ^ Nugteren, Albertina (Tineke) Dr. (Associate professor in the phenomenology and history of Indian religions at the faculty of theology at the university of Tilburg)Tantric Influences in Western Esotericism, article that appeared at a 1997 CESNUR conference and that was published in the book New Religions in a Postmodern World edited by Mikael Rothstein and Reender Kranenborg RENNER Studies in New religions Aarhus University press, (2003) ISBN 87-7288-748-6
  36. ^ Kranenborg, Reender (Dutch language) Zelfverwerkelijking: oosterse religies binnen een westerse subkultuur (En: Self-realization: eastern religions in a Western Sub-culture, published by Kampen Kok (1974)
  37. ^ a b Kent, Stephen A. Dr. From slogans to mantras: social protest and religious conversion in the late Vietnam war era Syracuse University press ISBN 0-8156-2923-0 (2001)
  38. ^ Barrett, D. V. The New Believers - A survey of sects, cults and alternative religions 2001 UK, Cassell & Co. ISBN 0-304-35592-5 entry ISKCON page 287,288
    "Devotees don't have such an easy time. They who choose to live in the temples – now a very small minority -chant the Hare Krishna mantra 1,728 time a day. […] Those living in an ashram – far fewer than in the 1970s – have to get up at 4am for worship. All members have to give up meat, fish and eggs; alcohol, tobacco, drugs, tea and coffee; gambling, sports, games and novels; and sex except for procreation with marriage […] It's a demanding lifestyle. Outsiders may wonder why people join."
  39. ^ Kranenborg, Reender (Dutch language) Een nieuw licht op de kerk? Bijdragen van nieuwe religieuze bewegingen voor de kerk van vandaag (En: A new perspective on the church? Contributions of new religious movements for today's church), the Hague Boekencentrum (1984) ISBN 90-239-0809-0 pp 93-99
  40. ^ Jiddu, Krishnamurti (September 1929). "The Dissolution of the Order of the Star: A Statement by J. Krishnamurti". International Star Bulletin 2 [Volumes not numbered in original] (2) [Issues renumbered starting August 1929]: 28-34. (Eerde: Star Publishing Trust). OCLC 34693176. J.Krishnamurti Online. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
  41. ^ Uppaluri Gopala (U. G.) Krishnamurti (2002) (Revised ed.) [Originally published 1982. Goa, India: Dinesh Vaghela Cemetile]. The Mystique of Enlightenment: The Radical Ideas of U.G. Krishnamurti. Arms, Rodney ed. Sentient Publications. Paperback. p. 2. ISBN 0-9710786-1-0. Wikisource. Retrieved 2010-08-28.
  42. ^ Lane, David C., Exposing Cults: When the Skeptical Mind Confronts the Mystical (1984)
  43. ^ Feuerstein, Georg Dr. The Deeper Dimension of Yoga: Theory and Practice, Shambhala Publications, released on (2003) ISBN 1-57062-928-5
  44. ^ Storr, Anthony Dr. Feet of clay: a study of gurus 1996 ISBN 0-684-83495-2
  45. ^ Preece, Rob, "The teacher-student relationship" in The Noble Imperfection: The challenge of individuation in Buddhist life, Mudras Publications
  46. ^ Palmer, Susan, article in the book NRMs in the 21st century: legal, political, and social challenges in global perspective edited by Phillip Charles Lucas and Thomas Robbins, (2004) ISBN 0-415-96577-2
  47. ^ Deutsch, Alexander M.D. Observations on a sidewalk ashram Archive Gen. Psychiatry 32 (1975) 2, 166-175
  48. ^ Deutsch, Alexander M.D. Tenacity of Attachment to a cult leader: a psychiatric perspective American Journal of Psychiatry 137 (1980) 12, 1569-1573.
  49. ^ Lans, Jan van der Dr. (Dutch language) Volgelingen van de goeroe: Hedendaagse religieuze bewegingen in Nederland, written upon request for the KSGV published by Ambo, Baarn, 1981 ISBN 90-263-0521-4
  50. ^ Schnabel, Paul Dr. (Dutch language) Between stigma and charisma: new religious movements and mental health Erasmus university Rotterdam, Faculty of Medicine, Ph.D. thesis, ISBN 90-6001-746-3 (Deventer, Van Loghum Slaterus, 1982) Chapter V, page 142
    "Wat Van der Lans heir signaleert, is het gevaar dat de goeroe een instantie van absolute overgave en totale overdracht wordt. De leerling krijgt de gelegenheid om zijn grootheidsfantasieën op de goeroe te projecteren, zonder dat de goeroe daartegen als kritische instantie kan optreden. Het lijkt er zelfs vaak eerder op dat de goeroe in woord, beeld en geschrift juist geneigd is deze onkritische houding te stimuleren. Dit geldt zeker ook voor goeroe Maharaji, maar het heeft zich -gewild en ongewild ook voorgedaan bij Anandamurti en Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. [..] De vergoddelijking van de goeroe is 'een traditioneel element in de Oosterse spiritualiteit, maar, losgemaakt, uit dit cultuurmilieu en overgenomen door Westerse mensen, gaat het onderscheid vaak verloren tussen de persoon van de goeroe en dat wat hij symboliseert en verwordt tot een kritiekloze persoonlijkheidsverheerlijking' (Van der Lans 1981b, 108)"
    Partial literal English translation "The deification of the guru is a 'traditional element in Eastern spirituality, but, detached from this cultural environment en used by Westerners, the distinction between the person of the guru and that what he symbolizes is often lost en it degenerates into an uncritical glorification of the personality.'(Van der Lans 1981b, 108)"
  51. ^ Kramer, Joel, and Diana Alstad The guru papers: masks of authoritarian power (1993) ISBN 1-883319-00-5
  52. ^ Kester, Sacha "Ticket naar Nirvana"/"Ticket to Nirvana", article in the Dutch Newspaper De Volkskrant 7 January 2003
  53. ^ Times of India article dated 3 Jan. 2004
  54. ^ Rethinking the Lessons of Tokyo
  55. ^ Brown, Mick,Divine Downfall, The Telegraph, October 28, 2000, Available online
  56. ^ The dance of 17 lives
  57. ^ Bell, Sandra (2002). "Scandals in Emerging Western Buddhism". In Charles S Prebish & Martin Baumann (ed.). Westward Dharma: Buddhism Beyond Asia (PDF). University of California Press. pp. 230–242. ISBN 0520226259.

Further reading

  • Arjun Dev, Guru, Guru Granth Sahib, Amritsar-1604 AD., Rag Bhairo
  • Aurobindo, Sri, The Foundation of Indian Culture, Pondicherry, 1959
  • Banani Ray, Amit Ray Awakening Inner Guru, Inner Light Publishers, Kolkata ISBN 8191026902
  • Brown, Mick The Spiritual Tourist Bloomsbury publishing, 1998 ISBN 1-58234-034-X
  • van der Braak, André (2003). Enlightenment Blues: My Years with an American Guru. Monkfish Book Publishing. ISBN 0-9726357-1-8
  • Garden, Mary The Serpent Rising: a journey of spiritual seduction - 2003 ISBN 1-877059-50-1 *Gupta, Dr. Hari Ram. A Life-Sketch of Guru Nanak in Guru Nanak, His Life, Time and Teachings, Edited by Gurmukh Nihal Singh, New Delhi, 1981
  • Thomas Forsthoefel and Cynthia Ann Humes, Eds. Gurus in America. Albany, New York: SUNY Press, 2005
  • Gurdev Singh, Justice, Perspectives on the Sikh Tradition. Patiala-1986
  • Holtje, D. (1995). From Light to Sound: The Spiritual Progression. Temecula, CA: MasterPath, Inc. ISBN 1-885949-00-6
  • Isliwari Prasad, Dr. The Mughal Empire, Allahabad-1974
  • Jain, Nirmal Kumar, Sikh Religion and Philosophy. New Delhi- 1979
  • Kapur Singh, Parasarprasna or The Baisakhi of Guru Gobind Singh (An Exposition of Sikhism), Jalandhar-1959
  • Kovoor, Abraham Dr. Begone Godmen published by Shri Aswin J. Shah Jaico Publishing House, Bombay - 1976
  • Majumdar, Dr R.C., The History and Culture of the Indian People, Vol. VI, Bombay-1960
  • Mangalwadi, Vishal World of Gurus by India's Vikas Publishing ISBN 0-940895-03-X (1977) excerpts
  • Mcleod W.H. (ed.). The B40 Janam Sakhi, Guru Nank Dev University, Amritsar, 1980
  • Mehta, Gita Karma Cola: Marketing the Mystic East Simon and Schuster, New York, NY, first published in 1979 ISBN 0-679-75433-4
  • Sister Nivedita, The Master as I Saw Him, Kolkata: Udbodhan Office, 1993.
  • Olsen, G. (1999). MasterPath: The Divine Science of Light and Sound, (Vol. 1). Temecula, CA: MasterPath, Inc. ISBN 1-885949-01-4
  • Padoux, André The Tantric Guru, in: Tantra in Practice, Ed by David Gordon White, MLBD, New Delhi
  • Singh, K. (1999). Naam or Word. Blaine, WA: Ruhani Satsang Books. ISBN 0-942735-94-3
  • Singh, Jaideva, (Ed.), Ïiva Sútras, The Yoga of Supreme Identity, MLBD, Delhi, 1979
  • Swami Tejasananda, A Short Life of Vivekananda, Kolkata: Advaita Ashram Publication, 1999.
  • Swami Satyananda, Devi Mandir, "Shree Maa:Guru and Goddess" (ISBN 1-887472-78-9 )
  • Tarlo, Luna The Mother of God, SCB Distributors (1997) ISBN 1-57027-043-0

Video

  • Understanding Hindu Traditions Educational Video Network, Inc. (2004)
  • Origins of India- Hindu Civilization Educational Video Network, Inc. (2004)
  • Meditation & the Thinking Machine Krishnamurti (2004)
  • Short Cut To Nirvana (2004) directed by Maurizio Benazzo. Featuring encounters with some of India's most respected holy men and exclusive footage of the Dalai Lama.
  • Dalai Lama on Life and Enlightenment (2004)]
  • Guru Busters documentary by Robert Eagle (writer and director) (1995)[2]
  • Mysterious Miracles, Aliens from Spaceship Earth, A Spiritual Odyssey, directed by Don Como (1977)