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Thyāgarāja
A painting of Thyagaraja from the Jaganmohan palace in Mysore[1]
Born
Kakarla Tyagabrahmam

(1767-05-04)4 May 1767
Died6 January 1847(1847-01-06) (aged 79)
OccupationCarnatic composer

Thyagaraja (Telugu: త్యాగరాజ) (4 May 1767 – 6 January 1847), also known as Thyāgayya and in full as Kakarla Thyagabrahmam, was a composer and vocalist of Carnatic music, a form of Indian classical music. Tyagaraja and his contemporaries, Shyama Shastri and Muthuswami Dikshitar, are regarded as the Trinity of Carnatic music. Tyagaraja composed thousands of devotional compositions, most in Telugu and in praise of Rama, many of which remain popular today, the most popular being "Nagumomu".[3] Of special mention are five of his compositions called the Pancharatna Kritis (transl. "five gems"), which are often sung in programs in his honour, and Utsava Sampradaya Krithis (transl. Festive ritual compositions), which are often sung to accompany temple rituals.[4]

Thyagaraja lived through the reigns of four kings of the Maratha dynastyTulaja II (1763–1787), Amarasimha (1787–1798), Serfoji II (1798–1832) and Sivaji II (1832–1855),[5] although he served none of them.

Personal life and background

Thyāgarāja was born Kakarla Thyagabrahmam in 1767[Note 1] to a Telugu Vaidiki Mulakanadu Brahmin family[6][7] in Tiruvarur in present-day Tiruvarur District of Tamil Nadu. There is a school of thought led by musicologist B. M. Sundaram that contests this and proposes Tiruvaiyaru as his birthplace. He is a famous musician and his family name 'Kakarla' indicates that they were originally migrants from the village of the same name in the Cumbum taluk of Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh. His family belonged to the Smarta tradition and Bharadvaja gotra. Thyagaraja was the third son of his parents, and Panchanada Brahmam and Panchapakesha Brahmam are his elder brothers. He was named Thyagabrahmam/Thyagaraja after Tyagaraja, the presiding deity of the temple at Thiruvarur, the place of his birth. Thyagaraja's maternal uncle was Giriraja Kavi. Giriraja Kavi was a poet and musician. Giriraja was born in Kakarla village, Cumbum taluk in Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh.[8] He is believed to have belonged to the Kasalanadu sect. Thyagaraja's maternal grandfather was named Kalahastayya, but was frequently addressed as Veena Kalahastayya as he was a noted veena player. Thyagaraja learned to play the veena in his childhood from Kalahastayya. After Kalahastayya's death Tyagaraja found Naradeeyam, a book related to music.[9][10][11] Tyagaraja hero-worshipped the celestial sage Narada; a reference to this is Thyagaraja's krithi Vara Nārada (rāga Vijayaśrī, Ādi tāḷam). Legend has it that a hermit taught him a mantra invoking Narada, and Thyagaraja, meditating on this mantra, received a vision of Narada and was blessed with the book Svarārnavam by the sage. During his last days, Thyagaraja took vows of Sannyasa.[12][11]

Sri Thyagaraja took siddhi on a Pushya Bahula Panchami day, 6 January 1847, at the age of 79, a day after he was initiated into the order of advaita dasanami sanyasis. His last composition before his siddhi was Giripai Nelakonna (rāga Sahāna, Ādi tāḷam).[7]He was interred on the banks of the Kaveri river at Thiruvaiyaru the very next day.[13]

Musical career

Tyagaraja on a 1961 Indian stamp

Thyāgarāja began his musical training at an early age under Sonti Venkata Ramanayya, a music scholar, after the latter heard his singing and was impressed by the child prodigy. Thyagaraja regarded music as a way to experience God's love. His compositions focused on expression, rather than on the technicalities of classical music. He also showed a flair for composing music and, in his teens, composed his first song, "Namo Namo Raghavayya", in the Desika Todi ragam and inscribed it on the walls of the house. His compositions are mainly of a devotional (bhakti) or philosophical nature. His songs feature himself usually either in an appeal to his deity of worship (primarily the Avatar Rama), in musings, in narratives, or giving a message to the public. He has also composed krithis in praise of Krishna, Shiva, Shakti, Ganesha, Muruga, Saraswati, and Hanuman.[14]

Sonti Venkataramanayya informed the king of Thanjavur of Thyagaraja's genius. The king sent an invitation, along with many rich gifts, inviting Thyagaraja to attend the royal court. Thyagaraja, however, was not inclined towards a career at the court, and rejected the invitation outright. He was said to have composed the krithi Nidhi Chala Sukhama (నిధి చాల సుఖమా) (transl. "Does wealth bring happiness?") on this occasion.[15][16] He spent most of his time in Thiruvaiyaru, though there are records of his pilgrimages to Thirumala and Kanchipuram. When he was in Kanchipuram, he met Upanishad Brahmayogin at the Brahmendral Mutt at Kanchipuram.[17][18]

Thyagaraja, who was immersed in his devotion to Rama and led a spartan way of life, did not take any steps to systematically codify his vast musical output. Rangaramanuja Iyengar, a leading researcher on Carnatic music, in his work Kriti Manimalai, has described the situation prevailing at the time of the death of Thyagaraja. It is said that a major portion of his incomparable musical work was lost to the world due to natural and man-made calamities. Usually, Thyagaraja used to sing his compositions sitting before deity manifestations of Lord Rama, and his disciples noted down the details of his compositions on palm leaves. After his death, these were in the hands of his disciples, then families descending from the disciples. There was not a definitive edition of Thyagaraja's songs.[citation needed]

The songs he composed in pure Telugu were widespread in their popularity because of the ease with which they could be sung in those days. Musical experts such as Kancheepuram Nayana Pillai, Simizhi Sundaram Iyer and Veenai Dhanammal saw the infinite possibilities for imaginative music inherent in his compositions and they systematically notated the songs available to them. Subsequently, researchers like K. V. Srinivasa Iyengar and Rangaramanuja Iyengar made an enormous effort to contact various teachers and families who possessed the palm leaves. K. V. Srinivasa Iyengar brought out Adi Sangita Ratnavali and Adi Tyagaraja Hridhayam in three volumes. Rangaramanuja Iyengar published Kriti Mani Malai in two volumes.[citation needed] He also composed songs in Sanskrit.[19]

Furthermore, Musiri Subramania Iyer, the doyen of Bhava Sangitam, had a vast collection of books in his library. T. K. Govinda Rao, his disciple, brought out a volume of Thyagaraja's songs in English and Devanagari script. T. S. Parthasarathy, a leading scholar on Thyagaraja, published the text and meaning of Thyagaraja's songs. There are also many less comprehensive publications in Telugu.

About 700 songs remain of the 24,000 songs said to have been composed by him; however, scholars are skeptical about numbers like these, as there is no biographical evidence to support such claims.[20] In addition to nearly 700 compositions (kritis), Thyagaraja composed two musical plays in Telugu, the Prahalada Bhakti Vijayam and the Nauka Charitam. Prahlada Bhakti Vijayam is in five acts with 45 kritis set in 28 ragas and 138 verses, in different metres in Telugu. Nauka Charitam is a shorter play in one act with 21 kritis set in 13 ragas and 43 verses. The latter is the most popular of Tyagaraja's operas, and is a creation of the composer's own imagination and has no basis in the Bhagavata Purana. Tyagaraja also composed a number of simple devotional pieces appropriate for choral singing.[21][22]

The 20th-century Indian music critic K. V. Ramachandran wrote: "Thyagaraja is an indefatigable interpreter of the past... but if with one eye he looks backward, with the other he looks forward as well. Like Prajapati, he creates his own media and adores his Rama not alone with jewel-words newly fashioned, but also with jewel-[like]-music newly created. It is this facet of Thyagaraja that distinguishes him from his illustrious contemporaries."[citation needed] In other words, while Thyagaraja's contemporaries were primarily concerned with bringing to audiences the music of the past, Tyagaraja also pioneered new musical concepts at the same time.[citation needed][23]

Remembrance

Tyagaraja Aradhana, the commemorative music festival is held every year in Thiruvaiyaru in Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu, during the months of January to February in Tyagaraja's honor. This is a week-long festival of music where various Carnatic musicians from all over the world converge at his resting place. On the Pushya Bahula Panchami,[Note 2] thousands of people and hundreds of Carnatic musicians sing the five Pancharatna Kritis in unison, with the accompaniment of a large bank of accompanists on veenas, violins, flutes, nadasvarams, mridangams and ghatams.[24]

A sports complex in New Delhi, Thyagaraj Sports Complex, was named after him. A crater on the planet Mercury was named after Tyagaraja in 1976.[25]

In popular culture

Films on Tyagaraja (biographical)

Apart from references to his works, using the kirtanas as songs, two films were made on his life. V. Nagayya made a biographical epic on Tyagaraja titled Tyagayya in 1946 which is still treated as a masterpiece of Telugu cinema. In 1981, Bapu–Ramana made Tyagayya with J. V. Somayajulu in the lead role. Another attempt is being made by Singeetam Srinivasa Rao to picturise Tyagaraja's life. Apart from these, Bombay Gnanam made a short film known as Endaro Mahanubavulu on Tyagaraja. The short film was released on 27 February 2021, on the 174th Tyagaraja Aradhana festival.[26]

Raga on Tyagaraja (Musical scale)

Carnatic kriti 'Sri Ramachandram Bhajami' in raga 'Sri Tyagaraja' created and composed by Mahesh Mahadev [kn] named after Saint Tyagaraja [27] sung by Priyadarshini[28] was released on 10 January 2023 at Thyagaraja Samadi during 176th Tyagaraja Aradhana festival[29][30]

Compositions

Main article: List of compositions by Tyagaraja

The term Pancharatna in Sanskrit means "five gems": The Pancharatnas are known as the five finest gems of Carnatic music. All of the Pancharatnas are set to the adi talam. So far as Pancharatnas are concerned, a stable text has been handed over by the earlier musicians to the present day. All the compositions of Tyagaraja show the way for the systematic development of the respective ragas. In the Pancharatnas, Tyagaraja offers parameters as to how to systematically and scientifically develop a raga. The two fundamental conditions that must be satisfied for the systematic development of a raga are the arrangement of the svaras in the natural order of arohanam, and the avarohanam of the ragas so as to satisfy the sound principles of harmony and continuity. Pancharatnas satisfy these scientific principles. The Pancharatnas are composed in perfect sarvalaghu svaras.[31]

Other compositions by Tyagaraja include Samajavaragamana in the hindolam raga, Adamodigaladhe in the charukesi raga, Raju vedale in the hanumatodi raga, Ninne nammi nanura in the todi raga, Kamalapthakula in the brindavana saranga raga, Kshira sagara shayana in the devagandhari raga, Marubalka kunna vemira ma manoramana in the Sriranjani raga, and Nagumomu kanaleni in the abheri raga.[citation needed]

Sri Thiyagaraja Swamigal Home entrance at Thiruvaiyaru)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ His date of birth according to the Hindu lunar year Sarvajit 27th Soma, on Chaitra Sukla Saptami, the 7th day of the bright half of the Hindu month of Chaitra, under the Pushya star.
  2. ^ Pushya Bahula Panchami – the fifth day of the dark half of the month of Pushya, in the Hindu calendar every year.

References

  1. ^ Aiyar, M. S. Ramaswami (1927). Thiagaraja: A Great Musician Saint. p. 62.
  2. ^ "Thiruvaiyaru Thyagaraja Aradhana". Archived from the original on 14 January 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
  3. ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam (ed.). India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 233.
  4. ^ "Tyagaraja: Iconic saint-poet of Carnatic music whose name came up in Parliament". The Indian Express. 9 August 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
  5. ^ The saint and the king: on the Serfoji-Tyagaraja relationship. The Hindu (2 March 2017). Retrieved on 2018-12-25.
  6. ^ Sai, Veejay (26 May 2017). "The timelessness of Tyagaraja". Livemint. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  7. ^ a b Sai, Veejay (15 January 2017). "Remembering Tyagaraja guardian saint Carnatic music his 250th birth anniversary". thenewsminute.com. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  8. ^ Kumar, Ranee (24 January 2013). "Retracing roots of Thyagaraja". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  9. ^ "Tiruvaiyaru gears up". The Hindu. 6 January 2006.
  10. ^ "Manaku teliyani mana tyagaraju".
  11. ^ a b V, Sriram (12 April 2018). "The last five days of Tyagaraja". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
  12. ^ V, Sriram (12 April 2018). "The last five days of Tyagaraja". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 19 January 2023.
  13. ^ Velcheru, Narayana Rao; David, Shulman, eds. (2002). Classical Telugu Poetry: An Anthology. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. p. 298. ISBN 9780520225985.
  14. ^ T.K.R, Sridharan (12 July 2022). God and Science. Notion Press. ISBN 979-8-88704-354-8.
  15. ^ "The musical triumvirate". The Hindu. 24 January 2011.
  16. ^ "Atop a hill, a historic temple". The Hindu. 26 February 2013.
  17. ^ Upanishad Brahmendra | Sreenivasarao's blogs. Sreenivasaraos.com (22 February 2015). Retrieved on 2018-12-25.
  18. ^ "Reviewing the Film – Thyagaiah - The Verandah Club". theverandahclub.com. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
  19. ^ Bureau, The Hindu (12 January 2023). "Thyagaraja Aradhana held amid religious fervour at Ongole". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
  20. ^ "The bhaktha who craved more bhakthi". The Hindu. 31 January 2013.
  21. ^ [1][dead link]
  22. ^ "Feature: Tyagaraja – The Exemplary Poet-Saint – Jan 2006". archive.sssmediacentre.org. Retrieved 20 January 2023.
  23. ^ Krishna, T. M. (4 May 2017). "Tyagaraja's musical span and insight reiterates his genius". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
  24. ^ "Musicians pay homage to Saint Thyagaraja". The Hindu. 1 February 2013.
  25. ^ "The Hollowed Halls of Tyagaraja". Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. 24 May 2012. Archived from the original on 6 April 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
  26. ^ Ramakrishnan, H. (11 February 2021). "A biopic on the bard of Tiruvaiyaru". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 19 January 2023.
  27. ^ Correspondent, Special (3 March 2023). "New raga named after Thyagaraja". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 9 March 2023.
  28. ^ "SamyukthaKarnataka ePaper". 25 January 2023. Archived from the original on 25 January 2023. Retrieved 16 February 2023.
  29. ^ Pinto, Arun (19 January 2023). "Sri Tyagaraja – a New Raga in Carnatic Music by Mahesh Mahadev". News Karnataka. Retrieved 19 January 2023.
  30. ^ "Sri Tyagaraja - a new creation". www.sruti.com. Retrieved 16 February 2023.
  31. ^ Tyāgarāja, Swami (1969). The Pancha Ratna Kritis of Sri Tyagaraja: Text in Deva Nagari Script with an English Translation by T.S. Parthasarathy. Supplement: Notations in Tamil Script by V.S. Parthasarathy Iyengar (in Tamil). Music Club.
  32. ^ a b Suryanarayan, Renuka (11 February 2021). "The story behind the Pancharatnam rendition". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 1 March 2023.

Further reading