Prakasam district
Clockwise from top-left: Bhairavakona Cave temples, Chili drying in Dornapala, Amy Bowen Memorial Church in Donakonda, Beach in Pakala, Cumbum Lake
Location of Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh
Location of Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh
Map
Interactive map outlining district
Coordinates (Ongole): 15°20′N 79°33′E / 15.333°N 79.550°E / 15.333; 79.550
Country India
StateAndhra Pradesh
RegionCoastal Andhra
Established1970
Reorganized2022
Named forTanguturi Prakasam
HeadquartersOngole
Mandalas39
Government
 • CollectorA S Dinesh Kumar, IAS[1]
 • Superintendent of PoliceMallika Garg, IPS
 • Lok Sabha constituenciesOngole,Bapatla
 • Assembly constituencies08
Area
 • Total14,322 km2 (5,530 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)[3]
 • Total2,288,026
 • Density160/km2 (410/sq mi)
 • Urban
19.44%
Demographics
 • Literacy63.53%
 • Sex ratio981
Vehicle registrationAP-27 (former)
AP–39 (from 30 January 2019)[4]
Major highwaysNH-16
Websiteprakasam.ap.gov.in

Prakasam district is one of the twelve districts in the coastal Andhra region of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It was formed in 1970 and reorganised on 4 April 2022. The headquarters of the district is Ongole. It is located on the western shore of Bay of Bengal and is bounded by Bapatla district and Palnadu districts in the north, Nandyal district in the west, Kadapa and Nellore districts in the south. A part of north west region also borders with Nagarkurnool district of Telangana.[5] It is the largest district in the state with an area of 14,322 km2 (5,530 sq mi) and had a population of 22,88,026 as per 2011 Census of India.[6]

Etymology

The district was named after the patriot and first Chief Minister of Andhra State Tanguturi Prakasam, also known as Andhra Kesari, who was born in the village of Vinodarayunipalem. It was accordingly renamed as Prakasam District in the year 1972.[7]

History

Prakasam district was originally constituted on 2 February 1970, carved out of Guntur, Nellore and Kurnool districts of Andhra Pradesh.[8] It was carved out of three taluks of Guntur district, i.e. Addanki, Chirala, and Ongole, four taluks of Nellore district, i.e. Kandukur, Kanigiri, Darsi and Podili and three taluks of Kurnool district i.e. Markapur, Yarragondapalem and Giddaluru. It is one of the nine districts in the Coastal Andhra region of undivided Andhra Pradesh.

Naxalite activity in Prakasam district used to be high during 2000s.[9]

Geography

Prakasam district occupies an area of 14,322 square kilometres (5,530 sq mi).[6] This district is bounded by Nagarkurnool district of Telangana state in the north, SPSR Nellore district in the south, Nandyal district in the west, Palnadu and Bapatla districts in the east, and the Bay of Bengal in the southeast.[10]

The Nallamalas and the Veligondas are the major hill ranges in the district. The Nallamalas consist of a range of continuous fairly steep hills with an average elevation of about 620 meters above sea level. There are two passes in the Nallamalas namely, the Nandi Kanuma and Manbala Kanuma. The Nandi Kanuma passes from Bellary (in Karnataka) via Kurnool, Dornala, Yerragondapalem to Markapur. The portions of Veligondas stand prominently as two continuous parallel ranges of fairly steep hills running in a north-south direction with a wide valley in between. The water from the eastern range of hills drains in a northerly direction to the Gundlakamma river.[10]

The district has 50 kilometres of coastline. Kothapatnam of Kothapatnam Mandal and Pakala of Singarayakonda Mandal are prominent beaches. Gundlakamma, Musi and Paleru are the major rivers in the district. Smaller rivers such as the Thammileru, Sagileru and Gudisileru and streams like Ogeru vagu, Nallavagu and Vedimangala vagu also flow in the district. The Gundlakumma river flows for a length of 220 kilometres in the district. Thippayapalem Reservoir, Duvvaleru Project, Cumbum tank and Bhavanasi tanks are constructed on this river.[11]

Climate

The district has moderate climate in the coastal areas and hot climate in the non-coastal areas. The normal maximum and minimum temperatures recorded in the district are 40.20 C and 20.30 C respectively. The maximum temperature is usually recorded in the months of April - June. The district receives its rainfall mostly from South West and North-East monsoon. The normal rainfall is 366.2 mm and 384.7 mm respectively.[2]

Flora and Fauna

The total forest area is 4,42,073 Ha. which forms 30.86% of the total geographical area. Orchids, casurinas and cashew plantations are common in the coastal areas. The Nallamalla forest has wild life including tigers.[2]

Irrigation

Nagarjuna Sagar Project and Krishna Western Delta are major irrigation projects. Mopadu Reservoir, Paleru-Bitragunta anicut, and Cumbum tank are major sources of medium irrigation. 798 minor irrigation tanks support an ayacut of 89,267 Hectares .[2]

Mineral resources

Chimakurthi is known for its granite reserves. Markapur is India's main slate-manufacturing town.[12] The minerals found in the district are Baryte, iron ore, quartz, and silica sand. [13]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901975,037—    
19111,068,743+0.92%
19211,117,701+0.45%
19311,205,223+0.76%
19411,343,883+1.09%
19511,463,737+0.86%
19611,671,726+1.34%
19711,919,995+1.39%
19812,329,571+1.95%
19912,759,166+1.71%
20013,059,423+1.04%
20113,397,448+1.05%
source:[14]

As of the 2011 census of India, the undivided district had a population of 3,397,448 with a density of 193 persons per sq.km. The total population constitute, 17,14,764 males and 16,82,684 females –a ratio of 981 females per 1000 males. The total urban population is 664,582 (19.56%).[15]: 20  There are 19,04,435 literates with a literacy rate of 63.08%.[15]: 21 

Religions in Prakasam district (2011)[16]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
92.96%
Islam
6.30%
Christianity
0.52%
Other or not stated
0.22%
Distribution of religions

After bifurcation the district had a population of 22,88,026, of which 444,865 (19.44%) lived in urban areas. Prakasam district had a sex ratio of 971 females per 1000 males. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes make up 537,159 (23.48%) and 88,209 (3.86%) of the population respectively.[3]: 77–81 

Languages of Prakasam district (2011)[17]

  Telugu (93.88%)
  Urdu (5.05%)
  Others (1.07%)

At the time of the 2011 census, 93.88% of the population spoke Telugu and 5.05% Urdu as their first language in the undivided district[17]

Economy

The Gross District Domestic Product (GDDP) of the undivided district is 35,962 crore (US$4.5 billion) and it contributes 6.9% to the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP). For the FY 2013–14, the per capita income at current prices was 85,765 (US$1,100). The primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the district contribute 12,875 crore (US$1.6 billion), 7,897 crore (US$990 million) and 15,190 crore (US$1.9 billion), respectively.[18] The major products contributing to the GVA of the district from agriculture and allied services are, tobacco, paddy, chillies, batavia, milk, meat and fisheries. The GVA to the industrial and service sector is contributed from construction, minor minerals, unorganised trade and ownership of dwellings.[18]

Industries

The district has many service industries such as industrial testing, electrical appliance repair, clinical laboratories, servicing of computer hardware, tourism, and hospitality. Major exports from the district include seafood, processed tobacco, granite blocks, granite monuments and yarn.[12] There are many industries of food and agriculture, mineral, chemical, leather, plastic and rubber, engineering, cotton and textiles, electronic products. All these industries deal with prawn and fish processing and canning, dairy products, the granite industry, pharmaceuticals, tanning, fishing nets, surgical cotton, etc. Forest-based industries produce Ayurvedic medicines, essential oil (Palm Rose Oil), wooden furniture, wooden toys, bamboo products, etc.[13]

Mining

The district leads in granite mining in the state with discovery of Galaxy Granite in the Chimakurthy area of the district. [13]

Politics

Parliament segments

Ongole (Lok Sabha constituency), Bapatla (Lok Sabha constituency)(partial)

Assembly segments

Ongole and Bapatla Lok Sabha constituency presently comprises the following Legislative Assembly segments:[19]

Constituency number Name Reserved for
(SC/ST/None)
Parliament
107 Santhanuthalapadu SC Bapatla
102 Yerragondapalem SC Ongole
103 Darsi None
108 Ongole None
110 Kondapi SC
111 Markapuram None
112 Giddalur None
113 Kanigiri None

Administrative divisions

See also: List of mandals in Andhra Pradesh and List of revenue divisions in Andhra Pradesh

The District comprises three revenue divisions viz., Ongole, Kanigiri and Markapur. There are a total of 38 mandals, with 12 in Ongole division, 13 in Kanigiri division and 13 in Markapur division. Ongole mandal is proposed to be divided into Ongole Urban and Ongole Rural mandals in 2023.

Urban administrative divisions of Panchayatraj include Ongole (Municipal Corporation), Markapur (Municipality) and 5 Nagar panchayats for Chimakurthy, Giddalur, Podili, Darsi and Kanigiri.[20]

The rural administrative divisions of Panchayatraj include 715 Gram Panchayats. There are about 769 Inhabited Revenue villages in the district.[2]

Mandals

Mandals of Prakasam district (Overpass-turbo)


The list of 39 mandals in Prakasam district under three revenue divisions are listed in the following table:[21]

  1. Kanigiri revenue division
    1. Chandrasekharapuram
    2. Darsi
    3. Donakonda
    4. Hanumanthunipadu
    5. Kanigiri
    6. Konakanamitla
    7. Kurichedu
    8. Marripudi
    9. Pamur
    10. Pedacherlopalle
    11. Podili
    12. Ponnaluru
    13. Veligandla
  2. Markapur revenue division
    1. Ardhaveedu
    2. Bestavaripeta
    3. Cumbum
    4. Dornala
    5. Giddalur
    6. Komarolu
    7. Markapuram
    8. Pedda Araveedu
    9. Pullalacheruvu
    10. Racherla
    11. Tarlupadu
    12. Tripuranthakam
    13. Yerragondapalem
  3. Ongole revenue division
    1. Chimakurthy
    2. Kondapi
    3. Kothapatnam
    4. Maddipadu
    5. Mundlamuru
    6. Naguluppalapadu
    7. Ongole Rural
    8. Ongole Urban
    9. Santhanuthalapadu
    10. Singarayakonda
    11. Tanguturu
    12. Thallur
    13. Zarugumalli

Cities and Towns

Cities and towns in Prakasam District [20]
Ciy/Town Civil status Revenue Division Population (2011)
Ongole Municipal corporation Ongole 2,08,344
Markapuram Municipality Markapuram 72,573
Kanigiri Nagara Panchayathi Kanigiri 55,500
Giddaluru Nagara Panchayathi Markapuram 35,150
Darsi Nagara Panchayathi Kanigiri 33,418
Podili Nagara Panchayathi Kanigiri 52,100
Chimakurthy Nagara Panchayathi ongole 30,279

Transport

The total road length of state highways in the undivided district is 1,184 km (736 mi).[22] The district is well connected by national highways, state highways and district roads as well. The NH 16 passes through Ongole which is the major highway connecting the cities of Howrah and Chennai, a part of Asian Highway Network AH45.

The district has a rail network of 406 km (252 mi). The entire rail network is under the South Central Railway zone. Ongole is one of the main stations of this district and most of the stations are under Vijayawada railway division.


Education

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the state's School Education Department.[23][24] As per the school information report for the academic year 2015–16, there are a total of 4,311 schools. They include, 33 government, 2,949 mandal and zilla parishads, 1 residential, 1079 private, 10 model, 37 Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV), 50 municipal and 152 other types of schools.[25] The total number of students enrolled in primary, upper primary and high schools of the district are 562,510.[26] The total number of students enrolled in primary, upper primary and high schools of the district are 461,065.[26]

Rajeev Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies, Ongole campus is at Santhanuthalapadu.[27] Andhra Kesari University was approved in 2021.[28]

Tourism

Bhairavakona

The Bhairavakona cave temples in the district are 8th-century single rock-cut cave temples (similar to Mahabalipuram) for Lord Shiva.[29][30] Other religious places include the Sri Bala Tripuranthakeswara and Sri Bala Tripurasundaridevi temples at Tripuranthakam and the Chenna Kesava temple in Markapur.[31]

Cumbum tank is one of the oldest man-made lakes in Asia. The anicut was built by the Vijayanagar Princess Varadharajamma (also known as Ruchidevi), wife of Sri Krishna Devaraya. The length of this tank is 7 km (4.3 mi) and width is 3 km (1.9 mi). It has received World Heritage Irrigation Structure (WHIS) tag in the year 2020 by UNESCO.[32]

Some notable people

References

  1. ^ "Days after assuming office, Jagan rejigs administration in AP". Asian News International. 5 June 2019. Archived from the original on 1 February 2021. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e CPO 2022, p. III.
  3. ^ a b "District Census Hand Book – Prakasam" (PDF). Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  4. ^ "New 'AP 39' code to register vehicles in Andhra Pradesh launched". The New Indian Express. Vijayawada. 31 January 2019. Archived from the original on 21 November 2020. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  5. ^ "Mandals in Prakasam district". AP State Portal. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
  6. ^ a b "Prakasam dist". AP state portal. Archived from the original on 15 February 2016. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  7. ^ "District info" (PDF). apind.gov.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 December 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  8. ^ Law, Gwillim (25 September 2011). "Districts of India". Statoids. Archived from the original on 20 March 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
  9. ^ "Deadly arsenal". Outlook India. 3 February 2022.
  10. ^ a b CPO 2022, p. 1.
  11. ^ CPO 2022, p. 2.
  12. ^ a b "Brief Industrial Profile of Prakasam District" (PDF). Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises, Government of India. Development Commissioner (MSME). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 August 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  13. ^ a b c "Geology and Mineral Resources of Prakasam District". Department of mines and geology, Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 16 June 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  14. ^ Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
  15. ^ a b "District Census Handbook – Prakasam" (PDF). Census of India. pp. 16–17, 48. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  16. ^ "Population by Religion - Andhra Pradesh". censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  17. ^ a b "Table C-16 Population by Mother Tongue: Andhra Pradesh". Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  18. ^ a b "Economy of Prakasam District". Andhra Pradesh Economic Development Board. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  19. ^ "Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order, 2008" (PDF). The Election Commission of India. p. 31.
  20. ^ a b CPO 2022, p. 5.
  21. ^ "New AP Map: Check Out Biggest and Smallest Districts in Andhra Pradesh". Sakshi Post. 3 April 2022. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  22. ^ "Existing State Highways" (PDF). Andhra Pradesh Road Development Corporation. Government of Andhra Pradesh. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  23. ^ "School Education Department" (PDF). School Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 December 2015. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  24. ^ "The Department of School Education – Official AP State Government Portal". www.ap.gov.in. Archived from the original on 13 April 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  25. ^ "School Information Report". Commissionerate of School Education. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 8 November 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  26. ^ a b "Student Information Report". Commissionerate of School Education. Child info 2015–16, District School Education – Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  27. ^ "RGUKT Ongole". RGUKT Ongole. Retrieved 25 May 2023.
  28. ^ "Prakasam to realise dream of university after 50-year wait". The Hans India. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  29. ^ Subba Reddy, V. V. (2009). Temples of South India. ISBN 9788121210225.
  30. ^ Staff Reporter. "Devotees throng rock cut cave temples at Bhairavakona". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014.
  31. ^ AP Tourism e-brochure Prakasam district (PDF). 2023.
  32. ^ Chatterjee, Badri (1 December 2020). "Four sites in India get World Heritage Irrigation Structure tag". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 6 March 2021. Retrieved 26 March 2021.

Books

CPO (2022). District Handbook of Statistics -2020 (Updated for district reorganisation in 2022) (PDF). Ongole.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)