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Nellore district
Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore district
Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Galigopuram, Nellore (8).jpg
Barashadid darga-front view.nellore.JPG
Udayagiri Fort (16).jpg
Pinakini satygraha Aasram, in rainy.jpg
Mypadu beach-sunrise.jpg
Location of Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore district in Andhra Pradesh
Location of Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore district in Andhra Pradesh
Coordinates (Nellore): 14°26′N 80°0′E / 14.433°N 80.000°E / 14.433; 80.000Coordinates: 14°26′N 80°0′E / 14.433°N 80.000°E / 14.433; 80.000
Country India
StateAndhra Pradesh
RegionCoastal Andhra
Named forPotti Sreeramulu
HeadquartersNellore
Mandals38[1]
Government
 • District collectorK. V. N. CHAKRADHAR IAS Collector & District Magistrate
 • Lok Sabha constituenciesNellore
 • MPAdala Prabhakara Reddy
 • Assembly constituencies07
Area
 • Total10,447 km2 (4,034 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total2,469,712
 • Density240/km2 (610/sq mi)
 • Urban
29.07%
Demographics
 • Literacy69.15%
 • Sex ratio986
Vehicle registrationAP-26 (former)
AP–39 (from 30 January 2019)[2]
Major highwaysNH 16, NH 71, NH 67, NH 565
Websitespsnellore.ap.gov.in
Map of Nellore District Mandals
Map of Nellore District Mandals

Nellore district, officially known as Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore district or simply SPSR Nellore district in Coastal Andhra Region,[3] is one of the 26 districts in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. According to the 2011 Census, the district's population was 2,966,082, of which 29.07% was urban. Its administrative headquarters are located in Nellore city. Located in the Coastal Andhra region, the district is bordered by the Bay of Bengal to the east, Kadapa district and Annamayya district to the west, Prakasam district to the north, and Tirupati district to the south.[4]

Etymology

The name of the district is derived from the name of the district headquarters, Nellore.[citation needed] The district's name was Vikrama Simhapuri until the 13th century, when it became known as Nellore. The name Nellore originates from a mythological story from the Sthala Puranas which depict a lingam in the form of a stone under an amla, or nelli, tree in Nellore. The place gradually became Nelli-ooru (nelli referring to the amla tree and ooru referring to a place in the Tamil language) and then present-day Nellore.[5]

The official name of Nellore was changed to Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore District (SPSR Nellore) on 4 June 2008,[6] in honour of the Indian revolutionary Potti Sri Ramulu, who died fasting in an attempt to achieve the formation of a separate state for the Telugu people, which would later become Andhra Pradesh.[7]

History

Main article: History of Andhra Pradesh

Important Buddhist sites in Nellore district
Important Buddhist sites in Nellore district
Important Jain sites in Nellore district
Important Jain sites in Nellore district

The Nawabs and the British period

After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire, the area was ruled by the Nawabs.[citation needed] During the eighteenth century, Nellore saw wars between Najeebullah, the ruler of the area, and his brother Arcot Nawab, who received support from the British and French. Nawab's army, under the command of colonel Caillaud, took over the Nellore fort in 1762. For the purposes of revenue collection, the town of Nellore and the surrounding district were handed over to the British East India Company in 1781 and 1801, respectively. Nellore was named the revenue unit for the district.[8]

Post Indian Independence

In 1970, the northern parts of Nellore district were transferred to the newly-created Prakasam district.[9]

Damaramadugu rice fields in Nellore district
Damaramadugu rice fields in Nellore district

Epigraphical records

In Nellore district, there exist a variety of Telugu inscriptions originating from several different kingdoms. Tamil inscriptions also exist near the Mallam Subramanyeshwara Swamy temple, which was constructed by Rajendhra Chola during the fourteenth century.[10][11][12]

Geography

25.96% of Nellore's land area is cultivated, while 17.75% is cultivable but fallow. The remainder consists of land used for non-agricultural purposes (18.68%), forested land (20.09%) and barren land (10.56%) unsuitable for human cultivation.[13][14]

Climate

Maximum temperature occur during the summer at 36 to 46 °C (97 to 115 °F), while the minimum temperature occurs during the winter at 23 to 25 °C (73 to 77 °F). The average annual rainfall of the district is 1,080 mm (43 in), and reaches its peak during the southwest and northeast monsoons. Nellore is subjected to both droughts and floods, depending on the seasons.[14]

Beaches

Mypadu Beach (14°30′24″N 80°10′44″E / 14.5068°N 80.1790°E / 14.5068; 80.1790) is a Bay of Bengal beach in Nellore district.

Koduru Beach (14°24′48″N 80°10′23″E / 14.413236°N 80.172975°E / 14.413236; 80.172975) is a Bay of Bengal beach in Nellore district.

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901884,751—    
1911901,771+0.19%
1921939,647+0.41%
19311,015,946+0.78%
19411,098,145+0.78%
19511,226,155+1.11%
19611,408,891+1.40%
19711,627,740+1.45%
19812,014,879+2.16%
19912,392,260+1.73%
20012,668,564+1.10%
20112,963,557+1.05%
source:[15]

According to the 2011 census, Nellore district had a population of 2,963,557,[16] which ranked it at 126 out of 640 districts of India.[16] Out of this, the rural population is 21.06 lakhs and urban population is 8.58 lakhs forming 71.06% and 28.94% respectively of total population. The district has a population density of 227 inhabitants per square kilometre (590/sq mi).[16] Its population grew by 11.15% between 2001 to 2011.[16] Nellore district had a sex ratio of 986 females for every 1000 males,[16] and a literacy rate of 69.15%.[16] After bifurcation Anantapur district had a population of 24,69,712. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes make up 5,04,941 (20.45%) and 2,15,452 (8.72%) of the population respectively.[4]: 92–96 

Religions in Nellore district (2011)[17]
Religion Percent
Hindus
88.11%
Muslims
10.73%
Christians
0.87%
Other or not stated
0.49%
Distribution of religions

At the time of the 2011 census, 88.34% of the population spoke Telugu, 9.56% Urdu as their first language. Nearly 20,000 people spoke a language registered as 'Others' under on the census.[18]

Languages in Nellore district (2011)
Language Percent
Telugu
88.34%
Urdu
9.56%
Other or not stated
2.1%
Distribution of languages

Economy

The Gross District Domestic Product (GDDP) of Nellore district is 30,482 crore (304.82 billion rupees) and makes up 5.8% of Andhra Pradesh's Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP). For the fiscal year 2013–14, Nellore's per capita income at current prices was 80,782 (US$1,000). The primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the district contribute ₹9,729 crore, ₹6,320 crore and ₹14,433 crore (97.29 billion, 63.2 billion and 144.33 billion rupees), respectively.[19] The major agricultural contributors to the district's gross value added (GVA) include: paddy, sugarcane, lemon, tomato, milk, meat and fisheries. The major industrial and service contributors to the district's GVA include: construction, electricity, manufacturing, transport and education.[19]

Mining

Nellore district produces most of the crude mica in India.[20] Between 2011 and 2012, Nellore produced 1,784 tonnes of crude mica, the majority of India's total production of 1,899 tonnes.[21]

Administrative divisions

Nellore district revenue divisions and mandals outline map from April 2022
Nellore district revenue divisions and mandals outline map from April 2022

The district has four revenue divisions which include Kandukuru, Kavali, Atmakur and Nellore each of which is headed by a sub-collector. These revenue divisions are divided into 38 mandals, which consist of 1,177 villages and 12 towns (urban settlements). A total of 940 gram panchayats are in position comprising all notified Gram Panchayats. Nellore's twelve urban settlements include six statutory towns and six census towns. The statutory towns consist of one municipal corporation (Nellore) and Three municipalities (Atmakur ,Kavali and Kandukur).[22][23]

Mandals

The following table lists the 38 mandals in Nellore district by their revenue division.[24]

# Kandukuru Division Kavali Division Atmakur Division Nellore Division
1 Kandukuru Kavali Atmakur Nellore Rural
2 Lingasamudram Bogole Chejerla Nellore Urban
3 Gudluru Allur Anumasamudrampeta Kovur
4 Ulavapadu Dagadarthi Marripadu Buchireddipalem
5 Voletivaripalem Jaladanki Sangam Indukurpet
6 Kondapuram Kaligiri Ananthasagaram Thotapalli Gudur
7 Varikuntapadu Duttalur Udayagiri Muthukur
8 Vidavalur Seetharamapuram Venkatachalam
9 Kodavalur Kaluvoya Manubolu
10 Vinjamur Podalakur
11 Rapur
12 Sydapuram

Politics

Parliament segments

Assembly constituency

Nellore and Tirupati,Lok Sabha constituency presently comprises the following Legislative Assembly segments:[25]

Constituency number Name Reserved for
(SC/ST/None)
Parliament
119 Sarvepalli None Tirupati Lok Sabha constituency
109 Kandukur None Nellore Lok Sabha constituency
114 Kavali None Nellore Lok Sabha constituency
115 Atmakur None Nellore Lok Sabha constituency
116 Kovuru None Nellore Lok Sabha constituency
117 Nellore City None Nellore Lok Sabha constituency
118 Nellore Rural None Nellore Lok Sabha constituency
123 Udayagiri None Nellore Lok Sabha constituency

Cities and towns

 
 
Largest cities or towns in Nellore District
As per the 2011 Census
Rank Division Pop.
Nellore

Nellore
Kavali

Kavali
1 Nellore Nellore Division 558,548
2 Kavali Kavali Division 90,099
3 Kandukuru Kandukuru Division 57,246
4 Buchireddypalem Kavali Division 33,803
5 Kovur Nellore Division 32,802
6 Atmakur Atmakur Division 30,556
7 Allur Kavali Division 26,392
8 [[(({city_8))}]] [[(({div_8))}]] (({pop_8))}
9 [[(({city_9))}]] [[(({div_9))}]] (({pop_9))}
10 [[(({city_10))}]] [[(({div_10))}]] (({pop_10))}
Municipal bodies[26]
S.No. City / Town Civic Status of Town / City Municipality

Formation

Year

No. of

Wards

2011 Census

Population

2001 Census

Population

1991 Census

Population

1981 Census

Population

1971 Census

Population

1961 Census

Population

1951 Census

Population

1 Nellore Municipal Corporation 1866 54 558,548 404,775 3,16,606 2,37,065 1,33,590 1,06,776 81,480
2 Kavali Municipality Grade - 1 1967 40 90,099 85,616 65,910 48,119 29,616 20,544 15,516
3 Buchireddypalem Nagar Panchayat 2020 20 33,803 30,893 - - - - -
4 Atmakur Municipality Grade - 3 2012 23 30,556 29,462 - - - - -
5 Alluru Nagar Panchayat 2020 20 26,392 22,262 - - - - -
Erstwhile taluka headquarters
S.No. Town Civic status of town 2011 census

population

2001 Census

Population

1991 Census

Population

1981 Census

Population

1971 Census

Population

1 Kovur Grama Panchayat 32,802 28,782 27,191 20,413 16,846
2 Vinjamur Grama Panchayat 20,639 17,759 - - -
3 Podalakur Grama Panchayat 16,662 13,782 - - -
4 Udayagiri Grama Panchayat 15,870 14,006 - - -
5 Indukurpet Grama Panchayat 14,388 13,449 - - -
6 Rapur Grama Panchayat 13,154 13,176 - - -
- - -
- - -
9 Muthukur Grama Panchayat 8,062 9,712 - - -
10 Manubolu Grama Panchayat 7,921 8,750 - - -
- - -
12 Bitragunta Grama Panchayat 7,651 3,382 - - -
Census towns
S.No. Town Civic status of town 2011 census

population

2 Venkatachala Sathram(Venkatachalam) Census Town 6,012
4 Sydapuram Census Town 5,213
5 Anuma Samudram Peta Census Town 5,121
6 Doravari Sathram Census Town 5,081
7 Ananthasagaram Census Town 4,972
8 Pellakuru Census Town 4,968
9 Chillakuru Census Town 4,956
10 Balayapalli Census Town 4,923
11 Mallam Census Town 4,902
12 Chittamur Census Town 4,751
13 Daghadharthi Census Town 4,521
14 Sangam Census Town 4,496
15 Vidavaluru Census Town 4,385
16 Kodavaluru Census Town 4,296

Transport

The total road length of state highways in the district is 1,226 km (762 mi).[27] National Highway 16 passes through the city.

Krishnapatnam Port is an important port situated in the district on the Bay of Bengal.[28]

Culture

People from Nellore district

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People from Nellore district include N. Janardhana Reddy, chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh from 1990 to 1992; Bezawada Gopala Reddy, chief minister of Andhra State from 1954 to 1956; Puchalapalli Sundarayya, founding member of the CPI (M), Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer, Panabaka Lakshmi, former Union Minister; Venkaiah Naidu, vice president of India; film industry include, Singeetam Srinivasa Rao, S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, A. Kodandarami Reddy, S. Thaman, M. S. Reddy, A. M. Rathnam; Vanisri; Ponaka Kanakamma, social worker and activist; Gunturu Seshendra Sarma, a poet; Malli Mastan Babu, a mountaineer.

Education

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state.[29][30] As per the school information report for the academic year 2017–18, there are a total of 4,489 schools. These include: 21 government, 3,140 mandal and zilla parishads, 2 residential, 1,077 private, 10 model, 10 Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV), 106 municipal and 123 other types of schools.[31] The total number of students enrolled in primary, upper primary and high schools of the district are 3,95,092.[32]

References

  1. ^ "District – Guntur". Andhra Pradesh Online Portal. Archived from the original on 8 June 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  2. ^ "New 'AP 39' code to register vehicles in Andhra Pradesh launched". The New Indian Express. Vijayawada. 31 January 2019. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  3. ^ "14 persons die of COVID in Nellore, Prakasam". The Hindu. 31 May 2021. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
  4. ^ a b "District Census Hand Book - Nellore" (PDF). Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  5. ^ Staff, Government Of Madras; Madras, Government of (1 January 1942). Gazetteer of the Nellore District: Brought Up to 1938. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 9788120618510.
  6. ^ "District Profile | Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore District, Government of Andhra Pradesh | India".
  7. ^ "The martyr of Telugu statehood". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 11 November 2002. Archived from the original on 1 July 2003.
  8. ^ Nellore became revenue unit Archived 6 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Telugupeople.com. Retrieved on 13 June 2012.
  9. ^ Law, Gwillim (25 September 2011). "Districts of India". Statoids. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
  10. ^ Sewell, Robert (17 May 1882). Lists of the Antiquarian Remains in the Presidency of Madras. E. Keys, at the Government Press. p. 324 – via Internet Archive. telugu inscriptions in nellore.
  11. ^ "Copper Plate and Stone Inscriptions of South India 3 Vols. 1st Edition : Printsasia.in". www.printsasia.in.
  12. ^ "Social Scientist, issues 269-71, Oct-Dec 1995, page 10. -- The Social Scientist -- Digital South Asia Library". dsal.uchicago.edu.
  13. ^ NELLORE WASTELANDS INFORMATION -AREA IN Sq.Mts (sic). rd.ap.gov.in
  14. ^ a b "District Profile".
  15. ^ Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
  16. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  17. ^ "Population by Religion - Andhra Pradesh". censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2011.
  18. ^ "Table C-16 Population by Mother Tongue: Andhra Pradesh". Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  19. ^ a b "Economy of Nellore District". Andhra Pradesh Economic Development Board. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  20. ^ Records, The Daily (15 February 2018). "Top 10 Largest Mica Producing States in India". The Daily Records. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  21. ^ "Indian Minerals Yearbook 2013 (Part- III : Mineral Reviews)" (PDF). ibm.gov.in. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  22. ^ "Geographic Information". Nellore District Official Website. Archived from the original on 31 January 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  23. ^ "District Census Handbook – Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore" (PDF). Census of India. p. 26,56. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  24. ^ "New AP Map: Check Out Biggest and Smallest Districts in Andhra Pradesh". Sakshi Post. 3 April 2022. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  25. ^ "Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order, 2008" (PDF). The Election Commission of India. p. 31.
  26. ^ "Third Grade | Commissioner and Director of Municipal Administration". cdma.ap.gov.in. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  27. ^ "Existing State Highways" (PDF). Andhra Pradesh Road Development Corporation. Government of Andhra Pradesh. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  28. ^ "Krishnapatnam Port Company Ltd". krishnapatnam.com.
  29. ^ "School Education Department" (PDF). School Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 December 2015. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  30. ^ "The Department of School Education – Official AP State Government Portal". www.ap.gov.in. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  31. ^ "School Information Report". Commissionerate of School Education. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 8 November 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  32. ^ "Student Information Report". Commissionerate of School Education. Child info 2015–16, District School Education – Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 8 November 2016.

Further reading