Anantapur district
Anantapuramu district
Bugga Ramalingeswara temple in Tadipatri
Etymology: Telugu: Anantasagara (Big Tank)
Map
Coordinates: 14°40′41″N 77°36′25″E / 14.678°N 77.607°E / 14.678; 77.607
Country India
StateAndhra Pradesh
RegionRayalaseema
Established1882
Reorganised4 April 2022
Named forBig Tank
HeadquartersAnantapur
Administrative Divisions
Government
 • District collectorM.Gauthami
 • Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha list
 • Assembly
Area
 • Total10,205 km2 (3,940 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)[1][2]
 • Total2,241,105
 • Density220/km2 (570/sq mi)
 • Sex ratio
977 (females per 1,000 males)
Languages
 • OfficialTelugu
Literacy
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Postal Index Number
515xxx
Area codes+91–8554
ISO 3166 codeIN-AP
Vehicle registrationAP-02 (former) AP–39 (from 30 January 2019)[3]
Websiteananthapuramu.ap.gov.in

Anantapur district, officially Anantapuramu district,[4] is one of the eight districts in the Rayalaseema region of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The district headquarters is located in Anantapur city. It is one of the driest places in South India.[5] In the year 2022, as part of re-organisation of districts, Sri Sathya Sai district was carved out.[1]

Etymology

The name Anantapuramu was named after a reservoir called Anantasagaram. It existed during reign of Vijayanagara Empire, which was named after Ananthamma, wife of Bukkaraya, one of the founders of the empire.[6]

History

Gooty Fort, a major fort in the medieval history of the region was a stronghold of the Marathas, but was taken from them by Hyder Ali. In 1789 it was ceded by his son Tipu Sultan to the Nizam of Hyderabad. In 1800 the Nizam ceded the surrounding districts to the British in payment for a subsidiary British force.[7] In 1882, Anantapuram district was formed by carving out from Bellary district.[8] Revenue mandals of Kadiri, Mudigubba, Nallamada, N.P.Kunta, Talupula, Nallacheruvu, O.D.Cheruvu, Tanakal, Amadagur and Gandlapenta (previous Kadiri Taluk) from erstwhile YSR Kadapa District were added in the year 1910. In the year 1956, the revenue mandals of Rayadurg, D.Hirehal, Kanekal, Bommanahal and Gummagatta of Bellary District were added, with the formation of Andhra Pradesh. As of 2011 census of India, it was the largest district in the state by area and had a population of 2,241,105. As per the Gazette notification No.122 dt 26 January 2022 (G.O.Rt.No.55, Revenue (Land-IV), 25 January 2022), Sri Sathya Sai district was formed from Ananthapur district.[9]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
19011,025,322—    
19111,053,449+0.27%
19211,040,166−0.13%
19311,138,081+0.90%
19411,273,079+1.13%
19511,483,591+1.54%
19611,767,464+1.77%
19712,115,321+1.81%
19812,548,012+1.88%
19913,180,863+2.24%
20013,640,478+1.36%
20114,081,148+1.15%
source:[10]

As of 2011 census of India, the undivided Anantapuramu district has a population of 4,081,148 with 9,68,160 households, ranking it as the 7th most populous district in the state.[11] It is the largest district in the state with an area of 19,130 km2 (7,390 sq mi).[11] Anantapur has a sex ratio of 977 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 64.28%. Urban population in the district is 28.9% of total population.[11]

The Gross District Domestic Product (GDDP) of the undivided district for FY 2013-14 is 35,838 crore (US$4.5 billion) and it contributes 6.8% to the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP). For the FY 2013–14, the per capita income at current prices was 69,562 (US$870). The primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the district contribute 9,944 crore (US$1.2 billion), 7,752 crore (US$970 million) and 18,142 crore (US$2.3 billion) respectively to the GDDP.[12]

Geography

It is one of the largest districts of Andhra Pradesh spanning an area of 10,205 square kilometres (3,940 sq mi).[1] It is bounded on the north by Kurnool district and Nandyal district , on the east by Kadapa district, and south by Sri Sathya Sai district and on the southwest and west by Chitradurga district and Bellary district in Karnataka state.[9] It is part of Rayalaseema region on the state.

The northern part of the district has large areas of black cotton soil, while the southern part has mainly poor red soil.[9] There are two major hill ranges namely Mutchukota hills Nagasamudram hills, accounting for 70% of forest area.[13]

Penna, Chithravathi, Pedda Hagari, Chinna Hagari, Thadakaleru and Pandameru are the main rivers. The average elevation is about 1300 feet above the mean sea level. The annual normal rainfall of the district is 508.2 mm. Thus it secures least rainfall when compared to other parts of Andhra Pradesh. [13]

Demographics

Religion in Anantapuramu district based on the 2011 Census[14]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
88.45%
Islam
10.37%
Christianity
0.69%
Other or not stated
0.49%

Based on the 2011 census, the district had a population of 2,241,105, of which 753,354 (33.62%) lived in urban areas. The district had a sex ratio of 978 females per 1000 males. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes make up 3,34,142 (14.91%) and 70,161 (3.13%) of the population respectively.[11]: 78–83  Hinduism is the major religion with 88.45% followers, while Islam has 10.37%.

Languages of Anantapuram district based on the 2011 Census[15]

  Telugu (84.59%)
  Urdu (9.64%)
  Kannada (3.03%)
  Lambadi (1.42%)
  Others (1.32%)

Based on the 2011 census, 84.59% of the population spoke Telugu, 9.64% Urdu, 3.03% Kannada and 1.42% Lambadi as their first language.[15]

Administrative divisions

Guntakal Revenue Division
Map of mandals of Anantapuramu district

Politics

There are two parliamentary constituencies in the district namely, Anantapuram Parliament constituency, Hindupuram parliament constituency(partial).

Legislative assembly constituencies in the district are given below.[16]

Constituency number Name Reserved for
(SC/ST/None)
Parliament
155 Raptadu None Hindupuram
148 Rayadurgam None Anantapuram
149 Uravakonda None
150 Guntakallu None
151 Tadpatri None
152 Singanamala SC
153 Anantapuram Urban None
154 Kalyandurgam None


The district is divided into 3 revenue divisions: Anantapuramu, Guntakal and Kalyandurg, which are further subdivided into a total of 32 mandals, each headed by a sub-collector.[11]: 14 

Mandals

The list of 32 mandals in Anantapuramu district, divided into 3 revenue divisions, is given below.

  1. Anantapuramu revenue division
    1. Anantapur Rural
    2. Anantapur Urban
    3. Atmakur
    4. Bukkarayasamudram
    5. Garladinne
    6. Kudair
    7. Narpala
    8. Peddapappur
    9. Putlur
    10. Raptadu
    11. Singanamala
    12. Tadipatri
    13. Yellanur
  2. Guntakal revenue division
    1. Gooty
    2. Guntakal
    3. Pamidi
    4. Peddavadugur
    5. Uravakonda
    6. Vajrakarur
    7. Vidapanakal
    8. Yadiki
  3. Kalyandurg revenue division
    1. Beluguppa
    2. Bommanahal
    3. Brahmasamudram
    4. D.Hirehal
    5. Gummagatta
    6. Kalyandurg
    7. Kambadur
    8. Kanekal
    9. Kundurpi
    10. Rayadurg
    11. Settur

Cities and towns

There are one municipal corporation and five municipalities,[17] one nagar panchayat in the district.

Municipal Bodies in Anantapuramu District
Town Civic Status of Town Population (2011)
Anantapuram Municipal Corporation 3,40,613
Guntakal Municipality Selection Grade 1,28,142
Tadipatri Municipality Special Grade 1,20,990
Rayadurg Municipality Grade - 2 61,749
Gooty Municipality Grade - 3 48,658
Kalyanadurgam Municipality Grade - 3 39,855
Pamidi Nagar Panchayat 26,886

Economy

Agriculture

The economy is principally agrarian with a developing industrial sector. The district receives very less rainfall due to its location in the rain shadow area of Indian Peninsula. Prominent crops include groundnut, sunflower, rice, cotton, maize, chillies, sesame, sugarcane and Silk [18][19]

Industries Industries like Constructions, Manufactures and Electricity are major contributors for GVA.[12]

Minerals Gold, Diamonds, Limestone,Iron ore, Quartz, Asbestos, Dolomite, Barytes, Steatite, Granite, Clay, Share are found in the district. [20]

Power plants Solar thermal power plant of 50 MW was commissioned at Nagalapuram village in Peddavadaguru mandal of the district occupying an area of 600 acres under Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission which was named as Megha Solar Plant. It is one of the 7 solar thermal plants in the country.[21][22]

Tadipatri region in Anantapur is an industrialised town famous for Granite and Cement production. Ultra Tech Cements a unit of Industrial major Larsen & Toubro has a major Cement production unit near the town.[23]

Transport

National Highway 44 (India) passes through the district via Anantapur. The major railway stations are Guntakal Junction, Gooty Junction and Rayadurg Junction.

Kempegowda International Airport, Bengaluru is the nearest international airport at 190 km from the district headquarters. Other small-scale domestic airports are there in neighbouring districts of Kurnool and Kadapa which are around 150 km and 200 km away respectively.

Education

As per the year 2019-20, there were 3085 schools, 143 junior colleges, 42 degree colleges. There is 1 medical college, 14 engineering colleges, 23 ITI, 11 polytechnic and 18 degree colleges. [24]

Some of the institutions include Sri Krishnadevaraya University, JNTU Ananthapur, Sri Sathya Sai University, Government Medical College, Government polytechnic anantapur, Srinivasa Ramanujan Institute of Technology, Government Polytechnic Hindupur, Gates Institute of Technology, Central University of Andhra Pradesh,

Tourism

Gooty Fort
Lakshmi Narasimhaswamy temple, Penna Ahobilam

Gooty Fort is a historical fort on a hill dating to 11th century. It is at a distance of 52 kms from Anantapur. Penna Ahobilam is famous for Lakshni Narasimhaswamy temple. It is at a distance of 36 km from Anantapur.[25]

Notable people

Neelam Sanjiva Reddy born in Illur village, Garladinne mandal, rose to became President of India after serving in other roles such as Lok sabha speaker, chief minister of Andhra Pradesh and central minister. T. Nagi Reddy born in Tarimela village of Singanamala mandal. He was a freedom fighter and popular communist leader.

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Here's how new ap map looks after districts reorganisation". 3 April 2022. Retrieved 17 April 2023.
  2. ^ "District Census Hand Book - Anantapur" (PDF). Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  3. ^ "New 'AP 39' code to register vehicles in Andhra Pradesh launched". The New Indian Express. Vijayawada. 31 January 2019. Archived from the original on 21 November 2020. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  4. ^ "Anantapur district to be renamed Anantapuram". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 14 April 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  5. ^ "Anantapur Assembly Constituency : Triangular contest on the cards". thehansindia.com. 20 January 2019. Archived from the original on 24 July 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  6. ^ "There is history behind names of places". The Hindu. 30 March 2009. Archived from the original on 7 April 2021. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  7. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Anantapur". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 913.
  8. ^ Rayudu, C. S. (1 January 1991). Rural Credit in India: A Study of Andhra Pradesh. Mittal Publications. p. 2. ISBN 9788170992486.
  9. ^ a b c CPO 2022, p. 1.
  10. ^ Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
  11. ^ a b c d e "District Census Hand Book – Anantapur" (PDF). Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  12. ^ a b "Economy of Anantapur District". Andhra Pradesh Economic Development Board. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  13. ^ a b CPO 2022, p. 2.
  14. ^ "Population by Religion - Andhra Pradesh". censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. 2011.
  15. ^ a b "Table C-16 Population by Mother Tongue: Andhra Pradesh". Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  16. ^ "Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order, 2008" (PDF). The Election Commission of India. p. 31.
  17. ^ "Municipal corporation and municipalities". Ananthapuram district. Retrieved 19 April 2023.
  18. ^ CPO 2022, p. 16.
  19. ^ CPO 2022, p. 62.
  20. ^ CPO 2022, p. 7-10.
  21. ^ "Megha Solar Plant". National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Archived from the original on 28 April 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  22. ^ "Anantapur Gets Solar Power Plant". The New Indian Express. Hyderabad. 14 November 2014. Archived from the original on 27 September 2020. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  23. ^ CPO 2022, p. 10.
  24. ^ CPO 2022, p. 17.
  25. ^ CPO 2022, p. 13.

Books

CPO (2022). District handbook of statistics - 2020, Anantapur district (PDF). Retrieved 19 April 2023.