|Etymology: Telugu: Anantasagara (Big Tank)|
|Reorganized||4th April 2022|
|Named for||Big Tank|
|• District collector||K.Nagalakshmi|
|• Lok Sabha|
|• Total||10,205 km2 (3,940 sq mi)|
|• Density||220/km2 (570/sq mi)|
|• Sex ratio||977 (females per 1,000 males)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Postal Index Number|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-AP|
|Vehicle registration||AP-02 (former) AP–39 (from 30 January 2019)|
Anantapur district officially: Anantapuramu district is one of the eight districts in the Rayalaseema region of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The district headquarters is located in Anantapur city. It is one of the driest places in South India. In the year 2022, as part of re-organisation of districts, Sri Sathya Sai district was carved out.
The name Anantapur was named after a big tank called Anantasagara. It existed during reign of Vijayanagara Empire, which was named after Ananthamma, wife of Bukkaraya, one of the founders of the empire.
Gooty fort, a major fort in the medieval history of the region was a stronghold of the Marathas, but was taken from them by Hyder Ali. In 1789 it was ceded by his son Tipu Sultan to the Nizam of Hyderabad. In 1800 the Nizam ceded the surrounding districts to the British in payment for a subsidiary British force. In 1882, Anantapuram district was formed by carving out from Bellary district. Revenue mandals of Kadiri, Mudigubba, Nallamada, N.P.Kunta, Talupula, Nallacheruvu, O.D.Cheruvu, Tanakal, Amadagur and Gandlapenta (previous Kadiri Taluk) from erstwhile YSR Kadapa District were added in the year 1910. In the year 1956, the revenue mandals of Rayadurg, D.Hirehal, Kanekal, Bommanahal and Gummagatta of Bellary District were added, with the formation of Andhra Pradesh. As of 2011[update] census of India, it was the largest district in the state by area and had a population of 2,241,105. As per the Gazette notification No.122 dt 26.01.2022 (G.O.Rt.No.55, Revenue (Land-IV), 25th January, 2022), Sri Sathya Sai district was formed from Ananthapur district.
As of 2011[update] census of India, the undivided Anantapur district has a population of 4,081,148 with 9,68,160 households, ranking it as the 7th most populous district in the state. It is the largest district in the state with an area of 19,130 km2 (7,390 sq mi). Anantapur has a sex ratio of 977 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 64.28%. Urban population in the district is 28.9% of total population.
The Gross District Domestic Product (GDDP) of the undivided district for FY 2013-14 is ₹35,838 crore (US$4.5 billion) and it contributes 6.8% to the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP). For the FY 2013–14, the per capita income at current prices was ₹69,562 (US$870). The primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the district contribute ₹9,944 crore (US$1.2 billion), ₹7,752 crore (US$970 million) and ₹18,142 crore (US$2.3 billion) respectively to the GDDP.
It is one of the largest districts of Andhra Pradesh spanning an area of 10,205 square kilometres (3,940 sq mi). It is bounded on the north by Kurnool district and Nandyal district , on the east by Kadapa district, and south by Sri Sathya Sai district and on the southwest and west by Chitradurga district and Bellary district in Karnataka state. It is part of Rayalaseema region on the state.
The northern part of the district has large areas of black cotton soil, while the southern part has mainly poor red soil. There are two major hill ranges namely Mutchukota hills Nagasamudram hills, accounting for 70% of forest area.
Penna, Chithravathi, Pedda Hagari, Chinna Hagari, Thadakaleru and Pandameru are the main rivers. The average elevation is about 1300 feet above the mean sea level. The annual normal rainfall of the district is 508.2 mm. Thus it secures least rainfall when compared to other parts of Andhra Pradesh. 
Based on the 2011 census, the district had a population of 2,241,105, of which 753,354 (33.62%) lived in urban areas. The district had a sex ratio of 978 females per 1000 males. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes make up 3,34,142 (14.91%) and 70,161 (3.13%) of the population respectively.: 78–83 Hinduism is the major religion wih 88.45% followers, while Islam has 10.37%.
Based on the 2011 census, 84.59% of the population spoke Telugu, 9.64% Urdu, 3.03% Kannada and 1.42% Lambadi as their first language.
There are two parliamentary constituencies in the district namely, Anantapur (Lok Sabha constituency), Hindupur (Lok Sabha constituency)(partial).
Legislative assembly constituencies in the district are given below.
|Constituency number||Name||Reserved for
The district is divided into 3 revenue divisions: Anantapuramu, Guntakal and Kalyandurg, which are further subdivided into a total of 32 mandals, each headed by a sub-collector.: 14
The list of 32 mandals in Anantapuramu district, divided into 3 revenue divisions, is given below.
There are one municipal corporation and five municipalities, one nagar panchayat in the district.
|Town||Civic Status of Town||Population (2011)|
|Guntakal||Municipality Selection Grade||1,28,142|
|Tadipatri||Municipality Special Grade||1,20,990|
|Rayadurg||Municipality Grade - 2||61,749|
|Gooty||Municipality Grade - 3||48,658|
|Kalyanadurgam||Municipality Grade - 3||39,855|
The economy is principally agrarian with a developing industrial sector. The district receives very less rainfall due to its location in the rain shadow area of Indian Peninsula. Prominent crops include groundnut, sunflower, rice, cotton, maize, chillies, sesame, sugarcane and Silk 
Industries Industries like Constructions, Manufactures and Electricity are major contributors for GVA.
Minerals Gold, Diamonds, Limestone,Iron ore, Quartz, Asbestos, Dolomite, Barytes, Steatite, Granite, Clay, Share are found in the district. 
Power plants Solar thermal power plant of 50 MW was commissioned at Nagalapuram village in Peddavadaguru mandal of the district occupying an area of 600 acres under Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission which was named as Megha Solar Plant. It is one of the 7 solar thermal plants in the country.
Tadipatri region in Anantapur is an industrialised town famous for Granite and Cement production. Ultra Tech Cements a unit of Industrial major Larsen & Toubro has a major Cement production unit near the town.
National Highway 44 (India) passes through the district via Anantapur. The major railway stations are Guntakal Junction, Gooty Junction and Rayadurg Junction.
Kempegowda International Airport, Bengaluru is the nearest international airport at 190 km from the district headquarters. Other small-scale domestic airports are there in neighboring districts of Kurnool and Kadapa which are around 150 km and 200 km away respectively.
As per the year 2019-20, there were 3085 schools, 143 junior colleges, 42 degree colleges. There is 1 medical college, 14 engineering colleges, 23 ITI, 11 polytechnic and 18 degree colleges. 
Some of the institutions include Sri Krishnadevaraya University, JNTU Ananthapur, Sri Sathya Sai University, Government Medical College, Government polytechnic anantapur, Srinivasa Ramanujan Institute of Technology, Government Polytechnic Hindupur, Gates Institute of Technology, Central University of Andhra Pradesh,
Gooty Fort is a historical fort on a hill dating to 11th century. It is at a distance of 52 kms from Anantapur. Penna Ahobilam is famous for Lakshni Narasimhaswamy temple. It is at a distance of 36 km from Anantapur.
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy born in Illur village, Garladinne mandal, rose to became President of India after serving in other roles such as Lok sabha speaker, chief minister of Andhra Pradesh and central minister. T. Nagi Reddy born in Tarimela village of Singanamala mandal. He was a freedom fighter and popular communist leader.
CPO (2022). District handbook of statistics - 2020, Anantapur district (PDF). Retrieved 19 April 2023.