West Godavari district
Clockwise from top-left: Paddy fields near Bhimavaram, Rachuru village, Ramalingeshwaraswamy Temple in Ksheerarama, Godavari at Achanta, Someshwara Swamy Temple
Location of West Godavari district in Andhra Pradesh
Location of West Godavari district in Andhra Pradesh
Map
Interactive map outlining district
Coordinates: 16°07′N 81°01′E / 16.117°N 81.017°E / 16.117; 81.017
Country India
StateAndhra Pradesh
RegionCoastal Andhra
HeadquartersBhimavaram
Mandals19
Government
 • District collectorSri P.Prasanthi (IAS Collector & District Magistrate)
 • Lok Sabha constituenciesNarsapuram
 • MPRaghu Rama Krishna Raju
 • Assembly constituencies07
Area
 • Total2,178 km2 (841 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total1,779,935
 • Density820/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
 • Urban
468,924
Demographics
 • Literacy74.63%
 • Sex ratio1004
PIN
534201[1]
Vehicle registrationAP-37 (former)
AP–39 (from 30 January 2019)[2]
Major highwaysNH-16, NH-216, NH-216A, NH-365BB, NH-516D, NH-516E
Websitewestgodavari.ap.gov.in

The West Godavari district is a coastal district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh with an administrative headquarters in Bhimavaram.[3] As of the 2011 Census of India, the district has an area of 2,178 km2 (841 sq mi) and a population of 1,779,935.[4] It is bounded by the Krishna district and Bay of Bengal to the south, East Godavari district to the east, and Eluru district, Kolleru Lake and Upputeru Drain to the northwest.[5]

History

The Eastern Chalukyas ruled coastal Andhra Pradesh from 700 to 1200 CE, with their capital in Vengi. Historical evidence of their rule has been found in the nearby villages of Pedavegi and Guntupalli (Jilakarragudem). Eluru then became a part of the Kalinga Empire until 1471 CE before conquest by the Gajapati Empire. In 1515 CE, Sri Krishna Deva Raya captured it. After the fall of the Vijayanagara Kingdom, it was ruled by the Qutb Shahi Dynasty's Sultans of Golkonda.[6] On 15 April 1925, the West Godavari District was formed with Bhimavaram as its headquarters, and all of the district offices and regional offices were centralized in Eluru.[7]

During the Madras Presidency in 1823, the District of Rajahmundry was created.[8] It was reorganized in 1859 and bifurcated into the Godavari and Krishna districts. During British rule, Rajahmundry was the headquarters of Godavari district, which was further bifurcated into the East Godavari and West Godavari districts in 1925.[9] When the Godavari district was divided, Kakinada became the headquarters of East Godavari and Eluru became the headquarters of West Godavari. After the 4 April 2022 bifurcation for a separate Eluru district, Bhimavaram became the new headquarters of the West Godavari district.

old West Godavari revenue divisions map

Geography

The district occupies an area of 7,742 km2 (2,989 sq mi). The district is bounded by the East Godavari district on the North, Eluru district on the Northwest, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Konaseema district on the Southeast, Krishna district on the Southwest. and Bay of Bengal on the south. The Godavari River flows on the east, while the Tammileru River and Kolleru Lake separate it from the Krishna district on the west.[10]: 22 

Rivers and topography

West Godavari is a flat region with a slightly slope along the rivers flowing eastward. The three rivers cutting through the district are the Godavari (after which the district is named), the Yerrakaluva, and the Tammileru. Sir Arthur Cotton Barrage, Eluru Canal, Vijayarai Anicut, Tammileru, Jalleru, and the Yerrakaluva reservoirs are the major sources of irrigation.[11][12]

Climate

The region has a tropical climate similar to the rest of the Coastal Andhra region. The summers (March–June) are very hot and dry, while the winters are much cooler. The temperatures in the summers often rise over 40 °C during the day.[citation needed] The rainy season (July–December) is considered the best time for tourist visits, as the fields are bright green with paddy crops, rivers are flowing with monsoon water, and climate is relatively cool. There are several large mensions scattered around the Godavari area that once belonged to zamindars.

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901919,234—    
19111,046,050+1.30%
19211,118,436+0.67%
19311,298,758+1.51%
19411,465,111+1.21%
19511,697,727+1.48%
19611,978,257+1.54%
19712,374,306+1.84%
19812,873,958+1.93%
19913,517,568+2.04%
20013,803,517+0.78%
20113,936,966+0.35%
source:[13]

As of the 2011 Census of India, the West Godavari district has a population of 3,936,966 with 1,091,525 households, which is the 11th most populous district in the state. The district's population is approximately equal to the population of Croatia and the American state of Oklahoma.[14][15]

In Andhra Pradesh, the West Godavari district is the 19th largest in terms of area with an area of 7,742 km2 (2,989 sq mi) (before bifurcation) and has a population density of 509/km2 (1,320/sq mi), which is the fourth-most densely populated district in the state. Its population growth rate between 2001–2011 was 3.45%.[10] West Godavari has a sex ratio of 1004 females for every 1000 males and stands at the eighth position. It has the highest literacy rate among all Andhra Pradesh districts with 26,52,389 (74.63%) literate residents.[10] 20.6% of the district's population lives in urban areas.[16]

Religions in West Godavari district (2011)[17]
Religion Percent
Hindus
94.47%
Christians
3.83%
Muslims
1.49%
Other or not stated
0.21%
Distribution of religions

After bifurcation, the district had a population of 1,779,935, with a sex ratio of 1002 females to 1000 males. 468,924 (26.35%) of the population lives in urban areas. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes made up 289,195 (16.25%) and 15,670 (0.88%) of the population respectively.[10]: 81–85  Telugu was the predominant language, spoken by 98.67% of the population.[18]

Economy

The gross district domestic product is 45,963 crore (US$5.8 billion) and it contributes 8.8% to the gross state domestic product. For the FY 2013–14, the per capita income at current prices was 86,974 (US$1,100).

Paddy, banana, sugarcane, and coconut are the main agricultural products cultivated in the district. The agriculture sector contributes 18,385 crore (US$2.3 billion), industries contribute 7,086 crore (US$890 million), and services contribute 20,491 crore (US$2.6 billion) to the gross district domestic product.[16] The major products contributing to the gross value added of the district from agriculture and allied services are the previously listed agricultural products, as well as milk, meat, and fisheries. The gross value added to the industrial and service sector is contributed from construction, electricity, manufacturing, unorganized trade, and transport.[16]

Cashew nut, mango and tobacco are other important produce from the district.[11] Shrimp production is also a main activity along with fish farming.[19] The woolen pile carpet industry in Eluru produces eco-friendly carpets from exported wool.[20][21]

Culture

Telugu is the most widely spoken language.[19] The Vedas, which have oral heritage recognition by UNESCO, are taught at the Sri Venkateswara Veda Patasala of the district's Bhimavaram village.[22] The district is well known for its wool-pile carpets and hand woven products.[23]

Tourism and landmarks

Eluru is the largest city of the district with many destinations having Buddhists and archeological importance, such as the Guntupalli Caves, one of the top 30 Indian heritage sites, near the city.[24] Eluru hosts a 74-foot high Buddha statue in the heart of the city.

Some of the religious destinations include Dwaraka Tirumala, known by the name of Chinna Tirumala,[25] Veerabhadra Temple, Pattiseema, and Pancharama Kshetras of Palakollu and Bhimavaram.[26] Other tourist destinations of importance are Perupalem Beach at Narasapuram, the Kolleru Lake (the largest fresh water lake in the country and a bird sanctuary),[27] Sir Arthur Cotton Barrage, and Havelock Bridge. The Government of Andhra Pradesh is keen on developing Rajahmundry Airport as an international airport to boost tourism, including helicopter tours over the Godavari districts. The Polavaram Project irrigation system is expected to become another tourist attraction for the district.

Culture and traditions at Kalavalapalli village in West Godavari district

Parliament Segment

Narasapuram (Lok Sabha constituency)

Assembly Segments

Narasapuram Lok Sabha constituency presently comprises the following Legislative Assembly segments:[28]

Constituency number Name Reserved for
(SC/ST/None)
Parliament
56 Achanta None Narasapuram
57 Palakollu None
58 Narasapuram None
59 Bhimavaram None
60 Undi None
61 Tanuku None
62 Tadepalligudem None

Administrative divisions

See also: List of revenue divisions in Andhra Pradesh and List of mandals in Andhra Pradesh

West Godavari District
Satellite view of West Godavari District Mandals

The new West Godavari district has three revenue divisions in Bhimavaram, Tadepalligudem and Narasapuram . These revenue divisions divide the district into 20 mandals. These 20 mandals[29] consists of 296 Revenue villages, 6 municipalities (Narasapuram, Palakollu, Tadepalligudem, Tanuku, and Bhimavaram, Akiveedu.[10]: 22–23, 54 

  1. Bhimavaram revenue division
    1. Bhimavaram
    2. Veeravasaram
    3. Palakoderu
    4. Kalla
    5. Undi
    6. Akiveedu
    7. Ganapavaram
  2. Narasapuram revenue division
    1. Naraspuram
    2. Penugonda
    3. Palakollu
    4. Poduru
    5. Achanta
    6. Yelamanchili
    7. Mogalthur
    8. Penumantra
  3. Tadepalligudem
    1. Tadepalligudem
    2. Pentapadu
    3. Attili
    4. Iragavaram
    5. Tanuku

Erstwhile Talukas

Before the formation of mandals, the district was administered through a system of talukas. In 1978, the number of talukas in the West Godavari district increased from 8 to 19. In 1985, the 19 talukas were divided into 46 mandals.

The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act of 2014, merged two mandals from Telangana into the West Godavari District for unified governance over the Polavaram Project, increasing the total mandals to 48.

Erstwhile talukas
S.No. Erstwhile Talukas

in 1971

New Talukas

Formed in 1985

New Mandals

Formed in 1985

1 Eluru Eluru Eluru, Pedapadu, Pedavegi,
Bhimadole [9] Bhimadole, Dwaraka Tirumala, Denduluru,
2 Chintalapudi Chintalapudi Chintalapudi, T.Narsapuram, Lingapuram, Kamavarapukota,
3 Polavaram Polavaram Polavaram, Buttayagudem, jeelugumilli, Koyyalagudem [part], Jangareddygudem [part]
4 Kovvur Kovvur Kovvur, Devarapalli, Chagallu, Nidadavole
Gopalapuram [10] Gopalapuram, Tallapudi, Koyyalagudem [part], Jangareddygudem [part],
5 Tadepalligudem Tadepalligudem Tadepalligudem, Nallajerla, Unguturu [part]
Ganapavaram [11] Ganapavaram, Unguturu [part], Nidamarru, Pentapadu,
6 Tanuku Tanuku Tanuku, Undrajavaram, Peravali,
Penumantra [12] Penumantra, Penugonda, Atili, Iragavaram,
7 Narsapuram Narsapuram Narsapuram, Mogalthooru, Yelamanchili,
Poduru [13] Poduru, Palakollu, Achanta,
8 Bhimavaram Bhimavaram Bhimavaram, Palakoderu, Veeravasaram,
Akiveedu [14] Akiveedu, Undi, Kalla

Cities and towns

 
Largest cities or towns in West Godavari District
As per the 2011 Census
Rank Division Pop.
Bhimavaram
Bhimavaram
1 Bhimavaram Bhimavaram Division 146,961
2 Tadepalligudem Tadepalligudem Division 130,348
3 Palakollu Narasapuram Division 104,216
4 Tanuku Tadepalligudem Division 77,962
5 Narasapuram Narasapuram Division 58,780
6 Akiveedu Bhimavaram Division 38,597
7 [[(({city_7))}]] [[(({div_7))}]] (({pop_7))}
8 [[(({city_8))}]] [[(({div_8))}]] (({pop_8))}
9 [[(({city_9))}]] [[(({div_9))}]] (({pop_9))}
10 [[(({city_10))}]] [[(({div_10))}]] (({pop_10))}
Municipal Bodies in West Godavari District
S.No. Municipal Body Civic Status of town No. of

wards

Municipality

Formation Year

2011 Census

Population

2001 Census

Population

1991 Census

Population

1981 Census

Population

1971 Census

Population

1961 Census

Population

1951 Census

Populations

1 Bhimavaram Municipality Grade - Selection 39 1948 1,46,961 1,42,064 1,21,314 1,01,894 63,762 43,821 30,928
2 Tadepalligudem Municipality Grade - Selection 40 1958 1,04,032 1,02,622 88,878 62,574 43,610 27,086 13,543
3 Palakollu Municipality Grade - 1 35 1919 81,199 76,308 56,969 46,146 36,196 28,481 23,037
4 Tanuku Municipality Grade - 1 34 1979 77,962 72,970 62,913 53,618 34,197 24,657 16,906
5 Narsapuram Municipality Grade - 1 31 1956 58,770 58,604 56,362 46,033 36,147 30,064 20,999
6 Akiveedu Nagar Panchayat 20 2020 36,000 24,259 29,421 21,317 16,880 -- 10,307

Constituencies

There is one parliamentary and seven assembly constituencies in the district. The parliamentary constituency is Narsapuram (Lok Sabha constituency)[30]

The Assembly constituencies are:

  1. Achanta
  2. Bhimavaram
  3. Narsapur
  4. Palakollu
  5. Tadepalligudem
  6. Tanuku
  7. Undi

Transport

Roadways

The total road length of state highways in the district is 1,229 km (764 mi).[31] The district relies mostly on public transport, such as buses of the Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation. Most of the major national highways, like NH216 and NH165, pass through towns in the district.

Railways

The South Central Railway division of Indian Railways operates many passenger routes and freight transport through the district. The Howrah-Chennai main line, Vijayawada–Nidadavolu loop line, and Bhimavaram–Narasapuram branch lines are the major lines and sections that provide rail connectivity in the district. The Kovvur-Bhadrachalam Railway line and Kotipalli-Narsapur Railway line are the major railway projects in the district.

Airways

Since the district's Tadepalligudem Airport is development operational, the adjacent utilized instead.

Waterways

National Waterway 4 passes through the district and connects Puducherry with Kakinada and Rajahmundry via Tadepalligudem, Eluru. It has access to the Bay of Bengal at Narsapuram. The Andhra Pradesh state government began construction of a fishing harbor in Narsapuram in September 2021.[32]

Education

The primary and secondary schools are maintained by the government under the state's School Education Department of the state, supplemented by private institutions.[33][34] According to the school information report for the 2015–16 academic year, there are a total of 4,408 schools. They include 19 government, 2,664 mandal and zilla parishads, 1 residential schools, 1,344 private schools, 3 Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV), 208 municipal schools, and 169 other types of schools.[35] The total number of students enrolled in primary, upper primary, and high schools within the district was 522,793 during the 2015-16 school year.[36]

Universities

Notable people

See also

References

  1. ^ Pincode List. indiapincodes.net.
  2. ^ "New 'AP 39' code to register vehicles in Andhra Pradesh launched". The New Indian Express. Vijayawada. 31 January 2019. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  3. ^ "History | West Godavari District, Government of Andhra Pradesh | India". Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  4. ^ "Demography | West Godavari District, Government of Andhra Pradesh | India". Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  5. ^ "West Godavari". Official portal of Andhra Pradesh Government. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
  6. ^ "FOCUS: WEST GODAVARI DISTRICT FORMATION DAY". Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  7. ^ "Ellora – "Encyclopedia". Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  8. ^ Bhaskar, B. v s (8 June 2014). "Nyapathi Subbarao carved an identity for Telugus". The Hindu – via www.thehindu.com.
  9. ^ "West Godavari district profile". The Hindu. 15 April 2008. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
  10. ^ a b c d e "District Census Hand Book – West Godavari" (PDF). Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  11. ^ a b "Ground Water Brochure, West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh (AAP- 2012–13)" (PDF). Central Ground Water Board. Ministry of Water Resources. p. 7. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
  12. ^ "IRRIGATION PROFILE WESTGODAVARI DISTRICT".
  13. ^ Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
  14. ^ "Objavljeni konačni rezultati Popisa 2021". template.gov.hr. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  15. ^ Bureau, US Census. "Oklahoma Population Up 5.5% Last Decade". Census.gov. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  16. ^ a b c "Economy of West Godavari District". Andhra Pradesh Economic Development Board. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  17. ^ "Population by Religion - Andhra Pradesh". censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  18. ^ "Table C-16 Population by Mother Tongue: Andhra Pradesh". Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  19. ^ a b Mannan, M.A (3 January 2013). "Farmers turn away from agriculture to fish farming in Andhra Pradesh". indiatoday.intoday.in. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  20. ^ Nagaraja, G (20 March 2014). "Handmade carpet industry in doldrums". The Hindu. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  21. ^ Sajnani, Manohar (2001). Encyclopaedia of tourism resources in India. New Delhi: Kalpaz Pub. p. 66. ISBN 978-81-7835-018-9. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  22. ^ "President inaugurates TTD's veda patasala in A.P." The Hindu. Akiveedu (West Godavari district). 25 December 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  23. ^ Babu, A. Satish (2008). Tourism development in India : a case study. New Delhi: A.P.H.Pub.Corp. p. 87. ISBN 978-81-313-0346-7. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  24. ^ "Guntupalli caves are selected as India's top 30 heritage sites".
  25. ^ "Lord Venkateswara Temple".
  26. ^ "Someswaralayam in Bhimavaram".
  27. ^ "Kolleru Lake gets facelift". The Hindu.
  28. ^ "Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order, 2008" (PDF). The Election Commission of India. p. 30.
  29. ^ Gopi Dara (12 November 2022). "Andhra Pradesh: 3 mandals to be shifted to other divisions | Vijayawada News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 23 January 2023.
  30. ^ http://ceoandhra.nic.in/Right%20to%20Infn.Act/annex1.htm District-wise Assembly-Constituencies in Andhra Pradesh
  31. ^ "Existing State Highways" (PDF). Andhra Pradesh Road Development Corporation. Government of Andhra Pradesh. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  32. ^ Siva G. (31 May 2021). "Andhra Pradesh: Narsapuram harbour tender call by September | Visakhapatnam News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  33. ^ "School Education Department" (PDF). School Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  34. ^ "The Department of School Education – Official AP State Government Portal". www.ap.gov.in. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  35. ^ "School Information Report". Commissionerate of School Education. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  36. ^ "Student Information Report". Commissionerate of School Education. Child info 2015–16, District School Education – Andhra Pradesh. Retrieved 8 November 2016.