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Path of the Godavari through the South Indian Peninsula [1]
StateMaharashtra, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh
RegionWest India and South India
Physical characteristics
 • locationBrahmagiri Mountain, Tryambakeshwar, Nashik, Maharashtra, India
 • coordinates19°55′48″N 73°31′39″E / 19.93000°N 73.52750°E / 19.93000; 73.52750
 • elevation920 m (3,020 ft)
MouthBay of Bengal
 • location
Antarvedi, East Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India
 • coordinates
17°0′N 81°48′E / 17.000°N 81.800°E / 17.000; 81.800Coordinates: 17°0′N 81°48′E / 17.000°N 81.800°E / 17.000; 81.800[1]
 • elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Length1,465 km (910 mi)
Basin size312,812 km2 (120,777 sq mi)
 • average3,505 m3/s (123,800 cu ft/s)
 • locationPolavaram (1901–1979)[2]
 • average3,061.18 m3/s (108,105 cu ft/s)
 • minimum7 m3/s (250 cu ft/s)
 • maximum34,606 m3/s (1,222,100 cu ft/s)
Basin features
 • leftBanganga, Kadva, Shivana, Purna, Kadam, Pranahita, Indravati, Taliperu, Sabari
 • rightNasardi, Pravara, Sindphana, Manjira, Manair, Kinnerasani

The Godavari (IAST: Godāvarī [ɡod̪aːʋəɾiː]) is India's second longest river after the Ganga and third largest in India, drains about 10% of India's total geographical area.[3] Its source is in Triambakeshwar, Nashik, Maharashtra.[4] It flows east for 1,465 kilometres (910 mi), draining the states of Maharashtra (48.6%), Telangana (18.8%), Andhra Pradesh (4.5%), Chhattisgarh (10.9%) and Odisha (5.7%). The river ultimately empties into the Bay of Bengal through an extensive network of tributaries.[5] Measuring up to 312,812 km2 (120,777 sq mi), it forms one of the largest river basins in the Indian subcontinent, with only the Ganga and Indus rivers having a larger drainage basin.[6] In terms of length, catchment area and discharge, the Godavari is the largest in peninsular India, and had been dubbed as the Dakshina Ganga (Ganges of the South).[7]

The river has been revered in Hindu scriptures for many millennia and continues to harbour and nourish a rich cultural heritage. In the past few decades, the river has been barricaded by several barrages and dams, keeping a head of water (depth) which lowers evaporation. Its broad river delta houses 729 persons/km2 – nearly twice the Indian average population density and has a substantial risk of flooding, which in lower parts would be exacerbated if the global sea level were to rise.[8][9]


Godavari river basin.
Godavari river basin.
Godavari River delta extending into the Bay of Bengal (upper river in image).
Godavari River delta extending into the Bay of Bengal (upper river in image).
Bhadrachalam Temple during 2005 floods[10]
Bhadrachalam Temple during 2005 floods[10]

The Godavari originates in the Western Ghats of central India near Nashik in Maharashtra, 80 km (50 mi) from the Arabian Sea. It flows for 1,465 km (910 mi), first eastwards across the Deccan Plateau then turns southeast, entering the West Godavari district and East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, until it splits into two distributaries that widen into a large river delta at Dowleswaram Barrage in Rajahmundry and flow into the Bay of Bengal.[11]

The Godavari River has a coverage area of 312,812 km2 (120,777 sq mi), which is nearly one-tenth of the area of India and is greater than the areas of England and Ireland put together. The river basin is considered to be divided into 3 sections:

These put together account for 24.2% of the total basin area.[12] The rivers annual average water inflows are nearly 110 billion cubic metres.[13] Nearly 50% of the water availability is being harnessed. The water allocation from the river among the riparian states are governed by the Godavari Water Disputes Tribunal. The river has highest flood flows in India and experienced recorded flood of 3.6 million cusecs in the year 1986 and annual flood of 1.0 million cusecs is normal.[14][15]

Within Maharashtra

In Maharashtra state where it takes origin, the river has an extensive course, the upper basin (origin to its confluence with Manjira) of which lies entirely within the state, cumulatively draining an area as large as 152,199 km2 (58,764 sq mi) – about half the area of Maharashtra.[16] Within Nashik district, the river assumes a north-easterly course till it flows into the Gangapur Reservoir created by a dam of the same name. The reservoir along with the Kashypi Dam provides potable water to Nashik, one of the largest cities located on its banks. The river as it emerges through the dam, some 8 km (5.0 mi) upstream from Nashik, flows on a rocky bed undulated by a series of chasms and rocky ledges, resulting in the formation of two significant waterfalls – the Gangapur and the Someshwar waterfalls. The latter, located at Someshwar is more popularly known as the Dudhsagar Waterfall.[17] About 10 km (6.2 mi) east of Gangapur the river passes the town of Nashik where it collects its effluents in the form of the river Nasardi on its right bank.

About 0.5 km (0.31 mi) south of Nashik, the river bends sharply to the east, washing the base of a high cliff formerly the site of a Mughal fort, but which is now being eroded away by the action of floods. About 25 km (16 mi) below Nashik is the confluence of the Godavari and one of its tributaries, the Darna. The stream occupies, for nine months in the year, a small space in a wide and gravelly bed, the greyish banks being 4 to 6 m (13 to 20 ft) high, topped with a deep layer of black soil. A few kilometres after its meeting with the Darna, the Godavari swerves to the north-east, before the Banganga, from the north-west, meets it on the left. The course of the main stream then tends more decidedly south. At Nandur-Madhmeshwar, the Kadva, a second large affluent, brings considerable increase to the waters of the Godavari. The river begins its southeasterly course characteristic of rivers of the Deccan Plateau. The river exits the Niphad Taluka of Nashik and enters the Kopargaon taluka, Ahmednagar District. Within Ahmednagar District the river quickly completes its short course, flowing alongside the town of Kopargaon and reaching Puntamba. Beyond this the river serves as a natural boundary between the following districts :

The river beyond, near the village Sonpeth, flows into Parbhani. In Parbhani district, the river flows through Gangakhed taluka. As mentioned above, the Godavari is also called Dakshinganga so the city is called as Gangakhed (meaning a village on the bank of Ganga). As per Hindu rituals this place is considered quite important for after death peace to flow ashes into the river.[citation needed]

Its course is relatively non-significant except for receiving two smaller streams – Indrayani and Masuli – merging at its left and right banks respectively. Within the last taluka of the district Parbhani, Purna, the river drains a major tributary of the same name: Purna.

It then exits into the neighbouring district of Nanded where 10 km (6.2 mi) before reaching the town Nanded, it is impounded by the Vishnupuri Dam and thus with it, bringing Asia's largest lift irrigation projects to life. A little downstream from Nanded, the river receives Asna, a small stream, on its left bank. It then runs into the controversial Babli project soon ends its course within Maharashtra, albeit temporarily, at its merger with a major tributary – Manjira.

The river after flowing into Telangana, re-emerges to run as a state boundary separating the Mancherial, Telangana from Gadchiroli, Maharashtra. At the state border, it runs between Sironcha and Somnoor Sangam receiving one tributary at each of those nodal points – the Pranhita and subsequently the Indravati.

Within Telangana

Road Bridge over Godavari River at Bhadrachalam
Road Bridge over Godavari River at Bhadrachalam

Godavari enters into Telangana in Nizamabad district at Kandakurthy where Manjira, Haridra rivers joins Godavari and forms Triveni Sangamam. The river flows along the border between Nirmal and Mancherial districts in the north and Nizamabad, Jagitial, Peddapalli districts to its south. About 12 km (7.5 mi) after entering Telangana it merges with the back waters of the Sriram Sagar Dam. The river after emerging through the dam gates, enjoys a wide river bed, often splitting to encase sandy islands. The river receives a minor but significant tributary Kadam river. It then emerges at its eastern side to act as a state border with Maharashtra only to later enter into Bhadradri Kothagudem district. In this district, the river flows through an important Hindu pilgrimage town – Bhadrachalam.

The river further swells after receiving a minor tributary Kinnerasani River and exits into Andhra Pradesh.

Within Andhra Pradesh

Within the state of Andhra Pradesh, it flows through hilly terrain of the Eastern Ghats known as the Papi hills which explains the narrowing of its bed as it flows through a gorge for a few km, only to re-widen at Polavaram. The deepest bed level of Godavari River, located 36 km upstream of Polavaram dam, is at 45 meters below the sea level.[19] Before crossing the Papi hills, it receives its last major tributary Sabari River on its left bank. The river upon reaching the plains begins to widen out until it reaches Rajahmundry. Arma Konda (1,680 m (5,510 ft)) is the highest peak in the Godavari river basin as well as in Eastern Ghats.[20]

Dowleswaram Barrage was constructed across the river in Rajahmundry. At Rajahmundry, the Godavari splits into two branches which are called Vriddha Gautami (Gautami Godavari) and Vasishta Godavari. Again the Gautami branch splits into two branches namely Gautami and Nilarevu. Similarly, the Vasishta splits into two branches named Vasishta and Vainateya. These four branches which join the Bay of Bengal at different places, are forming a delta of length 170 km (110 mi) along the coast of the Bay of Bengal and is called the Konaseema region. This delta along with the delta of the Krishna River is called the Rice Granary of South India.[21]


The major tributaries of the river can be classified[22] as the left bank tributaries which include the Purna, Pranhita, Indravati and Sabari River covering nearly 59.7% of the total catchment area of the basin and the right bank tributaries Pravara, Manjira, Manair together contributing 16.1% of the basin.

Pranhita is the largest tributary covering about 34% of its drainage basin. Though the river proper flows only for 113 km (70 mi), by virtue of its extensive tributaries Wardha, Wainganga, Penganga, the sub-basin drains all of Vidharba region as well as the southern slopes of the Satpura Ranges. Indravati is the 2nd largest tributary, known as the "lifeline" of the Kalahandi, Nabarangapur of Odisha and Bastar district of Chhattisgarh. Due to their enormous sub-basins both Indravati and Pranhita are considered rivers in their own right. Manjira is the longest tributary and holds the Nizam Sagar reservoir. Purna is a prime river in the water scarce Marathwada region of Maharashtra.

Drainage Basin of Godavari[23]

  Upper, Middle and Lower Basins of Godavari (24.2%)
  Pranhita (34.87%)
  Indravati (12.98%)
  Manjira (9.86%)
  Sabari (6.53%)
  Purna (4.98%)
  Manair (4.18%)
  Pravara (2.08%)
Major Tributaries of Godavari River
Tributary Bank Confluence Location Confluence Elevation Length Sub-basin area
Pravara Right Pravara Sangam, Nevasa, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra 463 m (1,519 ft) 208 km (129 mi) 6,537 km2 (2,524 sq mi)
Purna Left Jambulbet, Parbhani, Marathwada, Maharashtra 358 m (1,175 ft) 373 km (232 mi) 15,579 km2 (6,015 sq mi)
Manjira Right Kandakurthi, Renjal, Nizamabad, Telangana 332 m (1,089 ft) 724 km (450 mi) 30,844 km2 (11,909 sq mi)
Manair Right Arenda, Manthani, Peddapalli, Telangana 115 m (377 ft) 225 km (140 mi) 13,106 km2 (5,060 sq mi)
Pranhita Left Kaleshwaram, Mahadevpur, Jayashankar Bhupalpally, Telangana 99 m (325 ft) 113 km (70 mi) 109,078 km2 (42,115 sq mi)
Indravati Left Somnoor Sangam, Sironcha, Gadchiroli, Maharashtra 82 m (269 ft) 535 km (332 mi) 41,655 km2 (16,083 sq mi)
Sabari Left Kunawaram, East Godavari, Andhra Pradesh 25 m (82 ft) 418 km (260 mi) 20,427 km2 (7,887 sq mi)

Other than these 7 principal ones, it has many smaller but significant ones draining into it. Indravati river floodwaters overflow into the Jouranala which is part of Sabari basin. A barrage at 19°7′19″N 82°14′9″E / 19.12194°N 82.23583°E / 19.12194; 82.23583 (Jouranala barrage) is constructed across the Indravati river to divert Indravati water in to Sabari river for enhanced hydro power generation.

Religious significance

Gautami personified with Gautama.
Gautami personified with Gautama.
Godavari Statue at Gangadwar, worshiped as origin of Godavari, Triambak
Godavari Statue at Gangadwar, worshiped as origin of Godavari, Triambak
Goddess Godavari
Goddess Godavari
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The river is sacred to Hindus and has several places on its banks, that have been places of pilgrimage for thousands of years. Amongst the huge numbers of people who have bathed in her waters as a rite of cleansing are said to have been the deity Baladeva 5000 years ago and the saint Chaitanya Mahaprabhu 500 years ago. Every twelve years, Pushkaram fair is held on the banks of the river.

Sculpture depicting govu vatsa and gowthama legend about birth of Godavari River
Sculpture depicting govu vatsa and gowthama legend about birth of Godavari River

A legend has it that the sage Gautama lived in the Brahmagiri Hills at Tryambakeshwar with his wife Ahalya. The couple lived the rest of their lives in the then village called Govuru, now known as Kovvur ("cow") since the British rule. Ahalya lived in a nearby place called Thagami (now Thogummi). The sage, as a reason for the practice of annadanam ("giving away food" to the needy), started cultivating rice crops and other crops. Once, the god Ganesha, on the wish of the munis, sent a miraculous cow maaya-dhenu, which resembled a normal cow. It entered the sage's abode and started spoiling the rice while he was meditating. Since cattle is sacred to Hindus and shall always be treated with respect, he put the dharbha grass on the cow. But, to his surprise, it fell dead. Seeing what happened before their eyes, the munis and their wives cried out, "We thought that Gautama-maharishi is a righteous man, but he committed bovicide (killing of a cow or cattle)!". The sage wished to atone for this grievous sin. Therefore, he went to Nashik and observed tapas to Lord Tryambakeshwara (a manifestation of the god Shiva), on the advice of the munis, praying for atonement and asking Him to make the Ganges flow over the cow. Shiva was pleased with the sage and diverted the Ganges which washed away the cow and gave rise to the Godavari river in Nashik. The water stream flowed past Kovvur and ultimately merged with the Bay of Bengal.

Settlements along the Godavari




Kaleshwara Mukteswara Swamy Temple
Kaleshwara Mukteswara Swamy Temple

Andhra Pradesh

Antarvedi temple
Antarvedi temple
Sunset view of Godavari river and bridge from Rajahmundry
Sunset view of Godavari river and bridge from Rajahmundry


Places of interest

Sites of pilgrimage include:

Scenic View of Araku Valley in Andhra Pradesh
Scenic View of Araku Valley in Andhra Pradesh

Flora and fauna

See also: Wildlife sanctuaries of India, Tiger reserves of India, and List of national parks of India

The following are few other wildlife sanctuaries located in the river basin.


See also: List of waterfalls of India

Duduma Waterfalls is 175 metres (574 ft) high and one of the highest waterfalls in southern India. It is located on the Sileru River which forms boundary between Andhra Pradesh and Odisha states. The following are a few other waterfalls located in the river basin:

Panoramic view of downstream pond below the Chitrakoote Falls


Havelock Bridge on the left and Godavari Arch Bridge on the right
Havelock Bridge on the left and Godavari Arch Bridge on the right

There are 4 bridges spanning the river between East Godavari and West Godavari districts.

  1. Old Godavari Bridge (also known as Havelock bridge, and named after then Madras governor)
  2. Godavari Bridge (also known as Rail-cum-road bridge and Kovvur-Rajahmundry Bridge)
  3. Godavari Arch Bridge (also known as New railway bridge)
  4. Fourth Bridge (also known as new road bridge)

Construction of this bridge started in 1876, and was completed in 1897. It was constructed under the supervision of F.T. Granville Walton who had constructed the Dufferin Bridge over the Ganges, and Granville Mills, both British engineers. Spanning over 3 km in length, it linked the East Godavari and West Godavari districts. The bridge has been a vital link enabling trains to run between Chennai and Howrah. Trains continued over the bridge for a century until 1997, when train services over the bridge were suspended after the construction of two additional bridges.

Construction of this bridge started in 1970, and was completed in 1974. It serves as both a railway and a roadway between the East Godavari and West Godavari Districts.

This bridge was completed in 1997, was built upstream of the earlier bridges.

This bridge is the newest. It was opened to public from Godavari Pushkaras 2015. This is a road connectivity bridge link supposed to ease traffic flow between Rajamundry and Kovvur


An upstream view of Jayakwadi Dam.

The main Godavari River up to the confluence with Pranhita tributary is dammed fully to utilize the available water for irrigation. However, its main tributaries Pranhita, Indravati and Sabari which join in the lower reaches of the basin, carry three times more water compared to main Godavari. In 2015, the water surplus Godavari River is linked to the water deficit Krishna River by commissioning the Polavaram right bank canal with the help of Pattiseema lift scheme to augment water availability to the Prakasam Barrage located in Andhra Pradesh. More dams are constructed in the Godavari River basin than in any other river basin of India.[27] The following are the few dams located in the river basin:

Hydro power stations

Upper Indiravati power house
Upper Indiravati power house

The Godavari river is one of the rivers whose water energy is least harnessed for generating hydro electricity.[32] The 600 MW capacity Upper Indravati hydro power station is the biggest hydro power station which diverts Godavari River water to the Mahanadi River basin.[33] The following is the list of hydro electric power stations excluding small and medium installations.

Hydroelectric power stations on Godavari river
Name of the project Rated Power (in MW)
Upper Indravati 600
Machkund 120
Balimela 510
Upper Sileru 240
Lower Sileru 460
Upper Kolab 320
Pench 160
Ghatghar pumped storage 250
Polavaram (under construction) 960

Geology and sediment transfer in the Godavari Drainage Basin

Generalized Geological Map of Godavari Drainage Basin
Generalized Geological Map of Godavari Drainage Basin

The primary/initial catchment of the Godavari drainage basin is largely represented by the basalt of the Deccan Volcanic Province (~50% of the total basin area). This is followed by the Precambrian granites and gneisses of the eastern Dharwar Craton, sandstones, shales and limestones of the Gondwana Supergroup, various sedimentary units of Cuddapah and Vindhyan basins, charnockites and khondalites of the Proterozoic Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt and the sandstones of the Rajahmundry Formation.[34] The Godavari River carries the largest sediment load among the peninsular rivers and the majority of the mass transfer in Godavari occurs during the monsoon.[35] Mineral magnetic studies of the Godavari River sediments suggest that the floodplains in the entire stretch of the river are characterized by a Deccan basalt source. The bed loads on the other hand are of sourced from local bedrock. Influx of Deccan source in the Godavari River up to the delta regions and possibly in the Bay of Bengal off the Godavari, therefore, can be related to the intensive chemical weathering in the Deccan basalts.[34] Abrupt increase in δ13C values and decrease in TOC content accompanied with a significant increase in ferrimagnetic mineral concentration in Bay of Bengal sediments from ~3.2 to 3.1 cal. ka BP reflected a shift of organic carbon and sediment source and a severe decline in vegetation coverage. Such phenomena indicate intensified deforestation and soil/rock erosion in the Deccan Plateau producing higher ferrimagnetic mineral inputs, which is in agreement with significant expansion of agricultural activities in the Deccan Chalcolithic cultural period.[36]

Mineral deposits

See also: List of mines in India

The Godavari River basin is endowed with rich mineral deposits such as oil and gas, coal, iron, limestone, manganese, copper, bauxite, granite, laterite, and others. The following are the few noted deposits:

Ecological concerns

Dried up Godavari exposing flood basalt river bed as seen from the back of Changdev temple in Puntamba
Dried up Godavari exposing flood basalt river bed as seen from the back of Changdev temple in Puntamba

The frequent drying up of the Godavari river in the drier months has been a matter of great concern. Indiscriminate damming along the river has been cited as an obvious reason. Within Maharashtra sugarcane irrigation has been blamed as one of the foremost causes.[37]

In 2013, the river was at its all-time low in the Nizamabad district of Telangana. This had hit the growth of fish, making the life of fishermen miserable. The water-level was so low that people could easily walk into the middle of the river. Shortage in rainfall and closure of the controversial Babli project gates in Maharashtra was thought to have affected the water flow in the river and water availability to the Sriram Sagar Project except during above 20% excess monsoon (i.e. one out of four years) years.[38]

A study has found that the delta is at a greater risk as the rate of sediment aggradation (raising the level of the delta through sediment deposition) no longer exceeds relative sea level rise.[39] It further states that the suspended sediment load at the delta has reduced from 150·2 million tons during 1970–1979 to 57·2 million tons by 2000–2006,[40] which translates into a three-fold decline in the past 4 decades. Impacts of this can be seen in destroyed villages like Uppada in Godavari delta,[41] destruction of Mangrove forests and fragmentation of shoreline – possibly a fallout of dam construction.

Said to further epitomise the insensitivity towards Godavari, is the Polavaram Project which is touted to be gigantic – both in terms of size and violations.[42] Deemed as being pointless and politically driven,[43] the project raises questions about environmental clearance, displacement of upstream human habitations,[44] loss of forest cover, technicalities in the dam design which are said to play down flood threats and unsafe embankments.

High alkalinity water is discharged from the ash dump areas of many coal fired power stations into the river which further increases the alkalinity of the river water whose water is naturally of high alkalinity since the river basin is draining vast area of basalt formations.[45] This problem aggravates during the lean flow months in entire river basin. Already the Godavari basin area in Telangana is suffering from high alkalinity and salinity water problem which is converting soils in to unproductive sodic alkali soils.[46] The following are the few coal fired power stations located in the river basin:

Thermal power stations in Godavari river basin
Name of Power Station Rated Power (in MW)
Koradi Thermal Power Station 2,600
Khaparkheda Thermal Power Station 1,340
Tiroda Thermal Power Station 3,300
Butibori Power Plant 600
RattanIndia Nashik TPS 1,350
Chandrapur STPS 3,340
Mauda Super Thermal Power Station 1,000
Parli Thermal Power Station 1,130
Dhariwal Power Station 300
Nashik Thermal Power Station 910
Wardha Warora Power Plant 540
Pench Thermal Power Plant 1,320
Lanco Vidarbha Thermal Power 1,320
NTPC Ramagundam 2,600
Kothagudem Thermal Power Station 1,720
Kakatiya Thermal Power Station 1,100
Ramagundam B Thermal Power Station 60
Manuguru Heavy water plant's power station N/A
Singareni thermal power station 1,800
Bhadradri Thermal Power Plant 1,080

In popular culture

One of the ships of the Indian Navy has been named INS Godavari after the river. Godavari is also the codename of some variants of AMD APU chips.

See also


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  2. ^ "Sage River Database". Archived from the original on 21 June 2010. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  3. ^ "The Godavari River System" (PDF). Central Water Commission, Ministry of Jal Shakti, Department of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation.
  4. ^ "Godavari river basin map"
  5. ^ "Integrated Hydrological DataBook (Non-Classified River Basins)" (PDF). Central Water Commission. p. 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  6. ^ "Basins -". Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
  7. ^ "Dakshina Ganga (Ganga of South India) – River Godavari". Important India. 20 January 2014. Archived from the original on 18 January 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
  8. ^ "Deltas at Risk" (PDF). International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  9. ^ South Asia Network on Dams Rivers and People (2014). "Shrinking and Sinking Deltas: Major role of Dams in delta subsidence and effective sea level rise" (PDF). Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  10. ^ "India: Andhra Pradesh Flood 2005 situation report, 21Sep 2005". 29 May 2014. Archived from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  11. ^ "Godavari basin status report, March 2014" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
  12. ^ "Rivers of Western Ghats". Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 9 December 2006.
  13. ^ "Spatial variation in water supply and demand across river basins of India" (PDF). IWMI Research Report 83. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
  14. ^ "When Bhadrachalam was under a sheet of water". The Hindu. 12 December 2011. Archived from the original on 9 April 2017. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  15. ^ "Water flow data at Polavaram". Archived from the original on 28 December 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  16. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 April 2015. Retrieved 19 October 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  17. ^ "Dudhsagar Waterfalls, Nashik". Nashik Directory. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  18. ^ "Beed district". Government of Maharashtra. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  19. ^ "Polavaram project studies by NGT (page 56)" (PDF). Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  20. ^ Kenneth Pletcher (2010). The Geography of India: Sacred and Historic Places. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 28. ISBN 978-16-1530-142-3.
  21. ^ Nageswara Rao, Kakani; Rao, Kakani Nageswara; Saito, Yoshiki; Nagakumar, K. Ch V.; Demudu, G.; Basavaiah, N.; Rajawat, A. S.; Tokanai, Fuyuki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Rei (2012). "Holocene environmental changes of the Godavari Delta, east coast of India, inferred from sediment core analyses and AMS 14C dating". Geomorphology. 175–176: 163–175. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.07.007 – via
  22. ^ Central Water Commission (2012). "Integrated Hydrological Data Book (Non-classified river basins)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  23. ^ "Hydrology and water resources information for India". National Institute of Hydrology, India. Archived from the original on 21 April 2015. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  24. ^ Venkateshwarlu, K. (3 May 2012). "Godavari". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 6 April 2021. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
  25. ^ Maharashtra Forest Department. "Aurangabad Circle". Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  26. ^ Nashik. "Nandur Madhmeshwar Bird Sanctuary". Archived from the original on 13 June 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  27. ^ "Dams in Godavari basin". Archived from the original on 2 January 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  28. ^ "Dams in Nashik District". National Informatics Centre (NIC), Collectorate, Nashik. Archived from the original on 10 August 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  29. ^ vijdiw. "Jaikwadi Dam and Its Nath Sagar Reservoir". Archived from the original on 10 February 2020. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
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