Anaimalai / Anamala Hills
Elephant Hills
Highest point
PeakAnamudi, Kerala
Elevation2,695 m (8,842 ft)
Coordinates10°12′56.0″N 76°52′39.3″E / 10.215556°N 76.877583°E / 10.215556; 76.877583 10°12'56.0"N 76°52'39.3"E[1]
Geography
Anaimalai Hills
Location of Anamalai Hills
CountryIndia
StatesTamil Nadu and Kerala
Range coordinates10°10′12.0″N 77°03′40.9″E / 10.170000°N 77.061361°E / 10.170000; 77.061361Coordinates: 10°10′12.0″N 77°03′40.9″E / 10.170000°N 77.061361°E / 10.170000; 77.06136110°10'12.0"N 77°03'40.9"E
Parent rangeWestern Ghats
Topo map(Terrain)
Geology
Age of rockCenozoic
100 to 80 mya
Type of rockFault[2]
Jambu Malai is a part of Anaimalai Hills
Jambu Malai is a part of Anaimalai Hills

The Anaimalais or Anamala, also known as the Elephant Mountains, are a range of mountains in the southern Western Ghats and span the border of western Tamil Nadu(Coimbatore district and Tiruppur district) and central Kerala(Palakkad district, Thrissur district, Ernakulam district, and Idukki district) in Southern India. The name anamala is derived from the Tamil word aanai, the Malayalam word aana, meaning elephant, or from tribal languages. Mala or Malai means 'hill', and thus 'Elephant hill'.[3]

Anamudi Peak (8,842 feet (2,695 metres)) lies at the southern end of the range and is the highest peak in southern India. The Palakkad Gap is the mountain pass which divides it from the Nilgiri Mountains. The northern slopes of the hills in Tamil Nadu now have coffee and tea plantations(especially around Valparai), as well as teak plantations of high economic value.[4] The rest are mostly forests, of mainly two ecoregions-the South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests (mainly in Tamil Nadu, as well as Palakkad district and Idukki district of Kerala) and the South Western Ghats montane rain forests(mainly in Palakkad district, Ernakulam district, and Idukki district of Kerala, Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu).

The Western Ghats and Anaimalai Sub-Cluster, including the Anaimalai Hills, are now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[5]

Geography

The hills are located between 10° 13' and 10° 31' N. and 76° 52' and 77° 23' E with a central point of: 10°22′N 77°07.5′E / 10.367°N 77.1250°E / 10.367; 77.1250. They are south of where the Western Ghats are broken by the Palakkad Gap, which in, turn is south of the Nilgiri Hills. They border on Kerala to the southwest and the Cardamom Hills to the southeast. To the west is the bamboo-rich Idamalayar-Pooyamkutty valley. The Palni Hills lies to the east, extending into Kerala as the Pampadum Shola National Park. They are spread largely over Palakkad district, Thrissur district, Ernakulam district and Idukki district of Kerala(mainly Palakkad and Ernakulam), Tamil Nadu's Coimbatore district and Tiruppur district.[citation needed]

Their geological formation is metamorphic gneiss, veined with feldspar and quartz, and interspersed with reddish porphyrite.[6] Twelve major forest types are found in the area. The landscape is fragmented by many coffee and tea plantations on the lower slopes and teak plantations higher up. Monsoon rains are heavy. Annual rainfall varies from 2,000 mm to 5,000 mm in the area.[7] Formed by fault-block movements in the Holocene Epoch (i.e., about the past 11,700 years), the Anaimalai Hills descend to form a series of terraces about 3,300 feet (1,000 metres) high.[citation needed]

Fauna

Wild elephants in Anamalai Tiger Reserve, Tamilnadu
Wild elephants in Anamalai Tiger Reserve, Tamilnadu

The Anamala/Anaimalai Hills are known for their abundant wildlife. Eravikulam National Park, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Idamalayar Reserve Forest, Mankulam Forest division Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, and Anamalai Tiger Reserve located among these hills are well known for elephants. The Idamalayar Dam area is a major wildlife spot, along with Pooyamkutty and Aanakkulam. This area includes various tribal villages and is protected. Numerous wildlife species can be seen including elephants, gaur, water buffaloes, tigers, panthers, sloth bears, pangolins, black-headed orioles, crocodiles, green pigeons, civet cats, dhole, sambar, black buck, and 31 groups of endangered lion-tailed macaques.[8][9] Birds seen include the Pied hornbill, Red whiskered bulbul and Drongo.

Recently, a new frog species, Beddomixalus bijui, was found within the forest.[10]

Hydrology

Amaravathi Reservoir and Dam
Amaravathi Reservoir and Dam

There are several rivers in the area including the Chalakkudipuzha, Aliayar, Apambar, Chinnar , Kaddambarrai , Neerar, Mannambhally, Pambar River, and the Idamalayar. Most of these rivers originate in the sholas of Kerala's Ernakulam and Idukki districts, flowing mostly west towards the Arabian Sea, with a few exceptions, such as the Amaravathi and Pambar, which flow into Tamil Nadu, the Amaravathi being a tributary of the Kaveri.[citation needed] There are several large reservoirs in the area, including the Aliayar Dam, Amaravathi Dam, Kaddambarrai Dam, Neerar Dam, Sholayar Dam (one of the largest of its kind in Asia), Mannambhally Dam, the Idamalayar Dam and the Parambikkulam Dam. There is a water dispute between Kerala and Tamil Nadu about the Idamalayar Dam due to the construction of the Neerar Dam by Tamil Nadu on the Neerar, a tributary of the Idamalayar, and thereby, visitors are now prohibited from entering the Idamalayar Dam area. Vadattupara is the last destination that one is allowed to reach on the Bhoothathankettu-Idamalayar Dam Road. The area is also ecologically very sensitive.

Tourism

The Anaimalai Hills are a popular trekking destination in the Western Ghats. Due to heavy rains during the wet season, the ideal time for tourism is between the months of November and May.[citation needed] SH-17 passes through the Anaimalai Hills, between Udumalapet and Munnar, SH-21 passes from Chalakudy to Malakkappara. The nearest towns are Munnar, Pooyamkutty, Mankulam, and Kothamangalam. The nearest international airports are Cochin International Airport and Coimbatore International Airport. Aluva railway station and Pollachi Junction railway station are the nearest railway stations.

Gallery

References

  1. ^ "Anaimudi/Anamudi, India". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  2. ^ Singh, A.P.; Kumar, Niraj; Singh, B. (2006). "Nature of the crust along Kuppam–Palani geotransect (South India) from Gravity studies: Implications for Precambrian continental collision and delamination". Gondwana Research. 10: 41–7. doi:10.1016/j.gr.2005.11.013.
  3. ^ Fabricius, Johann Philipp. (1972) J. P. Fabricius's Tamil and English dictionary, 4th ed., rev. and enl. Tranquebar: Evangelical Lutheran Mission Pub. House, retrieved 6/18/2007 anai (āṉai), an elephant Archived 24 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Anaimalai Hills | mountains, India". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  5. ^ UNESCO, World Heritage sites, Tentative lists, Western Ghats sub cluster, Niligiris. retrieved 4/20/2007 World Heritage sites, Tentative lists
  6. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Anamalai Hills". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 913.
  7. ^ Sajeev T.K. et al., Management of Forests in India for Biological Diversity and Forest Productivity- A New Perspective, WII-USDA Forest Service Collaborative Project Grant No. FG-In-780 (In-FS-120), Volume III (ACA) Anaimalai Conservation Area Archived 16 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ Singh, M; Kumar, MA; Kumara, HN; Sharma, AK; Kaumanns, W (2002). "Distribution, population structure, and conservation of lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) in the Anamala / Anaimalai Hills, Western Ghats, India". American Journal of Primatology. 57 (2): 91–102. doi:10.1002/ajp.10037. PMID 12111684.
  9. ^ Kumara, H. N.; Kumar, M. Ananda; Sharma, A. K.; Sushma, H. S.; Singh, Mridula; Singh, Mewa (2004). "Diversity and management of wild mammals in tea gardens in the rainforest regions of the Western Ghats, India: A case study from a tea estate in the Anamala / Anaimalai Hills" (PDF). Current Science. 87 (9): 1282–.
  10. ^ Two novel genera and one new species of treefrog (Anura: Rhacophoridae) highlight cryptic diversity in the Western Ghats of India. Zootaxa 3640 (2): 177–189.

Further reading