Since the partition of British India in 1947 and creation of India and Pakistan, the two South Asian countries have been involved in four wars, including one undeclared war, as well as many border skirmishes and military stand-offs. Additionally, India has accused Pakistan of engaging in proxy wars by providing military and financial assistance to violent non-state actors.

The dispute for Kashmir has been the cause, whether direct or indirect of all major conflicts between the two countries with the exception of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, where conflict originated due to turmoil in erstwhile East Pakistan.

File:PAFF-86s.jpg
The F-86 Sabre was a front-line fighter of the PAF during the 1965 and 1971 wars.

Background

The Partition of India came about in the aftermath of World War II, when both Great Britain and British India were dealing with the economic stresses caused by the war and its demobilization.[1] It was the intention of those who wished for a Muslim state to come from British India to have a clean partition between independent and equal "Pakistan" and "Hindustan" once independence came.[2]

The partition itself, according to leading politicians such as Mohammed Ali Jinnah, leader of the All India Muslim League, and Jawaharlal Nehru, leader of the Indian National Congress, should have resulted in peaceful relations. However, the partition of British India into India and Pakistan in 1947 did not divide the nations cleanly along religious lines. Nearly 50 percent of the Muslim population of British India remained in India.[3] Inter-communal violence between Hindus, Sikhs, and Muslims resulted in between 500,000 to 1 million casualties.[1]: 6 

Princely-ruled territories, such as Kashmir and Hyderabad, were also involved in Partition. Rulers of these territories had the choice of joining India or Pakistan. Both India and Pakistan laid claim on Kashmir and thus it became the main point of conflict.[1]: 8 [4] The ruler of Kashmir, which had a Muslim majority population, joined India by signing the Instrument of Accession.[4]

Wars

File:18Cav on move.jpg
Tanks of 18th Cavalry (Indian Army) on the move during the 1965 Indo-Pak War.
Pakistan's PNS Ghazi sank off the fairway buoy of Visakhapatnam near the eastern coast of India under unclear circumstances during the 1971 war, making it the first submarine casualty in the waters around the Indian subcontinent.

Nuclear conflict

The Nuclear conflict between both countries is of passive strategic nature with Nuclear doctrine of Pakistan stating a first strike policy while India on a declarative status of no first use:

Other conflicts

Apart from the aforementioned wars, there have been skirmishes between the two nations from time to time. Some have bordered on all-out war, while others were limited in scope. The countries were expected to fight each other in 1955 after warlike posturing on both sides, but full-scale war did not break out.[5]

Incidents

Annual celebrations

In popular culture

These wars have provided source material for both Indian and Pakistani film and television dramatists, who have adapted events of the war for the purposes of drama and to please target audiences in their nations.

Films (Indian)


Miniseries/Dramas (Pakistani)

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Khan, Yasmin (18 September 2007). The great Partition: the making of India and Pakistan. Yale University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-300-12078-3. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  2. ^ Ambedkar, B.R. (1946). Pakistan, or Partition of India (2 ed.). AMS Press Inc. p. 5. ISBN 978-0404548018. ((cite book)): Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help)
  3. ^ Dixit, Jyotindra Nath (2002). India-Pakistan in War & Peace. Routledge. p. 13. ISBN 9780415304726. ((cite book)): |access-date= requires |url= (help); Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help)
  4. ^ a b Unspecified author (6 November 2008). "Q&A: Kashmir dispute". BBC News - South Asia. BBC. Retrieved 30 October 2011. ((cite web)): |author= has generic name (help)
  5. ^ a b c d e Lyon, Peter (2008). Conflict between India and Pakistan: an encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 82. ISBN 978-1-57607-712-2. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  6. ^ Christophe Jaffrelot, Gillian Beaumont. A History of Pakistan and Its Origins. Anthem Press, 2004. ISBN 1843311496, 9781843311492. ((cite book)): Check |isbn= value: invalid character (help)
  7. ^ Times Staff and Wire Reports (30 March 2002). ["Gen. Tikka Khan, 87; 'Butcher of Bengal' Led Pakistani Army". Obituaries. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 30 October 2011. ((cite web)): Check |url= value (help)
  8. ^ Syed Badrul Ahsan (15 July 2011). "A Lamp Glows for Indira Gandhi". Volume 10, Issue 27. The Daily Star. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
  9. ^ Leonard, Thomas (2006). Encyclopedia of the developing world. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780415976626.
  10. ^ Unspecified author. "The 1971 war". India - Pakistan:Troubled relations. BBC. Retrieved 30 October 2011. ((cite web)): |author= has generic name (help)
  11. ^ Fortna, Virginia (2004). Peace time: cease-fire agreements and the durability of peace. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691115122.
  12. ^ "India's Nuclear Weapons Program - Smiling Buddha: 1974". Nuclear Weapon Archive.
  13. ^ http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/India/IndiaSmiling.html
  14. ^ APP and Pakistan Television (PTV), Prime minister Secretariat Press Release (18 May, 1974). "India's so-called Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE) is tested and designed to intimidate and establish "Indian hegemony in the subcontinent", most particularly Pakistan....Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Prime minister of Pakistan, on May of 1974" (html). Statement published on Associated Press of Pakistan and the on-aired on Pakistan Television (PTV). ((cite web)): Check date values in: |date= (help); Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help)
  15. ^ video of Prime Minister Bhutto's address in response to the Smiling Buddha test
  16. ^ Khan, Munir Ahmad (18 May, 1974). ""India's nuclear explosion: Challenge and Response"". Munir Ahmad Khan, Chairman of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, and former director of the IAEA Reactor Division. International Atomic Energy Agency and Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. ((cite web)): |access-date= requires |url= (help); |format= requires |url= (help); Check date values in: |accessdate= and |date= (help); Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help); Missing or empty |url= (help)
  17. ^ a b "Koh Kambaran (Ras Koh Hills)" (HTM). Pakistan Encyclopedia. Pakistan Information and History Encyclopedia. ((cite web)): |first= missing |last= (help); Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help)
  18. ^ http://www.rediff.com/news/1998/may/16bomb12.htm
  19. ^ http://www.dawn.com/2011/02/16/herald-exclusive-pakistans-nuclear-bayonet.html
  20. ^ http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=14989
  21. ^ http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/Pakistan/PakTests.html
  22. ^ http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/Pakistan/PakTests.html
  23. ^ http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/pakistan/nuke/
  24. ^ History introduction at hellojunagadh.com: "On September 15, 1947, Nawab Mohammad Mahabat Khanji III of Junagadh, a princely state located on the south-western end of Gujarat and having no common border with Pakistan, chose to accede to Pakistan ignoring Mountbatten's views, arguing that Junagadh adjoined Pakistan by sea. The rulers of two states that were subject to the suzerainty of Junagadh Mangrol and Babariawad reacted by declaring their independence from Junagadh and acceding to India."
  25. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (1991). Patel: A Life. India: Navajivan. p. 292. ASIN B0006EYQ0A.
  26. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (1991). Patel: A Life. India: Navajivan. p. 438. ASIN B0006EYQ0A.
  27. ^ A.G. NOORANI. "Of Jinnah and Junagadh". Retrieved 27 May 2011.
  28. ^ Wirsing, Robert (15 February 1998). India, Pakistan, and the Kashmir dispute: on regional conflict and its resolution. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-312-17562-7. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  29. ^ Weisman, Steven R. (06 March 1987). "On India's border, a huge mock war". World. The New York Times. Retrieved 30 October 2011. ((cite web)): Check date values in: |date= (help)
  30. ^ Unspecified author (12 January 2002). "Musharraf declares war on extremism". South Asia. BBC. Retrieved 30 October 2011. ((cite web)): |author= has generic name (help)
  31. ^ Pakistani plane "may have crossed border" August 13, 1999 BBC Retrieved on July 23, 2007
  32. ^ http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/americas/accused-in-india-massacre-claims-ties-to-pakistani-secret-service/article1981052/
  33. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/us/Rana-Headley-implicate-Pak-ISI-in-Mumbai-attack-during-ISI-chiefs-visit-to-US/articleshow/7958954.cms
  34. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/diplomat-denies-pakistan-role-in-mumbai-attacks-1521700.html
  35. ^ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2008/12/01/pakistan-denies-governmen_n_147395.html
  36. ^ http://articles.latimes.com/2009/jan/07/world/fg-pakistan-india7
  37. ^ http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/south-asia/indian-jets-violating-pakistani-airspace-technical-incursion-says-zardari-fourth-lead_100130857.html
  38. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/Pak-might-soon-move-troops-from-border-with-India/articleshow/4660681.cms
  39. ^ http://www.dunyanews.tv/index.php?key=Q2F0SUQ9MiNOaWQ9MjcwNTk=
  40. ^ http://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/Politics/28-May-2009/YoumeTakbeer-today
  41. ^ [1]
  42. ^ [2]
  43. ^ "Param Vir Chakra (1995)". IMDB. Retrieved 26 November 2011.

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